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Cultural Influences on Consumer Behaviour PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Cultural Influences on Consumer Behaviour. Cross-Cultural Marketing gaffs Chevrolet Nova didn't do well in Spanish speaking countries ...Nova means 'No Go'

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Cultural Influences on Consumer Behaviour

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Cultural Influences on Consumer Behaviour


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  • Cross-Cultural Marketing gaffs

  • Chevrolet Nova didn't do well in Spanish speaking countries ...Nova means 'No Go'

  • In Brazil the Ford Pinto flopped because Pinto was Brazilian slang for "tiny male genitals." Ford pried all the nameplates off and substituted Corcel, which means horse.

  • Bacardi concocted a fruity drink with the name 'Pavian' to suggest French chic ... but 'Pavian' means 'baboon' in German.

  • A peanut-packed chocolate bar targeted at Japanese teenagers needing energy while cramming for exams ran into a belief that eating peanuts and chocolate causes nosebleeds.

  • Coors slogan, "Turn it Loose," translated into Spanish as "Suffer From Diarrhea."

  • Jolly Green Giant translated into Arabic means "Intimidating Green Ogre."


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  • Puffs tissues had a bad name in Germany since "Puff" is a colloquial term for whorehouse.

  • Chicken magnate Frank Perdue’s slogan "It takes a tough man to make a tender chicken, “translated into Spanish came out as "It takes a sexually stimulated man to make a chicken affectionate."

  • In Italy, a campaign for Schweppes Tonic Water translated the name into"Schweppes Toilet Water."

  • Beta Systems of Germany prefaced all its software products in North America with the word Beta, which in the Software business is pre-release testing phase of the product meaning it’s not ready for general use.

  • Japan's 2nd-largest tourist agency, the Kinki Nippon Tourist Co., changed its name after it began receiving requests for unusual sex tours when it entered English-speaking markets.


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What is Culture?

  • Shared Understandings

  • A tool

Characteristics of Culture

  • Culture is learned

  • Culture is unconscious

  • Culture is Symbolic

  • Culture is a way of life

  • Culture is Dynamic


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A woman’s place is in the home?


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Why is it important to Understand culture?

Consumption choices cannot be understood without considering the cultural context in which they are made

How would this Australian ad for wine go over in France?


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Decoding the Message

In the UK, the use of humour in advertising is is also dominant in beer advertising, with 88% using this feature

In Germany, beer is not directly associated with humorous advertising, and only 10% of the sample used humour

Other themes: sex, sport, friendship, relaxation, tradition


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Marketing Implications

  • Culture shapes our values, attitudes, motives and goal directed behavior, as well as our personality

  • Culture is the common denominator that makes the actions of individuals intelligible to others in the group.

  • Culture is the lens through which people view products

  • determines the overall priorities consumers attach to different activities and products

  • Determines the success or failure of specific products or services and marketing efforts

  • Determines the success or failure of marketing communications


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Swanson TV Dinners

Products or services that resonate with the priorities, tastes, and values of a culture have a much better chance of being accepted.


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Dimensions of Culture

  • Values

  • Norms

  • Ideas/Beliefs

  • Attitudes

  • Symbols

  • Traditions

  • Artifacts


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Everyone should use a deodorant

USA89%

French Canada81%

English Canada77%

United Kingdom71%

Italy69%

France59%

Australia25%


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A house should be dusted and polished three times a week

Italy86%

United Kingdom59%

France55%

Spain53%

Germany45%

Australia33%

Canada25%

Such findings signal that Canadian values, ideas, and attitudes should not be relied upon when planning marketing forays into foreign consumer markets

Each product or service must be evaluated for its potential fit with the cultural norms and values of consumers in a particular country or region


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Sacred and Profane Consumption

Sacred

Consumption

Profane

Consumption

  • Involves Objects and Events That Are “Set Apart” From Normal Activities, and Are Treated With Some Degree of Respect or Awe.

  • Involves Consumer Objects and Events That Are Ordinary, Everyday Objects and Events That Do Not Share The “Specialness” of Sacred Ones.


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Marketers need to be aware of what is sacred – and perhaps taboo in advertising


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The sacred made Profane


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Symbols

Generate ideas, emotions, thoughts

Types of Symbols

Numbers

Colours

Gestures

Animals (animate objects)

Inanimate objects


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A Myth is a Story Containing Symbolic Elements That Express the Shared Emotions and Ideals Of a Culture.

Mythic Characters and symbols are often used in advertising


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Traditions

What are traditions?

  • Unwritten rules of culture

  • Time-bound

  • Performed by most members of society for forgotten reasons

  • Remind people of their cultural kinship


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Religious

Rites of Passage

Ritual Type

Examples

Baptism, Meditation, Mass

Group

Graduation, Marriage

Festivals, Holidays

Cultural

Family

Parades, Elections, Trials

Civic

Personal

Business Negotiations

Mealtimes, Birthdays

Grooming, Household

Types of Ritual Experience

A stylized, repetitive pattern of behaviour


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Cultural Artifacts

  • The material evidence of what a cultures does

  • What its people value

  • What attitudes prevail, how they conduct their lives

  • Usually embody the ideas and traditions of a society


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What are some typically Canadian artifacts?


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INNOVATION


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What is an Innovation?

An idea, process, or invention that is new or different.


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Continuous Innovation


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Dynamically Continuous Innovation


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Discontinuous Innovation


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Diffusion of Innovation

The process by which products move from initial introduction and acceptance to regular purchase and use.

  • Two related processes:

    • Adoption

    • Diffusion


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Adoption Process

  • 5-step decision process:

    • Awareness

    • Interest

    • Evaluation

    • Trial

    • Adoption (rejection)


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Adopter Categories


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Product Characteristics That Influence Diffusion

CHARACTERISTICS

DEFINITION

EXAMPLES

Relative Advantage

The degree to which potential consumers perceive a new product as superior to existing substitutes

Air travel over train travel, cordless phones over corded telephones

Compatibility

The degree to which potential consumers feel a new product is consistent with their present needs, values, and practices

Gillette MACH3 over disposable razors, digital telephone answering machines over machines using tape to make recordings

Complexity

The degree to which a new product is difficult to understand or use

Products low in complexity include frozen TV dinners, electric shavers, instant puddings


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CHARACTERISTICS

DEFINITION

EXAMPLES

Trialability

The degree to which a new product is capable of being tried on a limited basis

Trial size jars and bottles of new products, free trials of software, free samples, cents-off coupons

Observability

The degree to which a product’s benefits or attributes can be observed, imagined, or described to potential customers

Clothing, such as a new Tommy Hilfiger jacket, a car, wristwatches, eyeglasses


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Product Placement


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Product Placement

The process of obtaining exposure for a product by arranging for it to be inserted into a movie, a television show, video game or some other medium.


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3 BASIC TYPES OF PRODUCT PLACEMENT

Visual – occurs when a product, service or logo can simply be observed

Spoken -- occurs when an actor or off-screen voice mentions a product, service, or corporation

Usage -- occurs when an actor or actress actually handles or interacts with a product, service or corporation. Often includes both a visual and spoken element as well.


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What are the Advantages of Product Placement?

  • Implied Endorsements --- often made by major actors or actresses which frequently do not appear in television commercials

  • Far Reach (Long Life & Global)

  • Low Cost

  • Low Clutter

  • High Profile - success of the product placement is thus tied to the success of the film.

  • Optimum Viewing Environment - better than TV

  • ACaptive Audience

  • Better Demographics

    • especially for TV

    • Certain stars can have stronger appeal to specific demographics


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