Differentiation Beginning the Journey . Theresa Hinkle NMSA 2009. Today’s Agenda. Differentiation What is it? Why should we implement it? What are some strategies I can implement to begin the journey? What is the role of assessment in differentiation?. What is Differentiation?.
-addresses student differences
-modification of process, product or content
-based on student’s readiness, interests, and learning profile
Does not include
-emphasis on “covering” the curriculum
-assessment just to see “who got it”
-domination by whole class activity
-mostly single option assignments
-giving “extra” work to some
-grading some “harder” than others
-giving more difficult work to some without adjusting instruction
Thebiggest mistake of past centuries in teaching has been to treat all children as if they were variants of the same individual and thus to feel justified in teaching them all the same subjects in the same way.
~ Howard Gardner
How to Differentiate Instruction in Mixed-Ability Classrooms. Carol Ann Tomlinson.
How the Brain Learns. C.A. Tomlinson and M. Layne Kalbfleisch
The “Dreaded Early Finisher”
“It takes him
to watch 60 Minutes.”
Teachers Can Differentiate results.
According to Students’
Adapted from The Differentiated Classroom: Responding to the Needs of All Learners (Tomlinson, 1999)
7.Clearly Defined Problems
What are you already doing to differentiate instruction in your classroom?
Ongoing Assessment: results.
The Key to A
“To maximize student success, assessment must be seen as an instructional tool for use while learning is occurring, and as an accountability tool to determine if learning has occurred.
Because both purposes are important, they must be in balance.”
From Balanced Assessment: The Key to Accountability and Improved Student Learning, NEA (2003)
“Assessment should promote learning, not simply measure it.”
Assessment is for:
Comparison to others
Use with single activities
Assessment is for:
Comparison to standard
Use over multiple activities
“Assessment should always have results.
more to do with helping students
grow than with cataloging their
WHAT CAN BE ASSESSED? results.
When Do You Assess? results.
Most teachers assess students at the
end of an instructional unit or sequence.
When assessment and instruction are
interwoven, both the students and the
teacher benefit. The next slide suggests
a diagnostic continuum for
(Keeping Track & Checking -up)
Formative Assessment results.
(Keeping Track & Checking -up)
On-going Assessment:A Diagnostic Continuum
Feedback and Goal Setting
Conference Exit Card
Peer evaluation Portfolio Check
Observation Journal Entry
ONGOING ASSESSMENT results.
Teacher prepared pre-test
KWL Charts /Graphic Organizers
Student demonstrations and discussions
Student products and work samples
Show of hands/EPR Every Pupil Response
Standardized Tests Data
“Formative assessment is a process used by teachers and students during instruction that provides feedback to adjust ongoing teaching and learning to improve students’ achievement of intended outcomes.”
CCSSO FAST SCASS
“Assessment is today’s means of results.
understanding how to modify
Knowledge = the facts and concepts we want student to know
Reasoning = student use what they know to reason and solve problems
Skills = students use their knowledge and reasoning to act skillfully
Products = students use their knowledge, reasoning, and skills to create a concrete product
Dispositions = students’ attitudes about school and learning.
Provide meaningful work for students when they finish an assignment or project, when they first enter the class or when they are “stumped”.
Provide ongoing tasks that tie to the content and instruction.
Free up the classroom teacher to work with other groups of students or individuals.
Planning for Anchor Activities results.
Name and description of anchor activity:
How will activity be introduced to students?
How will the activity be managed and monitored?
- Points - Percentage of Final Grade
- Rubric - Portfolio Check
- Checklist - Teacher/Student Conference
- Random Check - Peer Review
- On Task Behaviors - Other _______________
Teach the whole class to work independently and
quietly on the anchor activity.
Half the class works
on anchor activity.
Other half works on
a different activity.
1/3 works with
1/3 works on
1/3 works on a
A Different Spin on an Old Idea
SOURCE: based on work by Carol Ann Tomlinson
By keeping the focus of the
activity the same, but
providing routes of access at
varying degrees of difficulty,
the teacher maximizes the
1) each student comes away with
pivotal skills & understandings
2) each student is appropriately
Teachers use tiered activities so that all students focus on
essential understandings and skills but at different levelsof complexity, abstractness, and open-endedness.
IDENTIFY OUTCOMES results.
WHAT SHOULD THE STUDENTS KNOW, UNDERSTAND, OR BE ABLE TO DO?
THINK ABOUT YOUR STUDENTS
PRE-ASSESS READINESS, INTEREST, OR LEARNING PROFILE
USE AS COMMON EXPERIENCE FOR WHOLE CLASS
Planning Tiered Assignments results.
Concept to be Understood
Skill to be Mastered
Create on-level task first then adjust up and down.
Menu for: ______________________ Due: _____________ All items in the main dish and the specific number of side dishes must be complete by the due date. You may select among the side dishes and you may decide to do some of the desserts items, as well.
Main Dishes (complete all)
Side Dishes (Select ____ )
Outer red band=1-2 choices
to be completed in whole
Blue band-=3-4 choices
to be completed
Bulls eye=final assessment
White band=3-4 choices
to be completed in small
Inner white band=
choices to be
completed as EC or
Topic-your capture by slavers
Strong verb-plead for her forgiveness
Topic-getting in shape
Student Learning Contracts results.
Written agreementsbetween teachers and students that clearly outline:
1. Outcome(s)- specify what is to be accomplished, the conditionsunder which learning will be demonstrated, and the level of proficiency required to meet the outcome.
2. Resources- including print, media, and human
3. Learning Alternatives- include reading, writing, viewing, creating, interviewing, and other activities the student experiences to accomplish the outcome.
4. Reporting Alternatives and Assessment- should provide evidence as to whether the outcomes have been accomplished. Conferences, tests, projects, presentations, real world products, portfolios of work are examples of reporting alternatives.
To demonstrate what I have learned about _____________________________ I will Write a report Make a movie Put on a demonstration Create a graphic organizer or diagram Set up an experiment Develop a computer presentation Build a model Design a mural Write a song Other ____________________
This will be a good way to demonstrate understanding of this concept because _________________________________________________________________To do this project, I will need help with __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________I will need the following resources __________________________________
My action plan is _______________________________________________
The criteria/rubric which will be used to assess my final product is _____
My project will be completed by this date: ______________________________
Student signature: ______________________________________ Date _____
Teacher signature: ______________________________________ Date _______
Thoughts results.about Learning Contracts
Contracts provide efficient means of prescribing for students, based on assessed needs, strengths, or interests.
Contracts are usually negotiated between the teacher and the student and sometimes the parent.
Both the teacher and the student share responsibility for the
completion of the terms of the contract.
A contract may require a student to use certain resources or to contact other people in the school or in the community.
A contract may have certain prerequisites as conditions that the
student has to meet before beginning a study or investigation.
Teacher Station 1
Teacher Station 2
students and parents