Bringing the outside world into the brain
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The Receptor Cell
A Neural Signal
Can taste 1
sugar in 2
A candle flame
can be seen from
a distance of 30
miles on a clear night.
Can hear the
ticking of a
a quiet room at
Can smell a drop
of perfume diffused
throughout a 3-room
Can feel a bee's wing
fall on your cheek
from 1 centemeter.
There is no evidence to support subliminal perception occurring.
There is no evidence to support reverse masking causes subliminal or any other stimulation.
The Optic Nerve
At the rear of the eye is the retina containing the receptor cells.
Before light gets to the retina, it passes through blood vessels & connecting cells.
Rods are absent from the fovea
Rods become more common toward the periphery of the retina
Rods have low sensitivity to detail because many of them funnel into a single postsynaptic neuron
Specialized for low light
Color vision and bright light
The rods and cones connect to BI-POLAR cells.
The bi-polar cells connect to GANGLION CELLS.
The ganglion cells’ axon becomes the OPTIC NERVE.
Three types of cones: RED, GREEN, and BLUE.
Opponent Process Theory
Cones are in opposing pairs. When one is activated, the other is suppressed.
Apparent motion of a single light in total darkness.
A series of blinking lights.
The “jerky” effect of a strobe light blinking in total darkness with movement.
Figure – Ground
The simplest type of organizational principle
The tendency to perceive an object or shape even when the form isn’t complete.
Similar objects are perceived as being together.
Stimuli close together are perceived as being together.
Something is placed between the eye and the object.
Textured objects further away look smooth.
Convergence of lines or the vanishing point in art.
Close objects appear clearer than those farther away.
Closer objects seem to move faster than those farther away when in motion.
Light and Shadow
Gives objects the appearance of three dimensions.
The smaller the image of an object is on the retina, the farther away it seems.
Objects higher in the visual field are perceived as farther away.
This is where stereo vision is created.
The difference between the two eyes
The eyes focusing close up
Seeing depth naturally
Objects continue to remain the same size no matter how distant.
Objects remain the same shape even if the image on the retina shows a different shape.
Influenced by lighting (artificial, colored, or natural).
The External Auditory Canal
The Ear Drum
The Hammer, Anvil, & Stirrup
The Oval Window
The Hair Cells
The Nerve Cells
The Auditory Nerve
The Hammer, Anvil, & Stirrup
The Oval Window
The Semicircular Canals
Is Always Finding
The hair cells are connected to neurons and the axons of the neurons create the auditory nerve.
Different areas of the basilar membrane respond to different frequencies. High tones register most strongly at the base of the cochlea (near the oval window), lower tones mostly move the hair cells near the outer tip of the cochlea.
The entire basilar membrane acts like a microphone, vibrating as a whole in response to sound. The nerve receptors send out impulses that are tied directly to the frequency of the sounds: Frequency = Impulses
When the eardrums or ossicles are damaged or immobilized by disease or injury reducing the transfer of sound to the inner ear.
When there is damage to the hair cells or auditory nerve.
Caused by a noisy environment damaging the hair cells in the cochlea.
A chemical sense
Nerve Endings toThe Neuronsto The Olfactory Bulbto The Limbic System
Floral, Camphoric, Musky, Minty, & Etherish
A Chemical Sense
The Tongue to The Papillae to The Taste Buds to The Brain
Sweet, Sour, Salty, Bitter, & Umami
Keeps us informed about movement of body parts & their position in relation to each other.
Muscle Movement, Posture, & Joints
Information comes from stretch receptors, the tendons, & the internal organs.
The Vestibular Sense keeps us informed about balance & the position of our body in space.
Hair cells in the inner ear bend in relation to the position & movement of the head giving information that the brain uses to help us maintain our balance and to sense changes in our movement through space.
Skin receptors that make us aware of how & where we’re being touched.
Receptors beneath the skin that make us aware of deeper touch.
Receptors are found just beneath the skin to give the sensation of hot, cold, and warm.
Pain is adaptive & lets us know there’s something wrong.
Pain receptors are located not just in the skin, but also in other parts of the body: muscles, joints, ligaments, teeth, & the internal organs.
2 Kinds of Pain
Dull (slow) pain
Sharp (fast) pain
The Gate Control Theory of Pain
There is a “neurological gate” in the spinal cord controlling the transmission of pain messages to the brain.
Dull, throbbing pain is conducted through the gate by thinner & slower nerve fibers that carry signals for touch & temperature.
Faster, thicker nerve fibers cause a bottleneck at the gate, blocking the passage of other messages.
The interaction of biological, psychological, and cultural factors influence the intensity & duration of pain.
Any direct or indirect procedure or object that can cause relief from pain or illness.
With pain, it appears to come from the release of endorphins.
Experience & Culture