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The Skeletal System. Chapter 45.2. The Human Skeleton. Has approximately 206 bones! Functions : Gives Shape and Support Protection Moves Muscles Forms Blood Cells Stores Minerals- Ex: Calcium and Phosphorus Bones are moist, living tissues (not dry!). Parts of the Skeleton . 2 Parts:

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The skeletal system

The Skeletal System

Chapter 45.2


The human skeleton
The Human Skeleton

  • Has approximately 206 bones!

  • Functions:

    • Gives Shape and Support

    • Protection

    • Moves Muscles

    • Forms Blood Cells

    • Stores Minerals- Ex: Calcium and Phosphorus

  • Bones are moist, living tissues (not dry!)


Parts of the skeleton
Parts of the Skeleton

  • 2 Parts:

    • Axial- bones of the:

      • Skull

      • Ribs

      • Spine

      • Sternum

    • Appendicular- bones of the:

      • Arms

      • Legs

      • Scapula

      • Clavicle

      • Pelvis


Bone structure
Bone Structure

  • Periosteum-tough membrane that surrounds the bone’s surface. Contains blood vessels to supply nutrients.

  • Compact Bone- hard material found under the periosteum. Makes bones strong and capable of enduring large amounts of stress

  • Spongy Bone- network of connective tissue found under the compact bone. Hard/strong tissue. Makes bones light

  • Marrow: soft tissue in spongy bone

    • Red: produces red blood cells, platelets, and white blood cells

    • Yellow: consists mostly of fat cells and serves as an energy storage


Bone structure1
Bone Structure

  • Compact bone is composed of cylinders of mineral crystals and protein fibers called lamellae

  • In the center of each cylinder is a narrow channel called a Haversian canal

  • Blood vessels run through interconnected Haversian canals, which carries nutrients throughout the bone

  • Surrounding each Haversian canal are protein fibers and ostecytes(bone cells)


Bone development
Bone Development

  • Bones develop from cartilage

    • Connective tissue

      • Tough, yet flexible

  • In fetal development:

    • Month 2: most of the skeleton is cartilage

    • Month 3: Ossification turns most cartilage into bones

      • Some cartilage is left for flexible areas between bones

        • Ex: tip of the nose, outer ear, and inside the trachea

  • Normal bone development depends on regular exercise and diet, mainly calcium and vitamin D intake

    • Lack of this can lead to osteoporosis


  • Joints
    Joints

    • The place where 2 bones meet

    • Tough bands of connective tissue called ligaments hold the bones of the joint in place

    • Synovial fluid- a lubricating substance that helps protect the ends of the bones from damage by friction


    Hinge joint
    Hinge Joint

    • Found in your elbow

    • Allows you to move arm forward and backward

    • Like a hinge in a door


    Gliding joint
    Gliding Joint

    • Allows bones to glide over one another

    • Like small bones in your feet-allows flexing when walking


    Pivot joint
    Pivot Joint

    • Top 2 vertebrae in your neck. Allows you to move your head side to side.


    Ball and socket joint
    Ball and Socket Joint

    • Found in your shoulder or hip

    • Allows you to move up/down, forward/backward, or rotate in a circle


    Saddle joint
    Saddle Joint

    • At the base of your thumb

    • Allows you to rotate your thumb and grasp objects with your hand


    Possible injuries and illnesses
    Possible injuries and illnesses

    • Rheumatoid Arthritis-immune system attacks body tissues. Joints become inflamed, swollen, stiff, and deformed

    • Osteoarthritis- degenerative joint disease where cartilage covering the bones become thin and rough.

    • Sprain (ligament)- could either overstretch or possibly tear

    • Strain (tendon)- could either overstretch or possibly tear


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