The skeletal system
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The Skeletal System. Joints (ROM Terminology). Flexion – movement that decreases the angle of the joint & reduces the distance b/w the two bones; (typical of hinge joints & ball and socket joints)

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The Skeletal System

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The skeletal system

The Skeletal System

Joints rom terminology

Joints (ROM Terminology)

  • Flexion – movement that decreases the angle of the joint & reduces the distance b/w the two bones; (typical of hinge joints & ball and socket joints)

  • Extension – movement that increases the angle of a joint & the distance between bones (ex: straightening the knee); greater than 180– hyperextension

  • Abduction – movement of a limb away from the midline of the body

  • Adduction – movement of a limb toward the midline of the body

  • Rotation – movement of bone around its longitudinal axis (ball & socket joints/ atlas around axis)

Joints rom terminology1

Joints (ROM Terminology)

  • Circumduction – proximal end of limb remains stationary & the distal end of the limb moves in a circle

  • Pronation – movement of the palm of the hand from an anterior or upward-facing position to a posterior or downward facing position (radius & ulna move to form a “X”)

  • Supination – movement of the palm from a posterior position to an anterior position (anatomical position; radius & ulna are parrallel)

Joints rom terminology2

Joints (ROM Terminology)

  • Inversion – movement that results in the medial turning of the sole of the feet

  • Eversion – movement that results in the lateral turning of the sole of the foot

  • Dorsiflexion – movement of an ankle joint in a dorsal direction (standing on one’s heels)

  • Plantar flexion – movement of the ankle joint in which the feet is flexed downward (standing on one’s toes or pointing your toes)



Articulations of bones

2 Functions of joints

Hold bones together

Allow for mobility

Ways joints are classified



Functional classification of joints

Functional Classification of Joints


Immovable joints


Slightly moveable joints


Freely moveable joints

Structural classification of joints

Structural Classification of Joints

Fibrous joints

Generally immovable

Cartilaginous joints

Immovable or slightly moveable

Synovial joints

Freely moveable

Summary of joint classes

Summary of Joint Classes

[Insert Table 5.3 here]

Table 5.3

Fibrous joints

Fibrous Joints

Bones united by fibrous tissue

Most are immovable joints

2 Types

Sutures – irregular edges of bone interlock; united by short connective tissue fibers


Allows more movement than sutures

Example: Distal end of tibia and fibula

Fibrous joints1

Fibrous Joints

Figure 5.28a–b

Cartilaginous joints

Cartilaginous Joints

Bones connected by cartilage

Slightly moveable


Pubic symphysis

Intervertebral joints

Cartilaginous joints1

Cartilaginous Joints

Figure 5.28c–e

Synovial joints

Synovial Joints

Articulating bones are separated by a joint cavity

Synovial fluid is found in the joint cavity

All are freely moveable

Makes up most of the joints of the body

Synovial joints1

Synovial Joints

Figure 5.28f–h

4 structural characteristics of synovial joints

4 Structural Characteristics of Synovial Joints

Articular cartilage (hyaline cartilage) covers the ends of bones

A fibrous articular capsule encloses joint surfaces

A joint cavity is filled with synovial fluid

Ligaments reinforce the joint

Structures associated with the synovial joint

Structures Associated with the Synovial Joint

Bursae—flattened fibrous sacs

Lined with synovial membranes

Filled with synovial fluid

Not actually part of the joint

Tendon sheath

Elongated bursa that wraps around a tendon

The synovial joint

The Synovial Joint

Figure 5.29

Types of synovial joints

Types of Synovial Joints

Figure 5.30a–c

Types of synovial joints1

Types of Synovial Joints

Figure 5.30d–f

6 major types of synovial joints

6 Major Types of Synovial Joints

  • Plane Joint – essentially flat

    • Only short slipping or gliding movements

    • No rotation (ex: intercarpal joints of wrist)

  • Hinge Joint – cylindrical end of bone fits into a trough shaped surfaces

    • Are uniaxial (one axis); movement on 1 axis

    • Ex: phalanges, elbow joint, ankle joint

  • Pivot Joint – rounded end of bone fits into a sleeve or ring of bone

    • Uniaxial joint; turns only around its long axis

    • Ex: atlas & axis ; radioulnar joint

6 major types of synovial joints1

6 Major Types of Synovial Joints

  • Condyloid Joint – “knucklelike”; egg shaped articular surface fits into an oval concavity

    • Allows moving bone to travel (from side to side) &(back & forth)

    • Can not rotate aroud long axis

    • Biaxial (two axis)

    • Ex: metacarpophalangeal joints

  • Saddle Joints – have convex & concave areas like a saddle

    • Biaxial joint

    • Ex: carpometacarpal joints (thumbs); twiddling your thumbs

6 major types of synovial joints2

6 Major Types of Synovial Joints

  • Ball & Socket Joints – spherical head of one bone fits into a round socket in another

    • Multiaxial joint

    • Most freely moveable synovial joints

    • Ex: Shoulder & Hip

      *Dislocation – when a bone is forced out of its normal position in the joint cavity

Inflammatory conditions associated with joints

Inflammatory Conditions Associated with Joints

Bursitis—inflammation of a bursa usually caused by a blow or friction

Tendonitis—inflammation of tendon sheaths

Arthritis—inflammatory or degenerative diseases of joints

Over 100 different types

The most widespread crippling disease in the United States

Clinical forms of arthritis

Clinical Forms of Arthritis


Most common chronic arthritis

Probably related to normal aging processes

Rheumatoid arthritis

An autoimmune disease—the immune system attacks the joints

Symptoms begin with bilateral inflammation of certain joints

Often leads to deformities

Clinical forms of arthritis1

Clinical Forms of Arthritis

Gouty arthritis

Inflammation of joints is caused by a deposition of uric acid crystals from the blood

Can usually be controlled with diet

Developmental aspects of the skeletal system

Developmental Aspects of the Skeletal System

At birth, the skull bones are incomplete

Bones are joined by fibrous membranes called fontanels

Fontanels are completely replaced with bone within two years after birth

Ossification centers in a 12 week old fetus

Ossification Centers in a 12-week-old Fetus

Figure 5.32

Skeletal changes throughout life

Skeletal Changes Throughout Life


Long bones are formed of hyaline cartilage

Flat bones begin as fibrous membranes

Flat and long bone models are converted to bone


Fontanels remain until around age 2

Skeletal changes throughout life1

Skeletal Changes Throughout Life


Epiphyseal plates become ossified and long bone growth ends

Size of cranium in relationship to body

2 years old—skull is larger in proportion to the body compared to that of an adult

8 or 9 years old—skull is near adult size and proportion

Between ages 6 and 11, the face grows out from the skull

Skeletal changes throughout life2

Skeletal Changes Throughout Life

Figure 5.33a

Skeletal changes throughout life3

Skeletal Changes Throughout Life

Figure 5.33b

Skeletal changes throughout life4

Skeletal Changes Throughout Life

Curvatures of the spine

Primary curvatures are present at birth and are convex posteriorly

Secondary curvatures are associated with a child’s later development and are convex anteriorly

Abnormal spinal curvatures (scoliosis and lordosis) are often congenital

Skeletal changes throughout life5

Skeletal Changes Throughout Life

Figure 5.16

Skeletal changes throughout life6

Skeletal Changes Throughout Life


Bone-thinning disease afflicting

50% of women over age 65

20% of men over age 70

Disease makes bones fragile and bones can easily fracture

Vertebral collapse results in kyphosis (also known as dowager’s hump)‏

Estrogen aids in health and normal density of a female skeleton

Skeletal changes throughout life7

Skeletal Changes Throughout Life

Figure 5.34

Skeletal changes throughout life8

Skeletal Changes Throughout Life

Figure 5.35

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