Cell Structure and Function

DownloadCell Structure and Function

Advertisement
Download Presentation
Comments
varsha
From:
|  
(121) |   (0) |   (0)
Views: 139 | Added: 17-08-2012
Rate Presentation: 0 0
Description:

Cell Structure and Function

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use only and may not be sold or licensed nor shared on other sites. SlideServe reserves the right to change this policy at anytime. While downloading, If for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.











- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -




1. Cell Structure and Function Chapter 4 Part 2

2. 4.7 Visual Summary of Eukaryotic Cells

3. Figure 4.15 Organelles and structures typical of (a) plant cells and (b) animal cells.Figure 4.15 Organelles and structures typical of (a) plant cells and (b) animal cells.

4. 4.7 Visual Summary of Eukaryotic Cells

5. Figure 4.15 Organelles and structures typical of (a) plant cells and (b) animal cells.Figure 4.15 Organelles and structures typical of (a) plant cells and (b) animal cells.

6. 4.8 The Nucleus The nucleus keeps eukaryotic DNA away from potentially damaging reactions in the cytoplasm The nuclear envelope controls when DNA is accessed

7. The Nuclear Envelope Nuclear envelope Two lipid bilayers pressed together as a single membrane surrounding the nucleus Outer bilayer is continuous with the ER Nuclear pores allow certain substances to pass through the membrane

8. The Nucleoplasm and Nucleolus Nucleoplasm Viscous fluid inside the nuclear envelope, similar to cytoplasm Nucleolus A dense region in the nucleus where subunits of ribosomes are assembled from proteins and RNA

9. The Chromosomes Chromatin All DNA and its associated proteins in the nucleus Chromosome A single DNA molecule with its attached proteins During cell division, chromosomes condense and become visible in micrographs Human body cells have 46 chromosomes

10. Chromosome Condensation

12. 4.9 The Endomembrane System Endomembrane system A series of interacting organelles between the nucleus and the plasma membrane Makes lipids, enzymes, and proteins for secretion or insertion into cell membranes Other specialized cell functions

13. The Endoplasmic Reticulum Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) An extension of the nuclear envelope that forms a continuous, folded compartment Two kinds of endoplasmic reticulum Rough ER (with ribosomes) folds polypeptides into their tertiary form Smooth ER (no ribosomes) makes lipids, breaks down carbohydrates and lipids, detoxifies poisons

14. Vesicles Vesicles Small, membrane-enclosed saclike organelles that store or transport substances Peroxisomes Vesicles containing enzymes that break down hydrogen peroxide, alcohol, and other toxins Vacuoles Vesicles for waste disposal

15. Golgi Bodies and Lysosomes Golgi body A folded membrane containing enzymes that finish polypeptides and lipids delivered by the ER Packages finished products in vesicles that carry them to the plasma membrane or to lysosomes Lysosomes Vesicles containing enzymes that fuse with vacuoles and digest waste materials

16. The Endomembrane System

17. The Endomembrane System

18. The Endomembrane System

19. Figure 4.18 Endomembrane system, where lipids and many proteins are built, then transported to cellular destinations or to the plasma membrane. Chapter 14 describes transcription and translation.Figure 4.18 Endomembrane system, where lipids and many proteins are built, then transported to cellular destinations or to the plasma membrane. Chapter 14 describes transcription and translation.

20. Figure 4.18 Endomembrane system, where lipids and many proteins are built, then transported to cellular destinations or to the plasma membrane. Chapter 14 describes transcription and translation. Figure 4.18 Endomembrane system, where lipids and many proteins are built, then transported to cellular destinations or to the plasma membrane. Chapter 14 describes transcription and translation.

21. Figure 4.18 Endomembrane system, where lipids and many proteins are built, then transported to cellular destinations or to the plasma membrane. Chapter 14 describes transcription and translation. Figure 4.18 Endomembrane system, where lipids and many proteins are built, then transported to cellular destinations or to the plasma membrane. Chapter 14 describes transcription and translation.

22. 4.10 Lysosome Malfunction When lysosomes do not work properly, some cellular materials are not properly recycled, which can have devastating results Different kinds of molecules are broken down by different lysosomal enzymes One lysosomal enzyme breaks down gangliosides, a kind of lipid

23. Tay Sachs Disease In Tay Sachs disease, a genetic mutation alters the lysosomal enzyme that breaks down gangliosides, which accumulate in nerve cells Affected children usually die by age five

24. 4.11 Other Organelles Eukaryotic cells make most of their ATP in mitochondria Plastids function in storage and photosynthesis in plants and some types of algae

25. Mitochondria Mitochondrion Eukaryotic organelle that makes the energy molecule ATP through aerobic respiration Contains two membranes, forming inner and outer compartments; buildup of hydrogen ions in the outer compartment drives ATP synthesis Has its own DNA and ribosomes Resembles bacteria; may have evolved through endosymbiosis

26. Mitochondrion

27. Figure 4.20 Sketch and transmission electron micrograph of a mitochondrion. This organelle specializes in producing large quantities of ATP.Figure 4.20 Sketch and transmission electron micrograph of a mitochondrion. This organelle specializes in producing large quantities of ATP.

28. Plastids Plastids Organelles that function in photosynthesis or storage in plants and algae; includes chromoplasts, amyloplasts, and chloroplasts Chloroplasts Plastids specialized for photosynthesis Resemble photosynthetic bacteria; may have evolved by endosymbiosis

29. The Chloroplast

30. Figure 4.21 The chloroplast, a defining character of photosynthetic eukaryotic cells. Right, transmission electron micrograph of a chloroplast from a tobacco leaf (Nicotiana tabacum). The lighter patches are nucleoids where DNA is stored.Figure 4.21 The chloroplast, a defining character of photosynthetic eukaryotic cells. Right, transmission electron micrograph of a chloroplast from a tobacco leaf (Nicotiana tabacum). The lighter patches are nucleoids where DNA is stored.

31. The Central Vacuole Central vacuole A plant organelle that occupies 50 to 90 percent of a cell?s interior Stores amino acids, sugars, ions, wastes, toxins Fluid pressure keeps plant cells firm

32. 4.12 Cell Surface Specializations A wall or other protective covering often intervenes between a cell?s plasma membrane and the surroundings

33. Eukaryotic Cell Walls Animal cells do not have walls, but plant cells and many protist and fungal cells do Primary cell wall A thin, pliable wall formed by secretion of cellulose into the coating around young plant cells Secondary cell wall A strong wall composed of lignin, formed in some plant stems and roots after maturity

34. Plant Cell Walls

35. Figure 4.22 Some characteristics of plant cell walls.Figure 4.22 Some characteristics of plant cell walls.

36. Figure 4.22 Some characteristics of plant cell walls.Figure 4.22 Some characteristics of plant cell walls.

37. Figure 4.22 Some characteristics of plant cell walls.Figure 4.22 Some characteristics of plant cell walls.

38. Figure 4.22 Some characteristics of plant cell walls.Figure 4.22 Some characteristics of plant cell walls.

39. Figure 4.22 Some characteristics of plant cell walls.Figure 4.22 Some characteristics of plant cell walls.

40. Figure 4.22 Some characteristics of plant cell walls.Figure 4.22 Some characteristics of plant cell walls.

41. Figure 4.22 Some characteristics of plant cell walls.Figure 4.22 Some characteristics of plant cell walls.

42. Plant Cuticle Cuticle A waxy covering that protects exposed surfaces and limits water loss

43. Figure 4.23 A plant cuticle is a waxy, waterproof covering secreted by living cells.Figure 4.23 A plant cuticle is a waxy, waterproof covering secreted by living cells.

44. Matrixes Between Animal Cells Extracellular matrix (ECM) A nonliving, complex mixture of fibrous proteins and polysaccharides secreted by and surrounding cells; structure and function varies with the type of tissue Example: Bone is mostly ECM, composed of collagen (fibrous protein) and hardened by mineral deposits

45. ECM A bone cell surrounded by extracellular matrix

46. Cell Junctions Cell junctions allow cells to interact with each other and the environment In plants, plasmodesmata extend through cell walls to connect the cytoplasm of two cells Animals have three types of cell junctions: tight junctions, adhering junctions, gap junctions

47. Cell Junctions in Animal Tissues

48. Figure 4.25 Cell junctions in animal tissues. In the micrograph, a continuous array of tight junctions (green) seals the abutting surfaces of kidney cell membranes. DNA, which fills each cell?s nucleus, appears red.Figure 4.25 Cell junctions in animal tissues. In the micrograph, a continuous array of tight junctions (green) seals the abutting surfaces of kidney cell membranes. DNA, which fills each cell?s nucleus, appears red.

49. 4.6-4.12 Key Concepts: Eukaryotic Cells Cells of protists, plants, fungi, and animals are eukaryotic; they have a nucleus and other membrane-enclosed compartments They differ in internal parts and surface specializations

50. 4.13 The Dynamic Cytoskeleton Eukaryotic cells have an extensive and dynamic internal framework called a cytoskeleton Cytoskeleton An interconnected system of many protein filaments ? some permanent, some temporary Parts of the cytoskeleton reinforce, organize, and move cell structures, or even a whole cell

51. Components of the Cytoskeleton Microtubules Long, hollow cylinders made of tubulin Form dynamic scaffolding for cell processes Microfilaments Consist mainly of the globular protein actin Make up the cell cortex Intermediate filaments Maintain cell and tissue structures

52. Components of the Cytoskeleton

53. Figure 4.26 Components of the cytoskeleton. Below, a fluorescence micrograph shows microtubules (yellow) and actin microfilaments (blue) in the growing end of a nerve cell. These cytoskeletal elements support and guide the cell?s lengthening.Figure 4.26 Components of the cytoskeleton. Below, a fluorescence micrograph shows microtubules (yellow) and actin microfilaments (blue) in the growing end of a nerve cell. These cytoskeletal elements support and guide the cell?s lengthening.

54. Figure 4.26 Components of the cytoskeleton. Below, a fluorescence micrograph shows microtubules (yellow) and actin microfilaments (blue) in the growing end of a nerve cell. These cytoskeletal elements support and guide the cell?s lengthening.Figure 4.26 Components of the cytoskeleton. Below, a fluorescence micrograph shows microtubules (yellow) and actin microfilaments (blue) in the growing end of a nerve cell. These cytoskeletal elements support and guide the cell?s lengthening.

55. Figure 4.26 Components of the cytoskeleton. Below, a fluorescence micrograph shows microtubules (yellow) and actin microfilaments (blue) in the growing end of a nerve cell. These cytoskeletal elements support and guide the cell?s lengthening.Figure 4.26 Components of the cytoskeleton. Below, a fluorescence micrograph shows microtubules (yellow) and actin microfilaments (blue) in the growing end of a nerve cell. These cytoskeletal elements support and guide the cell?s lengthening.

56. Figure 4.26 Components of the cytoskeleton. Below, a fluorescence micrograph shows microtubules (yellow) and actin microfilaments (blue) in the growing end of a nerve cell. These cytoskeletal elements support and guide the cell?s lengthening.Figure 4.26 Components of the cytoskeleton. Below, a fluorescence micrograph shows microtubules (yellow) and actin microfilaments (blue) in the growing end of a nerve cell. These cytoskeletal elements support and guide the cell?s lengthening.

57. Figure 4.26 Components of the cytoskeleton. Below, a fluorescence micrograph shows microtubules (yellow) and actin microfilaments (blue) in the growing end of a nerve cell. These cytoskeletal elements support and guide the cell?s lengthening.Figure 4.26 Components of the cytoskeleton. Below, a fluorescence micrograph shows microtubules (yellow) and actin microfilaments (blue) in the growing end of a nerve cell. These cytoskeletal elements support and guide the cell?s lengthening.

58. Figure 4.26 Components of the cytoskeleton. Below, a fluorescence micrograph shows microtubules (yellow) and actin microfilaments (blue) in the growing end of a nerve cell. These cytoskeletal elements support and guide the cell?s lengthening.Figure 4.26 Components of the cytoskeleton. Below, a fluorescence micrograph shows microtubules (yellow) and actin microfilaments (blue) in the growing end of a nerve cell. These cytoskeletal elements support and guide the cell?s lengthening.

59. Figure 4.26 Components of the cytoskeleton. Below, a fluorescence micrograph shows microtubules (yellow) and actin microfilaments (blue) in the growing end of a nerve cell. These cytoskeletal elements support and guide the cell?s lengthening.Figure 4.26 Components of the cytoskeleton. Below, a fluorescence micrograph shows microtubules (yellow) and actin microfilaments (blue) in the growing end of a nerve cell. These cytoskeletal elements support and guide the cell?s lengthening.

60. Motor Proteins Motor proteins Accessory proteins that move molecules through cells on tracks of microtubules and microfilaments Energized by ATP Example: kinesins

61. Motor Proteins: Kinesin

62. Cilia, Flagella, and False Feet Eukaryotic flagella and cilia Whiplike structures formed from microtubules organized into 9 + 2 arrays Grow from a centriole which remains in the cytoplasm as a basal body Psueudopods ?False feet? used by amoebas and other eukaryotic cells to move or engulf prey

63. Moving Cells Flagellum of the human sperm, and pseudopods of a predatory amoeba

64. Figure 4.28 (a) Flagellum of a human sperm, which is about to penetrate an egg. (b) A predatory amoeba (Chaos carolinense) extending two pseudopods around its hapless meal: a single-celled green alga (Pandorina).Figure 4.28 (a) Flagellum of a human sperm, which is about to penetrate an egg. (b) A predatory amoeba (Chaos carolinense) extending two pseudopods around its hapless meal: a single-celled green alga (Pandorina).

65. Figure 4.28 (a) Flagellum of a human sperm, which is about to penetrate an egg. (b) A predatory amoeba (Chaos carolinense) extending two pseudopods around its hapless meal: a single-celled green alga (Pandorina).Figure 4.28 (a) Flagellum of a human sperm, which is about to penetrate an egg. (b) A predatory amoeba (Chaos carolinense) extending two pseudopods around its hapless meal: a single-celled green alga (Pandorina).

66. Eukaryotic Flagella and Cilia

67. Figure 4.29 Eukaryotic flagella and cilia.Figure 4.29 Eukaryotic flagella and cilia.

68. Figure 4.29 Eukaryotic flagella and cilia.Figure 4.29 Eukaryotic flagella and cilia.

69. Figure 4.29 Eukaryotic flagella and cilia.Figure 4.29 Eukaryotic flagella and cilia.

70. Figure 4.29 Eukaryotic flagella and cilia.Figure 4.29 Eukaryotic flagella and cilia.

71. Figure 4.29 Eukaryotic flagella and cilia.Figure 4.29 Eukaryotic flagella and cilia.

72. Figure 4.29 Eukaryotic flagella and cilia.Figure 4.29 Eukaryotic flagella and cilia.

73. 4.13 Key Concepts: A Look at the Cytoskeleton Diverse protein filaments reinforce a cell?s shape and keep its parts organized As some filaments lengthen and shorten, they move cell structures or the whole cell

74. Summary: Components of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells


Other Related Presentations

Copyright © 2014 SlideServe. All rights reserved | Powered By DigitalOfficePro