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Matter and MeasurementsPowerPoint Presentation

Matter and Measurements

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Matter and Energy - Vocabulary

- Chemistry
- Matter
- Energy
- Natural Law-(scientific law)
- Observation, Hypothesis, Theory, Law

States of Matter

- Solids

States of Matter

- Solids
- Liquids

States of Matter

- Solids
- Liquids
- Gases

States of Matter

- Change States
- heating
- cooling

States of Matter

- Illustration of changes in state
- requires energy

Substances, Compounds, Elements and Mixtures

- Substance
- matter that all samples have identical composition and properties

- Elements
- Pure substances that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances via chemical reactions
- Special elemental forms of atoms (diatomic)
Elemental symbols

- found on periodic chart

Substances, Compounds, Elements and Mixtures

- Compounds
- Pure substances composed of two or more elements in a definite ratio by mass
- can be decomposed into the constituent elements
REVIEW

- Element cannot be broken down
- Compound can be broken down into its elements!

Substances, Compounds, Elements and Mixtures

- Mixtures
- composed of two or more substances
- homogeneous mixtures
- Uniform throughout
- Example: solutions

- heterogeneous mixtures
- Not uniform
- Example: rocks

Classify the following substances as an element, compound or a mixture (homogeneous or heterogeneous). Which are pure substances?

- Lightly scrambled egg
- Water
- Lava lamp
- Seawater
- Chicken noodle soup
- Root beer
- Sucrose (C12H22O11)

Separating Mixtures a mixture (homogeneous or heterogeneous). Which are pure substances?

- Distillation

Separating Mixtures a mixture (homogeneous or heterogeneous). Which are pure substances?

- Chromatography
paper

Chemical and Physical Properties a mixture (homogeneous or heterogeneous). Which are pure substances?

- Extensive Properties - depend on quantity of material
Ex. mass

- Intensive Properties - do not depend on quantity of material
Ex. boiling point

Chemical and Physical Properties a mixture (homogeneous or heterogeneous). Which are pure substances?

- Chemical Properties - chemical changes
- Observed during change of material to new material
- Iron rusting

- Observed during change of material to new material
- Physical Properties - physical changes
- No change to the identity of the substance
- changes of state
- density
- color
- solubility

- No change to the identity of the substance

Physical Properties a mixture (homogeneous or heterogeneous). Which are pure substances?

- Density
- mass / volume intensive property
- Mass and volume extensive properties

- Solubility
- Amount of substance dissolved in the solvent at a given temperature
- Saturated solution
- Unsaturated solution
- Supersaturated solution

- Amount of substance dissolved in the solvent at a given temperature

Identify the following as either a chemical or physical change.

- Combination of sodium and chlorine to give sodium chloride.
- Liquefaction of gaseous nitrogen.
- Separation of carbon monoxide into carbon and oxygen.
- Freezing of water.

Measurements in Chemistry change.

- length meter m
- volume liter l
- mass gram g
- time second s
- current ampere A
- temperature Kelvin K
- amt. substance mole mol

Measurements in Chemistry change.

- mega M 106
- kilo k 103
- deka da 10
- deci d 10-1
- centi c 10-2
- milli m 10-3
- micro m 10-6
- nano n 10-9
- pico p 10-12
- femto f 10-15

Units of Measurement change.

- Mass
- measure of the quantity of matter in a body

- Weight
- measure of the gravitational attraction for a body

- Length
1 m = 39.37 inches

2.54 cm = 1 inch

- Volume
1 liter = 1.06 qt

1 qt = 0.946 liter

The Use of Numbers change.

- Exact numbers 1 dozen = 12 things
- Accuracy
- how closely measured values agree with the correct value

- Precision
- how closely individual measurements agree with each other

The Use of Numbers change.

The Use of Numbers change.

- Exact numbers 1 dozen = 12 things
- Counted numbers ex. 3 beakers

- Significant figures
- digits believed to be correct by the person making the measurement

- Scientific notation
- Way of signifying the significant digits in a number

Significant Figures - rules change.

- leading zeroes - never significant
0.000357 has three sig fig

- trailing zeroes - may be significant
must specify (after decimal – significant

before decimal - ambiguous)

1300 nails - counted or weighed?

Express 26800 in scientific notation with

4 sig figs 3 sig figs 2 sig figs

Significant Figures - rules change.

- imbedded zeroes are always significant
3.0604 has five sig fig

How many significant figures are in the following numbers?

0.0124

0.124

1.240

1240

Significant Figures - rules change.

multiply & divide rule - easy

product has the smallest number of sig. fig. of multipliers

Significant Figures - rules change.

- multiply & divide rule - easy
product has the smallest number of sig. fig. of multipliers

Significant Figures - rules change.

- multiply & divide rule - easy
product has the smallest number of sig. fig. of multipliers

Practice change.

- 142 x 2 =
- 4.180 x 2.0 =
- 0.00482 / 0.080 =
- 3.15x10-2 / 2.00x105 =
- 24.8x106 / 6.200x10-2 =

Practice change.

- 142 x 2 = 300
- 4.180 x 2.0 =
- 0.00482 / 0.080 =
- 3.15x10-2 / 2.00x105 =
- 24.8x106 / 6.200x10-2 =

Practice change.

- 142 x 2 = 300
- 4.180 x 2.0 = 8.4
- 0.00482 / 0.080 =
- 3.15x10-2 / 2.00x105 =
- 24.8x106 / 6.200x10-2 =

Practice change.

- 142 x 2 = 300
- 4.180 x 2.0 = 8.4
- 0.00482 / 0.080 = 0.060
- 3.15x10-2 / 2.00x105 =
- 24.8x106 / 6.200x10-2 =

Practice change.

- 142 x 2 = 300
- 4.180 x 2.0 = 8.4
- 0.00482 / 0.080 = 0.060
- 3.15x10-2 / 2.00x105 = 1.58x10-7
- 24.8x106 / 6.200x10-2 =

Practice change.

- 142 x 2 = 300
- 4.180 x 2.0 = 8.4
- 0.00482 / 0.080 = 0.060
- 3.15x10-2 / 2.00x105 = 1.58x10-7
- 24.8x106 / 6.200x10-2 = 4.00x108

Significant Figures - rules change.

- add & subtract rule - subtle
answer contains smallest decimal place of the addends

Significant Figures - rules change.

- add & subtract rule - subtle
answer contains smallest decimal place of the addends

Significant Figures - rules change.

- add & subtract rule - subtle
answer contains smallest decimal place of the addends

Practice change.

- 416.2 – 10.18 =
- 16.78 + 10. =
- 422.501 – 420.4 =
- 25.5 + 21.1 + 3.201 =
- 42.00x10-4 + 1.8x10-6 =

Practice change.

- 416.2 – 10.18 = 406.0
- 16.78 + 10. =
- 422.501 – 420.4 =
- 25.5 + 21.1 + 3.201 =
- 42.00x10-4 + 1.8x10-6 =

Practice change.

- 416.2 – 10.18 = 406.0
- 16.78 + 10. = 27
- 422.501 – 420.4 =
- 25.5 + 21.1 + 3.201 =
- 42.00x10-4 + 1.8x10-6 =

Practice change.

- 416.2 – 10.18 = 406.0
- 16.78 + 10. = 27
- 422.501 – 420.4 = 2.1
- 25.5 + 21.1 + 3.201 =
- 42.00x10-4 + 1.8x10-6 =

Practice change.

- 416.2 – 10.18 = 406.0
- 16.78 + 10. = 27
- 422.501 – 420.4 = 2.1
- 25.5 + 21.1 + 3.201 = 49.8
- 42.00x10-4 + 1.8x10-6 =

Practice change.

- 416.2 – 10.18 = 406.0
- 16.78 + 10. = 27
- 422.501 – 420.4 = 2.1
- 25.5 + 21.1 + 3.201 = 49.8
- 42.00x10-4 + 1.8x10-6 = 4.2 x 10-3

More Practice change.

4.18 – 58.16 x (3.38 – 3.01) =

More Practice change.

4.18 – 58.16 x (3.38 – 3.01) =

4.18 – 58.16 x (0.37) =

4.18 – 21.5192 =

-17.3392

Round off correctly

More Practice change.

4.18 – 58.16 x (3.38 – 3.01) =

4.18 – 58.16 x (0.37) =

4.18 – 21.5192 =

-17.3392

Round off correctly to 2 sig. figs

-17

Unit Factor Method change.Dimensional Analysis

- simple but important way to always get right answer
- way to change from one unit to another
- make unit factors from statements
1 ft = 12 in becomes 1 ft/12 in or 12in/1 ft

3 ft = 1 yd becomes 3ft/1yd or 1yd/3ft

Unit Factor Method change.Dimensional Analysis

- simple but important way to always get right answer
- way to change from one unit to another
- make unit factors from statements
1 ft = 12 in becomes 1 ft/12 in or 12in/1 ft

- Example: Express 12.32 yards in millimeters.

Unit Factor Method change.

Unit Factor Method change.

Unit Factor Method change.

- Example: Express 323. milliliters in gallons

Unit Factor Method change.

- Express 323. milliliters in gallons.

Unit Factor Method change.

- Example: Express 5.50 metric tons in pounds. 1 metric ton = 1 Megagram

Unit Factor Method change.

- Example: Express 5.50 metric tons in pounds.

Unit Factor Method change.

- area is two dimensional
- Example: Express 4.21 x 106 square centimeters in square feet

Unit Factor Method change.

- area is two dimensional
express 4.21 x 106 square centimeters in square feet

Unit Factor Method change.

- area is two dimensional
express 4.21 x 106 square centimeters in square feet

Unit Factor Method change.

- area is two dimensional
express 4.21 x 106 square centimeters in square feet

Unit Factor Method change.

- volume is three dimensional
- Example: Express 3.61 cubic feet in cubic centimeters.

Unit Factor Method change.

- volume is three dimensional
- Example: Express 3.61 cubic feet in cubic centimeters.

Percentage change.

- Percentage is the parts per hundred of a sample.
- Example: A 500. g sample of ore yields 27.9 g of sulfur. What is the percent of sulfur in the ore?

Percentage change.

- Percentage is the parts per hundred of a sample.
- Example: A 500. g sample of ore yields 27.9 g of sulfur. What is the percent of sulfur in the ore?

Derived Units - Density change.

- density = mass/volume
- What is density?
- Example: Calculate the density of a substance if 123. grams of it occupies 57.6 cubic centimeters.

Derived Units - Density change.

- density = mass/volume
- What is density?
- Example: Calculate the density of a substance if 123. grams of it occupies 57.6 cubic centimeters.

Derived Units - Density change.

- density = mass/volume
- What is density?
- Example: Calculate the density of a substance if 123. grams of it occupies 57.6 cubic centimeters.

Derived Units - Density change.

- Example: Suppose you need 175. g of a corrosive liquid for a reaction. What volume do you need?
- liquid’s density = 1.02 g/mL

Derived Units - Density change.

- Example: Suppose you need 175. g of a corrosive liquid for a reaction. What volume do you need?
- liquid’s density = 1.02 g/mL

Derived Units - Density change.

- Example: Suppose you need 175. g of a corrosive liquid for a reaction. What volume do you need?
- liquid’s density = 1.02 g/mL

Heat & Temperature change.

- heat and T are not the same thing
T is a measure of the intensity of heat in a body

- 3 common T scales - all use water as a reference

Relationships of the 3 T Scales change.

Relationships of the 3 T Scales change.

Relationships of the 3 T Scales change.

Heat and Temperature change.

- Example: Convert 111.oF to degrees Celsius.

Heat and Temperature change.

- Example: Convert 111.oF to degrees Celsius.

Heat and Temperature change.

- Example: Express 757. K in Celsius degrees.

Heat and Temperature change.

- Example: Express 757. K in Celsius degrees.

The Measurement of Heat change.

- SI unit J (Joule)
- calorie
1 calorie = 4.184 J

- English unit = BTU

Synthesis Question change.

- It has been estimated that 1.0 g of seawater contains 4.0 pg of Au. The total mass of seawater in the oceans is 1.6x1012 Tg, If all of the gold in the oceans were extracted and spread evenly across the state of Georgia, which has a land area of 58,910 mile2, how tall, in feet, would the pile of Au be?
Density of Au is 19.3 g/cm3. 1.0 Tg = 1012g.

Group Activity change.

- On a typical day, a hurricane expends the energy equivalent to the explosion of two thermonuclear weapons. A thermonuclear weapon has the explosive power of 1.0 Mton of nitroglycerin. Nitroglycerin generates 7.3 kJ of explosive power per gram of nitroglycerin. The hurricane’s energy comes from the evaporation of water that requires 2.3 kJ per gram of water evaporated. How many gallons of water does a hurricane evaporate per day?

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