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Matter and Measurements

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Matter and Measurements

- Chemistry
- Matter
- Energy
- Natural Law-(scientific law)
- Observation, Hypothesis, Theory, Law

- Solids

- Solids
- Liquids

- Solids
- Liquids
- Gases

- Change States
- heating
- cooling

- Illustration of changes in state
- requires energy

- Substance
- matter that all samples have identical composition and properties

- Elements
- Pure substances that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances via chemical reactions
- Special elemental forms of atoms (diatomic)
Elemental symbols

- found on periodic chart

- Compounds
- Pure substances composed of two or more elements in a definite ratio by mass
- can be decomposed into the constituent elements
REVIEW

- Element cannot be broken down
- Compound can be broken down into its elements!

- Mixtures
- composed of two or more substances
- homogeneous mixtures
- Uniform throughout
- Example: solutions

- heterogeneous mixtures
- Not uniform
- Example: rocks

- Lightly scrambled egg
- Water
- Lava lamp
- Seawater
- Chicken noodle soup
- Root beer
- Sucrose (C12H22O11)

- Distillation

- Chromatography
paper

- Extensive Properties - depend on quantity of material
Ex. mass

- Intensive Properties - do not depend on quantity of material
Ex. boiling point

- Chemical Properties - chemical changes
- Observed during change of material to new material
- Iron rusting

- Observed during change of material to new material
- Physical Properties - physical changes
- No change to the identity of the substance
- changes of state
- density
- color
- solubility

- No change to the identity of the substance

- Density
- mass / volumeintensive property
- Mass and volume extensive properties

- Solubility
- Amount of substance dissolved in the solvent at a given temperature
- Saturated solution
- Unsaturated solution
- Supersaturated solution

- Amount of substance dissolved in the solvent at a given temperature

- Combination of sodium and chlorine to give sodium chloride.
- Liquefaction of gaseous nitrogen.
- Separation of carbon monoxide into carbon and oxygen.
- Freezing of water.

- length meter m
- volume liter l
- mass gram g
- time second s
- current ampere A
- temperature Kelvin K
- amt. substance mole mol

- mega M 106
- kilo k 103
- deka da 10
- deci d 10-1
- centi c 10-2
- milli m 10-3
- micro m 10-6
- nano n 10-9
- pico p 10-12
- femto f 10-15

- Mass
- measure of the quantity of matter in a body

- Weight
- measure of the gravitational attraction for a body

- Length
1 m = 39.37 inches

2.54 cm = 1 inch

- Volume
1 liter = 1.06 qt

1 qt = 0.946 liter

- Exact numbers 1 dozen = 12 things
- Accuracy
- how closely measured values agree with the correct value

- Precision
- how closely individual measurements agree with each other

- Exact numbers 1 dozen = 12 things
- Counted numbers ex. 3 beakers

- Significant figures
- digits believed to be correct by the person making the measurement

- Scientific notation
- Way of signifying the significant digits in a number

- leading zeroes - never significant
0.000357 has three sig fig

- trailing zeroes - may be significant
must specify (after decimal – significant

before decimal - ambiguous)

1300 nails - counted or weighed?

Express 26800 in scientific notation with

4 sig figs3 sig figs2 sig figs

- imbedded zeroes are always significant
3.0604 has five sig fig

How many significant figures are in the following numbers?

0.0124

0.124

1.240

1240

multiply & divide rule - easy

product has the smallest number of sig. fig. of multipliers

- multiply & divide rule - easy
product has the smallest number of sig. fig. of multipliers

- multiply & divide rule - easy
product has the smallest number of sig. fig. of multipliers

- 142 x 2 =
- 4.180 x 2.0 =
- 0.00482 / 0.080 =
- 3.15x10-2 / 2.00x105 =
- 24.8x106 / 6.200x10-2 =

- 142 x 2 = 300
- 4.180 x 2.0 =
- 0.00482 / 0.080 =
- 3.15x10-2 / 2.00x105 =
- 24.8x106 / 6.200x10-2 =

- 142 x 2 = 300
- 4.180 x 2.0 = 8.4
- 0.00482 / 0.080 =
- 3.15x10-2 / 2.00x105 =
- 24.8x106 / 6.200x10-2 =

- 142 x 2 = 300
- 4.180 x 2.0 = 8.4
- 0.00482 / 0.080 = 0.060
- 3.15x10-2 / 2.00x105 =
- 24.8x106 / 6.200x10-2 =

- 142 x 2 = 300
- 4.180 x 2.0 = 8.4
- 0.00482 / 0.080 = 0.060
- 3.15x10-2 / 2.00x105 = 1.58x10-7
- 24.8x106 / 6.200x10-2 =

- 142 x 2 = 300
- 4.180 x 2.0 = 8.4
- 0.00482 / 0.080 = 0.060
- 3.15x10-2 / 2.00x105 = 1.58x10-7
- 24.8x106 / 6.200x10-2 = 4.00x108

- add & subtract rule - subtle
answer contains smallest decimal place of the addends

- add & subtract rule - subtle
answer contains smallest decimal place of the addends

- add & subtract rule - subtle
answer contains smallest decimal place of the addends

- 416.2 – 10.18 =
- 16.78 + 10. =
- 422.501 – 420.4 =
- 25.5 + 21.1 + 3.201 =
- 42.00x10-4 + 1.8x10-6 =

- 416.2 – 10.18 = 406.0
- 16.78 + 10. =
- 422.501 – 420.4 =
- 25.5 + 21.1 + 3.201 =
- 42.00x10-4 + 1.8x10-6 =

- 416.2 – 10.18 = 406.0
- 16.78 + 10. = 27
- 422.501 – 420.4 =
- 25.5 + 21.1 + 3.201 =
- 42.00x10-4 + 1.8x10-6 =

- 416.2 – 10.18 = 406.0
- 16.78 + 10. = 27
- 422.501 – 420.4 = 2.1
- 25.5 + 21.1 + 3.201 =
- 42.00x10-4 + 1.8x10-6 =

- 416.2 – 10.18 = 406.0
- 16.78 + 10. = 27
- 422.501 – 420.4 = 2.1
- 25.5 + 21.1 + 3.201 = 49.8
- 42.00x10-4 + 1.8x10-6 =

- 416.2 – 10.18 = 406.0
- 16.78 + 10. = 27
- 422.501 – 420.4 = 2.1
- 25.5 + 21.1 + 3.201 = 49.8
- 42.00x10-4 + 1.8x10-6 = 4.2 x 10-3

4.18 – 58.16 x (3.38 – 3.01) =

4.18 – 58.16 x (3.38 – 3.01) =

4.18 – 58.16 x (0.37) =

4.18 – 58.16 x (3.38 – 3.01) =

4.18 – 58.16 x (0.37) =

4.18 – 21.5192 =

4.18 – 58.16 x (3.38 – 3.01) =

4.18 – 58.16 x (0.37) =

4.18 – 21.5192 =

-17.3392

Round off correctly

4.18 – 58.16 x (3.38 – 3.01) =

4.18 – 58.16 x (0.37) =

4.18 – 21.5192 =

-17.3392

Round off correctly to 2 sig. figs

-17

- simple but important way to always get right answer
- way to change from one unit to another
- make unit factors from statements
1 ft = 12 in becomes 1 ft/12 in or 12in/1 ft

3 ft = 1 yd becomes 3ft/1yd or 1yd/3ft

- simple but important way to always get right answer
- way to change from one unit to another
- make unit factors from statements
1 ft = 12 in becomes 1 ft/12 in or 12in/1 ft

- Example: Express 12.32 yards in millimeters.

- Example: Express 323. milliliters in gallons

- Express 323. milliliters in gallons.

- Example: Express 5.50 metric tons in pounds. 1 metric ton = 1 Megagram

- Example: Express 5.50 metric tons in pounds.

- area is two dimensional
- Example: Express 4.21 x 106 square centimeters in square feet

- area is two dimensional
express 4.21 x 106 square centimeters in square feet

- area is two dimensional
express 4.21 x 106 square centimeters in square feet

- area is two dimensional
express 4.21 x 106 square centimeters in square feet

- volume is three dimensional
- Example: Express 3.61 cubic feet in cubic centimeters.

- volume is three dimensional
- Example: Express 3.61 cubic feet in cubic centimeters.

- Percentage is the parts per hundred of a sample.
- Example: A 500. g sample of ore yields 27.9 g of sulfur. What is the percent of sulfur in the ore?

- Percentage is the parts per hundred of a sample.
- Example: A 500. g sample of ore yields 27.9 g of sulfur. What is the percent of sulfur in the ore?

- density = mass/volume
- What is density?
- Example: Calculate the density of a substance if 123. grams of it occupies 57.6 cubic centimeters.

- density = mass/volume
- What is density?
- Example: Calculate the density of a substance if 123. grams of it occupies 57.6 cubic centimeters.

- density = mass/volume
- What is density?
- Example: Calculate the density of a substance if 123. grams of it occupies 57.6 cubic centimeters.

- Example: Suppose you need 175. g of a corrosive liquid for a reaction. What volume do you need?
- liquid’s density = 1.02 g/mL

- Example: Suppose you need 175. g of a corrosive liquid for a reaction. What volume do you need?
- liquid’s density = 1.02 g/mL

- Example: Suppose you need 175. g of a corrosive liquid for a reaction. What volume do you need?
- liquid’s density = 1.02 g/mL

- heat and T are not the same thing
T is a measure of the intensity of heat in a body

- 3 common T scales - all use water as a reference

MPBP

- Fahrenheit 32oF 212oF
- Celsius 0oC 100cC
- Kelvin 273 K 373 K

- Example: Convert 111.oF to degrees Celsius.

- Example: Convert 111.oF to degrees Celsius.

- Example: Express 757. K in Celsius degrees.

- Example: Express 757. K in Celsius degrees.

- SI unit J (Joule)
- calorie
1 calorie = 4.184 J

- English unit = BTU

- It has been estimated that 1.0 g of seawater contains 4.0 pg of Au. The total mass of seawater in the oceans is 1.6x1012 Tg, If all of the gold in the oceans were extracted and spread evenly across the state of Georgia, which has a land area of 58,910 mile2, how tall, in feet, would the pile of Au be?
Density of Au is 19.3 g/cm3. 1.0 Tg = 1012g.

- On a typical day, a hurricane expends the energy equivalent to the explosion of two thermonuclear weapons. A thermonuclear weapon has the explosive power of 1.0 Mton of nitroglycerin. Nitroglycerin generates 7.3 kJ of explosive power per gram of nitroglycerin. The hurricane’s energy comes from the evaporation of water that requires 2.3 kJ per gram of water evaporated. How many gallons of water does a hurricane evaporate per day?