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Assessment of/for Learning Through Differentiation. First District RESA July 2007. Our Legacy: Assessment for Student Motivation. To get students to learn, you demand it Play on student anxiety Use assessments as intimidation Manipulate assessments as rewards and punishments

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Assessment of for learning through differentiation

Assessment of/for Learning Through Differentiation

First District RESA

July 2007


Our legacy assessment for student motivation
Our Legacy: Assessment for Student Motivation

  • To get students to learn, you demand it

  • Play on student anxiety

  • Use assessments as intimidation

  • Manipulate assessments as rewards and punishments

  • Provide a rank order of students

  • Promote competition


Winners

Results

Confidence

Learn

Responsibility

Character

Lifelong

Success

Grows

How to succeed

Internal

Compliant

Learner

Winners


Losers

Result

Confidence

Learn

Responsibility

Character

Lifelong

Failure

Wanes

No hope

External

Rebellious

Search for success

Losers


New mission build competency
New Mission: Build Competency

  • Honor reality that students learn at different rates

  • Establish clear targets, worth achieving, and within reach

  • Driving force of collaboration and success

  • Number of students who can succeed is unlimited


Winners1

Results

Confidence

Learn

Responsibility

Character

Lifelong

Credible success

Confidence grows

I can succeed

Within me

I am responsible

Confident learner

Winners


Assessment for motivation
Assessment for Motivation

  • Clear, student friendly targets

  • Accurate assessments

  • Effective communication


Three types of needed assessments
Three Types of Needed Assessments

  • Preassessments – Design this after summative assessment

  • Formative – Identify these last

  • Summative – Design this first



Mastery is
Mastery is…

  • more than knowing information, but manipulating and applying that information successfully in other situations.

  • defined by the Center for Media Literacy in New Mexico, “If we are literate in our subject, we can access (understand and find meaning in), analyze, evaluate, and create the subject or medium.”


Grade 4 ela
Grade 4 ELA:

ELA4R1: For literary texts, the student identifies the characteristics of various genres and produces evidence of reading that :a. Relates theme in works of fiction to personal experience; b. Identifies and analyzes the elements of plot, character, and setting in stories read; f. Makes judgments and inferences about setting, characters, and events and supports them with elaborating and convincing evidence from the text.

ELA4R3: understands and acquires new vocabulary and uses it correctly in reading and writing.


ELA4W2: The student produces a response to literature that: a. Engages the reader by establishing a context, creating a speaker’s voice, and otherwise developing reader interest; b. Advances a judgment that is interpretive, evaluative, or reflective; c. Supports judgments through references to text, other works, authors, or non-print media, or references to personal knowledge; d. Demonstrates an understanding of the literary work; e. Excludes extraneous details and inappropriate information; f. Provides a sense of closure to the writing.

ELAW4: consistently uses a writing process to develop, revise, and evaluate the writing.

ELA4C1: demonstrates control of the rules of the English language, realizing that usage involves the appropriate application of conventions and grammar in both written and spoken formats.


Three types of needed assessments1
Three Types of Needed Assessments

  • Preassessments – Design this after summative assessment

  • Formative – Identify these last

  • Summative – Design this first


Culminating project i m your biggest fan
Culminating Project: I’m Your Biggest Fan!

We all have our favorite authors, and now you have the opportunity to share your enthusiasm with the world! Your task is to create a mini-book that will detail the life and works of the author you have selected. It will be displayed in the media center, available for use as a resource for the fifth grade author research papers. Each section that you create should be titled as your chapters to the book. The book must have the following chapters:

Chapter 1 – Write a short biography of your chosen author to include a short summary of important dates and events in the author’s life.

Chapter 2 – Write at least three plot summaries (each one about a different work by your author). Be sure to identify each of the works that you are using by including the title in each of the plot summaries.

Chapter 3 – Discuss/analyze one text by your author. Your analysis must include character development and theme, supported by quotes and examples from the text, personal connections to the text, an evaluation of the effectiveness of the setting, and your opinion of the text with justification.

Chapter 4 – Explain what you would change about a work by this author and why (must be one of the three works used for plot summaries in Chapter 2)

Chapter 5 – Write a “found” poem—a poem created by selecting 8 words or phrases from any of the three chosen works that you find appealing and organizing the phrases into a “found” poem. You may share the poem with the class.

You may give each of the five chapters a title that somehow relates to what you are putting in that chapter.

Chapter 6 – In this chapter, you will explain the significance of each of your chapter titles, and how they relate to the author and his works.


Analyzing the summative assessment
Analyzing the Summative Assessment

  • Does your assessment match the mastery expectations?

  • Is the key vocabulary represented within the assessment or are other terms being utilized in place of the vocabulary of the standards?

  • Are there different ways that the student can show knowledge and understandings or is there a dominant form of questioning (true/false, matching, etc.)


How do we know that an assessment assesses what we want it to
How do we know that an assessment assesses what we want it to?

  • Do the task yourself

  • Circle the portions of your responses that elicit the essential and enduring knowledge and skills listed at the top of the unit.

  • Read each component of the essential and enduring knowledge and skills, and check off on the assessment where demonstration of that knowledge and skill is required.

  • Ask someone else to compare the lesson’s essential and enduring knowledge and skills to the assessment to make sure they’re in sync.


Three types of needed assessments2
Three Types of Needed Assessments to?

  • Preassessments – Design this after summative assessment

  • Formative – Identify these last

  • Summative – Design this first



Pre assessment for 4 th grade ela
Pre-assessment for 4 to?th Grade ELA

  • Choose a familiar story and pretend that I have never heard of it. Explain the plot of the story (including the problem/resolution, setting, main events, characters, and theme).

  • What was your personal opinion of this story and why do you feel that way?

  • Give one example of written dialogue, as it may appear in a story.

  • What is the best way to figure out the meaning of a new word that you come across in a story that you are reading?


Your turn
Your Turn… to?

  • Examine your summative assessment

  • Create a pre-assessment based on it


Analyzing the pre assessment
Analyzing the Pre-assessment to?

  • Create a checklist of what students are to know

  • Add to the checklist what students are expected to do

  • Compare to your description of mastery for this set of standards

  • Are there mastery expectations that are not covered in the pre-assessment?

  • Review pre-assessment for extraneous items that do not reflect the standards set forth for demonstration of mastery.




Questions to guide in assessment analysis
Questions to guide in Assessment Analysis to?

  • How well did the pre-assessment and any accompanying rubric or other scoring guide work? How would you revise them?

  • What are the most common errors and misunderstandings shown on the student performance grid? Of these, which ones are the most important to focus on and why?

  • Which students have not reached the proficiency level and why? What assistance will you (and the school) provide for these students?


What differentiated instruction is
What Differentiated Instruction Is..... to?

  • Responsive, proactiveteaching

  • Qualitative rather than quantitative

  • Rooted in assessment

  • Fair



Differentiating process
Differentiating Process to?

Making sense of the content so it becomes theirs.........

  • in a range ofmodes at varied degrees of complexityin varying time spans

  • with varied amounts of support

  • using essential skills and essential information in order to understand essential principles or answer essential questions


“Only when students work at appropriate challenge levels do they develop the essential habits of persistence, curiosity, and willingness to take intellectual risks.”


“Come to the edge,” he said. do they develop the essential habits of persistence, curiosity, and willingness to take intellectual risks.”

“We are afraid,” they said.

“Come to the edge,” he said.

THEY DID.

And he pushed them,

And they flew.

-- Apollinaire


Teaching with student variance in mind
TEACHING WITH STUDENT VARIANCE IN MIND do they develop the essential habits of persistence, curiosity, and willingness to take intellectual risks.”

FRUSTRATION

Zone of Proximal Development

TASK DIFFICULTY

BOREDOM

READINESS LEVEL


The cycle of instruction
THE CYCLE OF INSTRUCTION do they develop the essential habits of persistence, curiosity, and willingness to take intellectual risks.”

Establish

curriculum

priorities

Plan and

implement

instruction

and

learning

experiences

Determine acceptable evidence


Insert video sample do they develop the essential habits of persistence, curiosity, and willingness to take intellectual risks.”


Create on-level task first then adjust up and down. do they develop the essential habits of persistence, curiosity, and willingness to take intellectual risks.”


5 steps to tiering

5 Steps to Tiering do they develop the essential habits of persistence, curiosity, and willingness to take intellectual risks.”


Ensure that group membership is flexible

Ensure that group membership is do they develop the essential habits of persistence, curiosity, and willingness to take intellectual risks.”flexible.


Why use flexible groups
Why use flexible groups? do they develop the essential habits of persistence, curiosity, and willingness to take intellectual risks.”

Insert video example

  • Change as needed

  • Increases participation and engagement

  • Improves achievement

  • Ensures all students learn to work independently, cooperatively and collaboratively in a variety of settings and with a variety of peers

  • Provides for individual differences

  • Increases the probability of student success by matching achievement levels and needs more of the time


Ensure that group membership is flexible. do they develop the essential habits of persistence, curiosity, and willingness to take intellectual risks.”


Plan the number of levels most appropriate for instruction

Plan the number of do they develop the essential habits of persistence, curiosity, and willingness to take intellectual risks.”levels most appropriate for instruction.


Plan the number of do they develop the essential habits of persistence, curiosity, and willingness to take intellectual risks.”levels most appropriate for instruction.


Recognize that complexity is relative

Recognize that do they develop the essential habits of persistence, curiosity, and willingness to take intellectual risks.”complexity is relative.


ELA4W2: do they develop the essential habits of persistence, curiosity, and willingness to take intellectual risks.”The student produces a response to literature that: b. Advances a judgment that is interpretive, evaluative, or reflective; c. Supports judgments through references to text, other works, authors, or non-print media, or references to personal knowledge; d. Demonstrates an understanding of the literary work; e. Excludes extraneous details and inappropriate information;

  • Supports judgment through references to text

  • Advances judgment (must choose a side)

  • Interprets text, evaluates text, or reflects on text

  • Excludes extraneous details


Promote high level thinking in each tier

Promote do they develop the essential habits of persistence, curiosity, and willingness to take intellectual risks.”high level thinking in each tier


Promote high level thinking in each tier1
Promote high level thinking in each tier. do they develop the essential habits of persistence, curiosity, and willingness to take intellectual risks.”

  • Using a picture book, the teacher will walk through the book identifying how the author and illustrator used the pictures of the main character to develop the person. The teacher will model with a graphic organizer labeled “What the character looked like, said, did, etc.” After modeling, ask the students to define the term character and identify the main character of the story they are reading using the same graphic organizer.

  • Identify the main character of the story. Use the graphic organizer to gather information about your character that will be helpful in the discussion. In the T-chart, the students are inferring whether or not the character will decide to tell the truth based on character actions and words within the story. In a discussion led by your teacher, explain your choice with quotes, and a sequence of the character’s actions leading up to his next move. If you were in the same situation, what would you have done?


  • The characters’ time at the camp is left in your hands. You must determine their guilt or innocence, and argue your case for each character before a judge, your teacher, and the jury, a group of your peers, to determine how long each sentence should remain. Your group will be divided into two parts: witnesses for the defendant, or the acting jury who will decide the outcome based on your argument.

    Teacher will model the use of a T-Chart as a way to organize an effective argument. Students will use the T-Chart to organize their argument for the story before the judge and call to the stand witnesses to share your evidence that includes specific actions, reactions, and quotes supported by the text that you have prepared. You should give your witnesses the names of other characters in the story, and the evidence that they present should be quotes that were made in scenes where they would have heard them, or actions they would have seen. Be prepared to answer questions from the judge.


Provide teacher support at every tier

Provide You must determine their guilt or innocence, and argue your case for each character before a judge, your teacher, and the jury, a group of your peers, to determine how long each sentence should remain. Your group will be divided into two parts: witnesses for the defendant, or the acting jury who will decide the outcome based on your argument. teacher support at every tier.


Provide teacher support at every tier1
Provide You must determine their guilt or innocence, and argue your case for each character before a judge, your teacher, and the jury, a group of your peers, to determine how long each sentence should remain. Your group will be divided into two parts: witnesses for the defendant, or the acting jury who will decide the outcome based on your argument. teacher support at every tier.

  • Using a picture book, the teacher will walk through the book identifying how the author and illustrator used the pictures of the main character to develop the person. The teacher will model with a graphic organizer labeled “What the character looked like, said, did, etc.” After modeling, ask the students to define the term character and identify the main character of the story they are reading using the same graphic organizer.

  • Identify the main character of the story. Use the graphic organizer to gather information about your character that will be helpful in the discussion. In the T-chart, the students are inferring whether or not the character will decide to tell the truth based on character actions and words within the story. In a discussion led by your teacher, explain your choice with quotes, and a sequence of the character’s actions leading up to his next move. If you were in the same situation, what would you have done?


  • The characters’ time at the camp is left in your hands. You must determine their guilt or innocence, and argue your case for each character before a judge, your teacher, and the jury, a group of your peers, to determine how long each sentence should remain. Your group will be divided into two parts: witnesses for the defendant, or the acting jury who will decide the outcome based on your argument.

    Teacher will model the use of a T-Chart as a way to organize an effective argument. Students will use the T-Chart to organize their argument for the story before the judge and call to the stand witnesses to share your evidence that includes specific actions, reactions, and quotes supported by the text that you have prepared. You should give your witnesses the names of other characters in the story, and the evidence that they present should be quotes that were made in scenes where they would have heard them, or actions they would have seen. Be prepared to answer questions from the judge.


  • Video of clock example here You must determine their guilt or innocence, and argue your case for each character before a judge, your teacher, and the jury, a group of your peers, to determine how long each sentence should remain. Your group will be divided into two parts: witnesses for the defendant, or the acting jury who will decide the outcome based on your argument.


Differentiating by readiness video questions
Differentiating by Readiness – You must determine their guilt or innocence, and argue your case for each character before a judge, your teacher, and the jury, a group of your peers, to determine how long each sentence should remain. Your group will be divided into two parts: witnesses for the defendant, or the acting jury who will decide the outcome based on your argument. Video Questions

  • What was the first thing the teacher considered in designing the lessons?

  • How were groups established?

  • How was the lesson differentiated according to readiness – what three-step process was used?

  • What on-going assessment strategies were used?

  • How did the teacher reactively adjust the lesson?


Quiz what are you thinking
Quiz: What Are You Thinking? You must determine their guilt or innocence, and argue your case for each character before a judge, your teacher, and the jury, a group of your peers, to determine how long each sentence should remain. Your group will be divided into two parts: witnesses for the defendant, or the acting jury who will decide the outcome based on your argument.

  • Students work in trios to create a Venn Diagram comparing the traits of the main characters in the two novels they read. With the teacher, the trios then compare their diagrams and identify how those traits caused similar effects in the sequence of both stories.

  • With the teacher, students determine the five key events in the sequence in the story that affected the main character. They then discuss and record the cause of each on a chart.


  • The teacher discusses and lists five key events in the story that affected the main character. With the teacher, students determine the sequence of those events and then record the cause of each on a chart.

  • With teacher facilitation, students use a Venn Diagram to compare traits of the main character at the beginning and end of the book. Then they brainstorm, list together, and sequence the events that caused the character to change.


Maps a tiered assignment
Maps: A Tiered Assignment that affected the main character. With the teacher, students determine the sequence of those events and then record the cause of each on a chart.

  • Pre-assessment was a Level II task

  • Look at the map on page 377 and label all of the geographical features that you know

  • Make an educated guess and mark the places on the map accordingly: major trading center ($), great vacation spots (), place that probably gets invaded by its neighbors, the most populous city (dots), etc.


Maps a tiered assignment1
Maps: A Tiered Assignment that affected the main character. With the teacher, students determine the sequence of those events and then record the cause of each on a chart.

  • The Lay of the Land: These are students whose pre-assessment shows that they really don’t know where key geographical features and national borders are in the field. The cognitive skills for this level are familiarity and recognition. Students need to learn by labeling, color coding, and reconstructing. Teacher is close by for reinforcement and correction, checking students off at each task and answering questions.


  • Geography is Destiny: These students know their basic geography of the field. They are ready to do some inferential thinking about how particular geographical features determined key historical events. They need to consider why cities developed where they did, the economic value of certain geographical features and why that changed, military implications of geographical features, trade routes, etc. These students need to learn by tracing, categorizing, linking cause and effect, and comparing maps from various eras. The teacher offers support by leading discussion, modeling the use of certain graphic organizers, and pushes students’ thinking by asking probing questions as she circulates and observes individuals/groups at work.


  • Telling the Story: These students are ready to narrate historical events based on map information, going from picture to word and from word to picture. They are also ready to process many kinds of map information simultaneously, and integrate that information into their story. These students need to learn by sequencing, linking cause to effect, generalizing, and finding supporting evidence for generalizations. The teacher acts as a resource, assisting students locate sources, asking probing questions to push students to consider the validity of sources, other possibilities, etc. The teacher also models the use of more advanced graphic organizers.


Steps for differentiating by readiness
Steps for Differentiating by Readiness historical events based on map information, going from picture to word and from word to picture. They are also ready to process many kinds of map information simultaneously, and integrate that information into their story. These students need to learn by sequencing, linking cause to effect, generalizing, and finding supporting evidence for generalizations. The teacher acts as a resource, assisting students locate sources, asking probing questions to push students to consider the validity of sources, other possibilities, etc. The teacher also models the use of more advanced graphic organizers.

  • Select UKDs

  • Use pre-assessments

  • Select grouping strategy

  • Create an activity

  • Vary, extend, and/or accommodate to match students’ readiness

  • Adjust management structures-whole group introduction to the 3 levels



Criteria for tiered assignments
Criteria for Tiered Assignments the tiered assignment checklist

____ 1. A pre-assessment was used to determine

grouping.

____ 2. The groups are based on readiness for this task

____ 3. Each of the tasks is respectful, engaging, and

challenging

____ 4. The tasks can be identified for a learner with

above-level skills, on-level skills, and below

level skills

____ 5. Each of the tasks has the same concept or skill

____ 6. Support structures are evident in the tasks

____ 7. Understandings, Knows, and Dos are evident in

the tasks

____ 8. Clear directions are provided for each of the tasks

____ 9. The tiered tasks lend themselves to additional and varied

grouping strategies such as whole group, small group, and

individual time to extend the learning or to provide the

next step in instruction

____ 10. Varied materials/texts were considered for the tasks


Anchor activities
ANCHOR ACTIVITIES the tiered assignment checklist


Rapid robin
RAPID ROBIN the tiered assignment checklist

The “Dreaded Early Finisher”


I m not finished freddie
“I’m not finished” Freddie the tiered assignment checklist

“It takes him an hour-and–a half to watch ’60 Minutes’”


In a differentiated classroom
In a differentiated classroom...... the tiered assignment checklist

“ In this class we are never finished---

Learning is a process that never ends.”


What is an anchor activity
What is an Anchor Activity? the tiered assignment checklist

Anchor activities are ongoing assignments that students can work on independently throughout a unit, a grading period or longer.


An anchor activity is mfi
An Anchor Activity is....... the tiered assignment checklistMFI

  • Meaningful and engaging to the student

  • Focused on the curriculum

  • Independent- students can do with minimum teacher support


Science example temperature
Science Example: Temperature the tiered assignment checklist

  • Standard S4SC1:Students will be aware of the importance of curiosity, honesty, openness, and skepticism in science and will exhibit these traits in their own efforts to understand how the world works. a. Keep records of investigations and observations and do not alter the records later; b. Carefully distinguish observations from ideas and speculations about those observations, c. offer reasons for findings and consider reasons suggested by others.


Science example temperature1
Science Example: Temperature the tiered assignment checklist

  • S4CS2: Students will have the computation and estimation skills necessary for analyzing data and following scientific explanations.

  • S4CS8: Students will understand important features of the process of scientific inquiry


Science example temperature2
Science Example: Temperature the tiered assignment checklist

  • S4E4: Students will analyze weather charts/maps and collect weather data to predict weather events and infer patterns and seasonal changes. a. Identify weather instruments and explain how each is used in gathering weather data and making forecasts (including thermometers); c. Use observations and records of weather conditions to predict weather patterns throughout the year.


Subset of skills insert video of science class
Subset of skills: the tiered assignment checklistinsert video of Science class

  • How to create a data collection table

  • Knowledge of thermometers and how to read them

  • Averaging

  • Drawing conclusion

  • Uses of data collections

  • Expository paragraph writing

  • How to formulate a hypothesis

  • How to test a hypothesis


Temperature level i
Temperature: Level I the tiered assignment checklist

  • What is the Level I task?

  • What skills are used in this activity?

  • What adjustments are made to help compensate for difficulties students may have that would impede the learning process?


Temperature level ii
Temperature: Level II the tiered assignment checklist

  • What is the Level II task?

  • What skills are demonstrated in this task?

  • Are any adjustments made to help compensate for difficulties students may have that would impede the learning process?


Temperature level iii
Temperature: Level III the tiered assignment checklist

  • What is the Level II task?

  • What skills are demonstrated in this task?

  • Are any adjustments made to help compensate for difficulties students may have that would impede the learning process?


Science class anchors
Science Class Anchors the tiered assignment checklist

  • Centered around unit of study

  • Meet M.F.I. principles

  • Planned in advance

  • Materials available

  • Management of anchor activities (learning centers, designated space, etc.)

  • Grading/credit considered


Anchors away

Anchors Away! the tiered assignment checklist


Role of the teacher
Role of the Teacher the tiered assignment checklist

  • Insert video



Three types of needed assessments3
Three Types of Needed Assessments the tiered assignment checklist

  • Preassessments – Design this after summative assessment

  • Formative – Identify these last

  • Summative – Design this first


“Too often, educational tests, grades, and report cards are treated by teachers as autopsies when they should be viewed as physicals.”

Doug Reeves – Center for Performance Assessment


What is the difference in formative and summative assessment
What is the difference in formative and summative assessment?

Formative assessment is:

  • Assessment FOR Learning

    Summative assessment is:

  • Assessment OF Learning


Assessment for learning defined
Assessment assessment?For Learning Defined

  • Typically is formative (before or during the learning)

  • Includes descriptive feedback, peer assessment, self-assessment, etc.

  • Is used for the purpose of helping the learner learn

  • Makes learning more possible.

    • SOURCE: Leadership for Learning, 2005.


Assessment of learning defined
Assessment assessment?Of Learning Defined

  • Typically is summative (after the learning)

  • Looks at learning to decide how much has been learned and report out on it.

    • SOURCE: Leadership for Learning, 2005.


Assessment assessment?OF Learning (Summative)

Checks what has been learned to date

Is designed for those not directly involved in daily learning and teaching

Is presented in a formal report

Usually gathers information into easily digestible numbers, scores, and grades

Frequently used to compare one student’s learning with other students or with the “standard” for a grade level

Does not need to involve the student

Assessment FOR Learning (Formative)

Checks learning to decide what to do next

Is designed to assist teachers and students

Is used in conversation about learning

Is specific and uses descriptive feedback in words (instead of numbers, scores, and grades)

Is usually focused on improvement, compared with the student’s “previous best,” and progress toward a standard

Needs to involve the student—the person most able to improve the learning

Comparing Assessment FORand Assessment OFLearningBased upon the work of Anne Davies, Making Classroom Assessment Work, 2000.


Examples of formative assessment
Examples of Formative Assessment assessment?

  • 3-2-1

  • Entrance cards/exit cards

  • Academic Prompts

  • Quiz

  • Reader response journals

  • Observation logs/Learning Logs

  • Stem-starters…

  • Essays

  • Reflection Cards/Muddiest Point Cards


Student s role based on the work of stiggins and davies

Assessment assessment?FOR Learning

Self-assess and monitor progress

Act on classroom assessment results to be able to do better the next time

Assessment OF Learning

Study to meet standards

Take the test

Strive for the highest possible score

Avoid failure

Student’s RoleBased on the work of Stiggins and Davies


Winners2

Results assessment?

Confidence

Learn

Responsibility

Character

Lifelong

Credible success

Confidence grows

I can succeed

Within me

I am responsible

Confident learner

Winners



Questions to guide in assessment analysis1
Questions to guide in Assessment Analysis instruction because of something you observed while assessing students?

  • How well did the assessment and any accompanying rubric or other scoring guide work? How would you revise them?

  • What are the most common errors and misunderstandings shown on the student performance grid? Of these, which ones are the most important to focus on and why?

  • Which students have not reached the proficiency level and why? What assistance will you (and the school) provide for these students?

  • How did each individual student do on this task in comparison to the earlier assessment?

  • How well did the whole class do on this task in comparison to the earlier assessment?


District policy
District Policy instruction because of something you observed while assessing students?


Multiple attempts at mastery
Multiple Attempts at Mastery instruction because of something you observed while assessing students?

  • Avoid penalizing students’ multiple attempts at mastery

  • Feedback on an assignment that can’t be revised isn’t useful

  • Policies that give only partial credit for revisions are little better than no-revision policies

  • All work is done at teacher discretion


Multiple attempts at mastery1
Multiple Attempts at Mastery instruction because of something you observed while assessing students?

  • Ask students to staple or attach the original task or assessment to the redone version

  • Do not allow any work to be redone during the last week of the grading period

  • Redos and Grades


Multiple attempts at mastery2
Multiple Attempts at Mastery instruction because of something you observed while assessing students?

  • Involve and inform parents

  • Reserve the right to change the format for all redone work and assessments

  • Ask students to create a calendar of completion that will yield better results

  • The world does permit redos and “do-overs.”

    • Examples (Pilots making second landing attempts, surgeons correcting something that went badly the first time, farmers grow and regrow crops until they know all the factors to make them produce abundantly and at the right time of the year, people check the wrong box on legal forms, scribble it out, correct it, and initial it to indicate approval of the change)


What are we willing to accept as evidence of mastery
What are we willing to accept as evidence of mastery? instruction because of something you observed while assessing students?

  • Multiple assignments, including written responses

  • Tracking the progress of a few important works over time

  • Substantive content and skill demonstration via the tool or product chosen that can convey mastery (test, quiz, learning contracts, models, essays, videos, etc.)

  • Clear evidence of mastery and not evidence of almost mastery mixed with a lot of hard work


Three important types of assessments in the differentiated classroom
Three Important Types of Assessments in the Differentiated Classroom

  • Student Self-Assessments

    • Invaluable feedback

    • Students and teachers set individual goals

    • Examples include Likert scale, rubrics, checklists, analyzing work against standards, responding to self-reflection prompts, reading notations or marginal notes


Three important types of assessments in the differentiated classroom1
Three Important Types of Assessments in the Differentiated Classroom

  • Portfolios

    • Collect and examine work over time

    • Longitudinal nature provides big picture of students’ development

    • Interpretations of students’ mastery are more valid

  • Rubrics

    • Specific essential and enduring content and skills you will expect students to demonstrate

    • What qualifies as acceptable evidence of mastery/ descriptor for the highest performance possible

    • Specific feedback


Grading decisions
Grading Decisions Classroom

  • Based on consistency of the evidence (grade patterns)

  • Professional opinions via rubrics

  • Can convert 100 point scale to 4 point scale to stay consistent in grade book

  • Decisions based on rubrics are more informed, use more data, and are less subjective than mathematical calculations

  • If students and parents focus on the point scale more than rubric descriptors, change gradations to 3.0, 5.0, and 6.0.



What constitutes good assessment in a differentiated classroom

What constitutes good assessment in a differentiated classroom?

  • ___ The statement that is current practice

  • Something that currently you are doing and need to consider changing

  • Something you need to maybe begin to consider


“A grade represents a clear and accurate indicator of what a student knows and is able to do- mastery. With grades, we document the progress of students and our teaching, we provide feedback to our students and their parents, and we make instructional decisions regarding the students.”-Rick Wormeli


Gradebook formats for the differentiated classroom
Gradebook Formats for the Differentiated Classroom a student knows and is able to do- mastery. With grades, we document the progress of students and our teaching, we provide feedback to our students and their parents, and we make instructional decisions regarding the students.”

  • Grouping Assignment by Standard, Objective, or Benchmark

  • Grouping Assignments by Weight or Category

  • Listing Assignments by Weight

  • Topics-Based Gradebooks


Taken from results now
Taken from Results Now a student knows and is able to do- mastery. With grades, we document the progress of students and our teaching, we provide feedback to our students and their parents, and we make instructional decisions regarding the students.”

  • Glaring absence of the most basic elements of an effective lesson:

    • Clearly defined learning objective followed by careful modeling or a clear sequence of steps

    • Efforts during the lesson to see how well students are paying attention or learning the material

    • No evidence exists by which a teacher could gauge or report on how well students are learning essential standards


Remember your purpose
Remember your purpose: a student knows and is able to do- mastery. With grades, we document the progress of students and our teaching, we provide feedback to our students and their parents, and we make instructional decisions regarding the students.”

  • Be a catalyst for serious reflection on current grading and assessment practices in differentiated classrooms

  • Affirm effective grading and assessment practices you’re already employing

  • Provide language and references for substantive conversations with colleagues and the public

  • Feed a hunger growing larger every day for coherent and effective grading practices in a high-stakes, accountability-focused world


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