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Task Force 150 anti-piracy operations Commodore Per Bigum Christensen 25. January 2009. Danish Task Group commanding Combined Task Force 150 15. September 2008 – 12. January 2009 o/b Flagship HDMS ABSALON. Task Force 150 anti-piracy operations. Agenda.

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Task Force 150 anti-piracy operations

Commodore Per Bigum Christensen

25. January 2009


Danish Task Group commanding

Combined Task Force 150

15. September 2008 – 12. January 2009

o/b

Flagship HDMS ABSALON

Task Force 150 anti-piracy operations


Agenda

  • TF150 mission, priorities and geo strategic situation

  • “Thesis”

  • Characteristics of pirates and their tactics

  • Counter piracy tactics

  • Coordination with non-coalition naval forces

  • Recommendations to shipping

  • Conclusion and next step


Agenda

  • TF150 mission, priorities and geo strategic situation

  • “Thesis”

  • Characteristics of pirates and their tactics

  • Counter piracy tactics

  • Coordination with non-coalition naval forces

  • Recommendations to shipping

  • Conclusion and next step


CFMCC task organization

CFMCC

DCFMCC

Supported Commanders

Iraqi Maritime

Northern Arabian Gulf

CTF – 150

Red Sea, Gulf of Aden, Gulf of Oman and Arabian Sea

CTF – 152

Central & Southern Arabian Gulf

CTF – 151

Mission Specific –

within CMF AOR

Supporting Commanders

CTF- 50

CSG

CTF- 55

Patrol Boats

CTF- 56

Ordnance Disposal

CTF- 561

Special Operations

CTF- 57

Maritime Patrol

CTF- 59

CM

CTF- 54

Submarines

CTF- 51

ESG

CTF- 53

Logistics

CFMCC is a true Coalition: C2 spans all Coalition members and U.S. forces often operate under non-U.S. leadership


CTF 150 is to counter or defeat acts of violent extremism, aggression and associated terrorist networks in littoral and maritime TF 150 AOR. Work with regional, joint and other partners to improve overall security, stability and regional nations maritime capabilities. Be ready to respond to full range of crises, including environmental and humanitarian events UFN IOT achieve secure and stable maritime environment free from terroristactivity.

TF 150 mission


Piracy
Piracy aggression and associated terrorist networks in littoral and maritime TF 150 AOR. Work with regional, joint and other partners to improve overall security, stability and regional nations maritime capabilities. Be ready to respond to full range of crises, including environmental and humanitarian events UFN IOT achieve secure and stable maritime environment free from terrorist

  • International problem that requires international solution

  • Ultimate solution is ashore in Somalia

    • Establish conditions that preclude criminal activity at sea and ashore

    • Stability, security, economic prosperity, governance, rule of law

  • Piracy is about money – no ties to terrorism – yet

  • Historical perspective in Somalia

    • < 1991 Piracy controlled by functional Coast Guard / Navy

    • 1991-1995 UNOSOM maintains maritime security

    • 1995-2000 Somali fishermen begin armed clashes with foreign fishing vessels

    • 2000-2004 Somali militias board / seize international fishing vessels

    • 2005-2007 Eastern clan seizes 31 vessels as far as 200nm from east coast

      Shipping lanes moved from 50nm to 200nm off coast

    • Aug 2008 Sharp spike in piracy in Gulf of Aden – northern clan


Geo strategic situation
Geo Strategic Situation aggression and associated terrorist networks in littoral and maritime TF 150 AOR. Work with regional, joint and other partners to improve overall security, stability and regional nations maritime capabilities. Be ready to respond to full range of crises, including environmental and humanitarian events UFN IOT achieve secure and stable maritime environment free from terrorist

1000 NM

1000 NM

27 regional nations (14 with coastline)

3 chokepoints

16.8 million km2

80% of global energy reserves

Religious center for 1.5 billion Muslims

23.000 ships passing the Gulf of Aden

1000 NM


Traffic in gulf of aden mar 08
Traffic in Gulf of Aden (MAR 08) aggression and associated terrorist networks in littoral and maritime TF 150 AOR. Work with regional, joint and other partners to improve overall security, stability and regional nations maritime capabilities. Be ready to respond to full range of crises, including environmental and humanitarian events UFN IOT achieve secure and stable maritime environment free from terrorist


Traffic in gulf of aden jan 09
Traffic in Gulf of Aden (JAN 09) aggression and associated terrorist networks in littoral and maritime TF 150 AOR. Work with regional, joint and other partners to improve overall security, stability and regional nations maritime capabilities. Be ready to respond to full range of crises, including environmental and humanitarian events UFN IOT achieve secure and stable maritime environment free from terrorist


TF150 operations – 23 Sep aggression and associated terrorist networks in littoral and maritime TF 150 AOR. Work with regional, joint and other partners to improve overall security, stability and regional nations maritime capabilities. Be ready to respond to full range of crises, including environmental and humanitarian events UFN IOT achieve secure and stable maritime environment free from terrorist

BADR

IROQUOIS

MYS TG

CHATHAM

OAK HILL

CDT BIROT

ABSALON

COURBET

J LENTHALL

VILLE DE QUEBEC

HALSEY

PVST

ASSOCIATED SUPPORT TO CTF150

DIRECT SUPPORT TO CTF150

NATIONAL TASKING


TF150 operations – 17 Nov aggression and associated terrorist networks in littoral and maritime TF 150 AOR. Work with regional, joint and other partners to improve overall security, stability and regional nations maritime capabilities. Be ready to respond to full range of crises, including environmental and humanitarian events UFN IOT achieve secure and stable maritime environment free from terrorist

MVP

KARLSRUHE

TIPPU SULTAN

MASON

TG 432.01

HAMANA

YUUDACHI

KENT

WAVE KN.

CUMBERLAND

NORTHUMBL.

TABAR

ABSALON

NIVOSE

COURBET

NEUSTRASHIMY

VAR

AL DAMMAM

DE LA PENNE

VELLA GULF

MAHAWANGSA

PVST

ASSOCIATED SUPPORT TO CTF 150

DIRECT SUPPORT TO CTF 150

NATIONAL/NATO TASKING

DE RUYTER


TF150 operations – 18 Dec aggression and associated terrorist networks in littoral and maritime TF 150 AOR. Work with regional, joint and other partners to improve overall security, stability and regional nations maritime capabilities. Be ready to respond to full range of crises, including environmental and humanitarian events UFN IOT achieve secure and stable maritime environment free from terrorist

MVP

KARLSRUHE

TIPPU SULTAN

MASON

ARIAKE

TOWADA

DILIGENCE

PORTLAND

NORTHUMBL.

WAVE KN.

PSARA.

YELNYA

NEUSTRASHIMY

SRI INDERA SAKTI

MYSORE

ABSALON

NIVOSE

JEAN DE VIENNE

PRE M LHER

ABHA

GORKOVA

GOKOVA

PVST

ASSOCIATED SUPPORT TO CTF 150

DIRECT SUPPORT TO CTF 150

NATIONAL TASKING

EU


Agenda aggression and associated terrorist networks in littoral and maritime TF 150 AOR. Work with regional, joint and other partners to improve overall security, stability and regional nations maritime capabilities. Be ready to respond to full range of crises, including environmental and humanitarian events UFN IOT achieve secure and stable maritime environment free from terrorist

  • TF150 mission, priorities and geo strategic situation

  • “Thesis”

  • Characteristics of pirates and their tactics

  • Counter piracy tactics

  • Coordination with non-coalition naval forces

  • Recommendations to shipping

  • Conclusion and next step


Thesis aggression and associated terrorist networks in littoral and maritime TF 150 AOR. Work with regional, joint and other partners to improve overall security, stability and regional nations maritime capabilities. Be ready to respond to full range of crises, including environmental and humanitarian events UFN IOT achieve secure and stable maritime environment free from terrorist: A combination of international focus, naval forces intervention and improved self protections measures from merchant vessels is now keeping the piracy in Gulf of Aden at bay - maintaining a more safe but fragile situation from where medium to long term efforts can and must be implemented.

Task Force 150 anti-piracy operations


Agenda aggression and associated terrorist networks in littoral and maritime TF 150 AOR. Work with regional, joint and other partners to improve overall security, stability and regional nations maritime capabilities. Be ready to respond to full range of crises, including environmental and humanitarian events UFN IOT achieve secure and stable maritime environment free from terrorist

  • TF150 mission, priorities and geo strategic situation

  • “Thesis”

  • Characteristics of pirates and their tactics

  • Counter piracy tactics

  • Coordination with non-coalition naval forces

  • Recommendations to shipping

  • Conclusion and next step


Piracy activity aggression and associated terrorist networks in littoral and maritime TF 150 AOR. Work with regional, joint and other partners to improve overall security, stability and regional nations maritime capabilities. Be ready to respond to full range of crises, including environmental and humanitarian events UFN IOT achieve secure and stable maritime environment free from terrorist

15 Sep. 2008 – 12 Jan. 2009

62 attacks of which 20 were successful!


Somalian pirates constitute a limited number of more experienced seamen and an unlimited number of “soldiers” – uneducated and unable to understand the situation

Pirates are recruited from different small villages in Puntland/Somalia, mainly from fishing societies and with Xabo and Calulla as the origin of the piracy activities. Piracy team members normally know each others

Combination of old and young men and boys

Piracy characteristics and tactics


Some preparation and training are conducted. There is a standard for organising and equipping the teams, and they have a code of conduct. Discipline is high – punishment is severe.

Direct connection between sea state and piracy activities (very little activity in sea state above 1.0 m)

Pirates have become more determined, but not more violent

Piracy characteristics and tactics

More than 90% of all piracy incidents occur during day light hours.


Pirate leaders know they are “safe” when onboard and in control of M/V

When met with with over-whelming force all pirates in small skiffs are willing to surrender. Only dhow mother ships have resisted apprehension

Reappearance (repeat offenders) of pirates rarely observed

Piracy characteristics and tactics


Pirates use different kinds of mother vessels to disguise their movements and for element of surprise. AIS-information is most likely utilized from the larger mother ships.

Pirates coordinate their attacks. Cell phones

Pirates leaders ashore or in larger mother ships are using spoofing/fake distress calls etc.

Piracy characteristics and tactics

  • According to IMB:

  • Risk for attack 1:340

  • Risk for being hijacked 1:907


Weapons and equipment used
Weapons and equipment used their movements and for element of surprise. AIS-information is most likely utilized from the larger mother ships.


Pirates Attack Multiple Times their movements and for element of surprise. AIS-information is most likely utilized from the larger mother ships.

Overseas Hercules

STX Ace 6

Ginga Saker

52NM

41NM


Agenda their movements and for element of surprise. AIS-information is most likely utilized from the larger mother ships.

  • TF150 mission, priorities and geo strategic situation

  • “Thesis”

  • Characteristics of pirates and their tactics

  • Counter piracy tactics

  • Coordination with non-coalition naval forces

  • Recommendations to shipping

  • Conclusion and next step


04 NOV: ABS disarms 10 pirates. their movements and for element of surprise. AIS-information is most likely utilized from the larger mother ships.

20 OCT: ABS helo and rhib fires warning shots. Pirates looses skiffs, ladder and RPG.

13 DEC: MYS detains 12 pirates.

17 DEC: ABS disarms 9 pirates.

07 NOV: CMB disarms 8 pirates.

19 DEC: JDV disarms 7 pirates.

20 SEP: ABS disarms 10 pirates.

DEU CTF

October

November

December

January

25 DEC: KAR foils attack and disarms 4 pirates.

03 NOV: ABS disarms 10 pirates.

02 OCT: BRT disarms 12 pirates.

04 DEC: ABS disarms 7 pirates.

17 SEP: ABS detains 10 pirates.

18 NOV: TAB destroys Ekawatnava 5.

01 JAN: LHR detains 8 pirates

Piracy activity

02 JAN: MYS disarms 7 pirates

11 NOV: CMB disarms a total of 31 pirates in 2 incidents.

CAN CTF

September

04 JAN: JDV detains 19 pirates

02 JAN: ABS detains 5 and disarms 19 pirates

30 NOV: JDV disarms 4 pirates.

16 NOV: Update to Commanders guidance and intent for MSPA operations.

Kinetic encounter

Hijacking

Failed Attack


Encountered pirates (1) their movements and for element of surprise. AIS-information is most likely utilized from the larger mother ships.


Encountered pirates (2) their movements and for element of surprise. AIS-information is most likely utilized from the larger mother ships.

Of the 177 pirates encountered 063 were handed over to authorities

107 were released after disarming

002 died

005 are still in custody in TF150 unit

No confirmed reappearance by any of the 177, but not all had their biometrics

registered


Most effective efforts are provided by the M/V themselves, but the presence of naval forces is required in order to deal the problem.

We must maintain a posture which undermine and remove the courage and willingness of the pirates.

Piracy activity is obviously not deterred yet, however indications are that teams do not come back after a failed operation ending with apprehension

After initial attempt or attack, pirates must be constantly tracked and suppressed by air assets, until warship can arrive on scene for disarming the pirates (weapons and ladders)

Counter Piracy


The traffic corridor is only a temporary solution, but it enables naval forces to concentrate resources

Naval forces are spread along the corridor, ready to react with helo, if attack or suspicious activity is observed by M/V

Quick reporting by M/V is essential. (Use UKMTO or MARLO).

Air surveillance is crucial to success

Corridor should be moved south

Convoy/escort operations are no solution. It does not remove the threat, it only helps the few, and there will never be naval forces enough to provide escort to all M/V or convoys

Counter Piracy


Fishing areas in goa
Fishing areas in GOA enables naval forces to concentrate resources


New transit corridor
New Transit Corridor enables naval forces to concentrate resources

100-150 merchant vessels in the corridor at any time

The present corridor

The new corridor


Agenda enables naval forces to concentrate resources

  • TF150 mission, priorities and geo strategic situation

  • “Thesis”

  • Characteristics of pirates and their tactics

  • Counter piracy tactics

  • Coordination with non-coalition naval forces

  • Recommendations to shipping

  • Conclusion and next step


Co-ordination with Non coalition Forces enables naval forces to concentrate resources

Non coalition Naval Forces

(ships only)

  • Dutch unit (1 unit Sep. – Nov. 2008)

  • Malaysian units (1-2 units since Sep. 2008)

  • Russian units (2-3 units since Oct. 2008)

  • Indian units (1 unit since Nov. 2008)

  • TG 169 (Chinese units) (2-3 units since Jan. 2009)

  • TF 432 (NATO force) (4-6 units Oct. – Dec. 2008)

  • TF 465 (EU Force) (3-4 units since Dec. 2008)

  • Additional US/UK/FR naval units under national control


Welcome paperwork – exchange of e-mail addresses enables naval forces to concentrate resources

Reference grid for area allocation

HF/VHF/UHF COMPLAN including call sign allocation

Air safety issues

Staff visit – explaining about pattern of life

CTF 150 visit to clarify mandate and rules of engagement

At least twice daily exchange of SITREPs including area allocation for units, convoy schedules, and reports on any actual piracy activities

Daily summery of all activities, intelligence information and assessments (classified, but releasable to all military forces)

UKMTO and MARLO mailing lists including all naval forces.

De facto succesful tactical coordination including tasking of units, aircraft and alert helicopters.

Co-ordination with Non coalition Forces

  • Each force provider, however, has a national/political requirement to promote own presence (MAC, reporting centres, public medias)


Agenda enables naval forces to concentrate resources

  • TF150 mission, priorities and geo strategic situation

  • “Thesis”

  • Characteristics of pirates and their tactics

  • Counter piracy tactics

  • Coordination with non-coalition naval forces

  • Recommendations to shipping

  • Conclusion and next step


Ctf 150 recommendations 1 2

  • Preparations for the transit enables naval forces to concentrate resources

  • Consider professional protection team, and clarify company policy and flag state legal issues.

  • By appearance demonstrate willingness to defend yourself.

  • Prepare ship and crew. Protection team, safe room, fences, barbed wire, water hoses, flares, close and lock all hatches, train procedures.

  • Use the new corridor. Stay clear of the Somali eastcoast preferably 300 NM or more.

  • Continue to show navigation lights and transmit AIS.

  • Increase look outs, ensure quick internal warning and reporting.

CTF 150 recommendations 1/2


Ctf 150 recommendations 2 2
CTF 150 recommendations 2/2 enables naval forces to concentrate resources

  • Listen IMM VHF CH 16. Report any suspicious activity to call sign “Coalition Warship”. Use CH 8 as back up in case of jamming

  • Proceed with max. speed, and be prepared for quick evasive manouevres

  • Join other ships proceeding at equal speed for mutual support

  • Be alert and stay calm throughout. Piracy threats may appear from all directions – even from close to the Yemenite coast

  • Avoid areas with small fishing boats or skiffs. If necessary, leave the corridor until clear of fishing activity

  • Call “Coalition Warship”, if suffering from technical problems causing reduced speed


Ctf 150 recommendations
CTF 150 recommendations enables naval forces to concentrate resources

When under attack

  • Sound the general alarm in the ship. Execute evasive manoeuvres and other preplanned responses.

  • Make emergency call or mayday on IMM VHF CH 16 or CH 8. Give ships name, position and describe the situation. Listen carefully to the questions and directives from “Coalition warship/aircraft”.

  • If possible, proceed up into the sea at highest speed.

  • Report to UKMTO, MARLO or any other immediate point of contact (phone, e-mail)

  • If considered safe to do so, take photos or videos and post these immediately to UKMTO or MARLO.


Agenda enables naval forces to concentrate resources

  • TF150 mission, priorities and geo strategic situation

  • “Thesis”

  • Characteristics of pirates and their tactics

  • Counter piracy tactics

  • Coordination with non-coalition naval forces

  • Recommendations to shipping

  • Conclusion and next step


Conclusion
Conclusion enables naval forces to concentrate resources

  • Combined Maritime Forces / Navies and international organizations have taken actions:

    • Maritime Security Patrol Area and traffic corridor established

    • Vulnerable shipping and World Food Program provided escorts

    • Naval Forces assigned to deter, disrupt, capture, and destroy pirate equipment

    • Coordinate, de-conflict, share intelligence / information

    • Provide best practices to shipping industry

    • New UNSCRs passed, providing robust legal mandate for military actions, also ashore

  • These actions alone will not solve the problem

  • More aggressive naval actions will not succeed until other elements are in place

    • Expanding operations and further improve effectiveness requires coordinated tasking of naval assets from all nations present

    • Establish legal framework to hold pirates accountable. No incentive to capture pirates when countries are unwilling to adjudicate casesShipping industry must continue to follow recommended best practices

    • Shipping industry must embark armed security detachments or other effective self-protection measures

  • Improvement of conditions ashore in Somalia is the long term solution


Next step
Next step enables naval forces to concentrate resources

  • Based on UNSCR 1816, 1838 & 1846 a new mission specific TF151 has been established by 12. January 2009

  • TF 151 is actively to conduct counter piracy operations in the CMF battlespace to deter, disrupt and defeat piracy in order to protect global maritime commerce, enhance maritime security and secure freedom of navigation for the benefit of all nations

  • Will include TTW for those nations with agreements in place to enter them

  • NATO or EU (post-ATALANTA) could command TF 151


DNK CTF 150 enables naval forces to concentrate resources

Thank you


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