Organizational Leadership: Trends, Theory, and Practices

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Which leadership model will help you fulfill the mission and vision of the organization ?. Organizational Models. . . . Industrial/ProfessionalInformationalBureaucratic. Source: Dennis Gillen, S.U. Whitman School of Management. . . . . Industrial. Professional. Informational. Socio-Economic E

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Organizational Leadership: Trends, Theory, and Practices

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1. Organizational Leadership: Trends, Theory, and Practices

2. Which leadership model will help you fulfill the mission and vision of the organization ?

5. “. . . even eBay are all based on social contracts whose dominant feature is that authority comes form the bottom up, and people can and do feel self empowered to improve their lot. People living in such contexts tend to spend their time focusing on what to do next, not on whom to blame next.” (p. 562) The New Middlers: Great collaborators, orchestrators ,synthesizers, explainers, leveragers, adapters Global collaboration “ Thinking more seriously about how we stimulate positive imaginations is of the utmost importance.. .peaceful imaginations that seek to minimize alienation and celebrate interdependence rather than self-sufficiency, inclusion rather than exclusion, openness, opportunity, and hope rather than limits suspicion, and grievance” (p. 545) eBay created a self-governing community Openess and exposure breeds trust and tolerance

6. Collaborative Management/Leadership Collaborative management is a concept that describes the process of facilitating and operating in multi-organizational arrangements to solve problems that cannot be solved, or solved easily, by single organizations. Where traditional administration relied primarily on organization structure to shape administrative action, collaborative management is more fluid, thus requiring managers to shift from structure to process for leverage. Thus, the needed skill set of managers has changed to one that heavily emphasizes negotiation, facilitation, mediation, and collaborative problem solving." (Rosemary O’Leary)

7. Bureaucracy . . . “The concentration of authority in a complex structure of administrative bureaus” “the administration of government through departments and subdivisions managed by sets of appointed officials following an inflexible routine” “government officialism or inflexible routine. (See red tape.)” Webster’s New World Dictionary, 1994

8. Bureaucracy What is the “history” of your bureaucracy? What does it do well? What are its problems? Are you in a reform stage? What are the goals of the reform?

9. The American Dream “The core of the problem addressed by this bureaucratic paradigm is democratic accountability. The solution, devised as an alternative to partisan patronage and ad hoc meddling, is that execution of the laws be organized as a ministerial activity. The laws should be crystal clear; their execution should be thoroughly routine. The aims of managerial reform, quite simply, should be honesty, efficiency, and a day’s work for a day’s pay. The demons are corruption, arbitrariness, and sloth. There is no room in this paradigm for bureaucratic intelligence or creativity . . .” Alan Altshuler in Barzelay, 1992, p, viii

10. Do we need government? (It depends) Rousseau -Humans are rational actors who need liberty and resources -Liberty Hobbes -Humans are “brutish animals” -Regulation

11. Choice: Limited Government Create an environment where people can be successful on their own Defense Economic regulation for strong commerce Land acquisition Immigration

12. Who are the administrators? 1789-1830 Elites 1830-1900 Political appointees controlled by the parties

13. Catalyst for Change Corruption of the political parties, urbanization, immigration Progressive movement (1880’s-1930’s) Electoral reform Anti-corruption Government services: public education, regulation of food Professional, non-political administrators

14. The Weberian Dream: the Bureaucracy -Technical superiority - Efficiency - Clarity of roles, task, rules, and purpose - Trained, qualified officials - Ability to work together without conflict - Equity for all Rainey, 1996, p. 32

15. The Profession of Public Administration Woodrow Wilson: The Study of Administration Frederick Taylor: Scientific Management Politics –Administration Dichotomy Efficiency as defined by a business model

16. Bureaucratic Paradigm Economy and Efficiency Competence and Professionalism Impersonal Administration (neutrality) Rational Planning Unity of Command Control Michael Barzelay, 1992

17. Conflicts in the Bureaucratic Paradigm Politics vs Administration Administrative vs Technical Expertise Rules vs Discretion Planning vs Execution Staff vs Line Headquarters vs Field Centralization vs Decentralization Michael Barzelay, 1992

18. Accountability Problems Weak Misguided Misplaced Michael Barzelay, 1992

19. Reinventing Government Government is the means by which we make collective decisions; provide service that benefits all; solve collective problems. People who work in government are not the problem; the systems in which they work are the problem. Osborne and Gaebler, 1991

20. A New Kind of Government Catalytic- Steering rather than rowing Community-Owned- Empowering rather than serving Competitive- Injecting competition into service delivery Mission-Driven- Transforming rule-driven organizations Results-Oriented- Funding Outcomes, not inputs Customer-Driven- Meeting customer needs, not the bureaucracy Anticipatory- Prevention rather than cure Decentralized- From hierarchy to participation Osborne and Gabler

21. The New Public Management: Running a Business? National Partnership for Reinventing Government (US) Next Steps (UK) Circulaire Rocard (France) Etc.

22. Public Sector Modernisation: Open Government? “Citizens can know things, get things, create things” Transparency and Accountability Fairness and Equity Efficiency and Effectiveness Respect for the rule of law High Standards of ethical behavior OECD Policy Brief, “Public Sector Modernisation: Open Government,” February 2005

23. The New Public Administration Public Administration Tradition: Neutral service Public Affairs Tradition: Interactive leadership (statesmanship) Policy Analysis Tradition: Analysis and objectivity The New Public Administration: ?

25. Leadership in the Public Sector: What is it? Why did you join the public sector? What keeps you going?

26. Leadership in the Public Sector: What is it? Values Neutral A Higher Calling Running a Business

27. The Neutral Bureaucrat Implements not Decides (Wilsonian Dichotomy) POSDCORB

28. The Activist Leadership Street Level Bureaucracy (Lipsky) Reinventing Government (Osborne and Gabler)

29. The Business Leader Reinventing and reengineering Measuring costs and performance Contracting for most efficient service

30. How is leadership thinking evolving?

31. Leadership “By leadership, most people mean the capacity of someone to direct and energize the willingness of people in social units to take action and achieve goals.” Hal Rainey, 1996, p.260

32. Leadership Followers Influence Direction/Common Goal

33. Characteristics of Admired Leaders (Kouzes and Posner, The Leadership Challenge)

34. Cross-national Characteristics of Admired Leaders (Kouzes and Posner, The Leadership Challenge)

35. Open Government “Citizens can know things, get things, create things” OECD Policy Brief, Public Sector Modernisation: Open Government, February 2005

36. Leadership Traits vs Motivation Integrity Confidence Cognitive Ability Task Knowledge Kirkpatrick and Locke Behaviors Transfomation (Burns) Competing Values (Quinn) Frames (Bolman and Deal) Styles: Production vs People (Blake and Mouton)

37. Leadership Styles vs Style is fixed, change context Behaviors Change behaviors to meet contextual demands

38. Leadership vs Management “Managers are people who do things right and leaders are people who do the right thing.” Bennis and Nanus, 1985, p.21.

39. Leadership vs Management (Kotter) Leadership Developing Vision and Strategies Aligning People Motivating and Inspiring Performance Dramatic Useful Change

40. Leadership Model: Scientific Management (Structural Model) “The decisive reason for the advance of the bureaucratic organization has always been its purely technical superiority over any form of organization. Precision, speed, unambiguity. . . reduction of friction and of material and personnel costs - these are raised to the optimum point in the strictly bureaucratic administration.” Max Weber

41. Leadership: Weber’s Rational Organization Labor and responsibilities are divided and specified Positions are organized in a hierarchy of authority Employees are objectively selected and promoted for technical abilities Administrative decisions are recorded and kept Career managers work for salaries Standard rules and regulations for all

42. Leadership Model: Scientific Principles “Science, not rule of thumb. Harmony, not discord. Cooperation, not individualism. Maximum output, not restricted input. Development of each man to his greatest efficiency and prosperity.” Frederick Taylor, 1911 in Weisbord, 1987, p. 63.

43. Leadership: Breakthroughs in Scientific Management Financial Controls Jobs as Tasks Time and Motion Studies Pay for Performance Wage Incentives Group Supervision Labor-Management Cooperation Training

44. Leadership: The Rational Leader POSDCORB planning organizing staffing directing coordinating reporting budgeting Luther Gulick,1937 in Rainey, 1996, p. 33

45. Scientific/ Rational Management

46. Scientific/Rational Management

47. Human Resource Model

48. Human Resource Model

49. Leadership: Human Resource Model Leaders need to create a “fit” between the needs of the people and the needs of the organization.

50. Leadership: Human Resource Model Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs (1954) Physiological. . .Safety. . .Belonging. . . Esteem . . . Self-Actualization Herzberg’s Two-Level Hierarchy (1966) Motivators address job satisfaction, self-actualization needs vs hygiene needs

51. Leadership: Human Resource Model McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y (1960) Theory X managers believe: Employees are passive, lazy, prefer to be led, resist change. Theory X managers manage:

52. Leadership: Human Resource Model Theory Y managers believe: People are not passive by nature, but as a result of their experience in organizations. Theory Y mangers manage: By relying on the self-control and self-direction of employees; by arranging things so that the interests of the employees and the organization coincide.

53. Leadership: Human Resource Model Ouchi’s Theory Z (1981) “All of the American employees say,"This is the best place I’ve ever worked. They know what they doing here, care about quality and make me feel like part of one big family.”

54. Leadership: Human Resource Model Transformational vs Transactional Leadership: Leaders should raise followers to a higher plane, transcending self-interest.

55. Leadership: Human Resource Model Burns (1978) : Move from exchanging rewards for performance to transforming goals. Bennis and Nanus (1985): Leaders lead by managing themselves, doing the right things, empowering others. Bass (1985): Leaders engage in both transactional and transformational leadership.

56. Leadership: Human Resource Model Leadership Practices - Job enrichment vs enlargement - Participative management - Training and organizational development - Total quality management - Reinvention/reengineering

57. 1990’s Leadership Roles

58. 1980’s Human Resource Model

59. Political Model

60. Leadership: Political Model Organizations are competing coalitions. The job of the leader is to gain power and control scarce resources. The skills of leadership are agenda setting, networking, forming coalitions, and negotiating. (Kanter, 1983) Leaders need to acquire and use power through positive politics. (Burns, 1978; Block, 1986)

61. Leadership: Symbolic Model Organization structure, size, complexity, and administrative systems are symbols, reflecting legal and social expectations. Organizations are judged not as much by actions as by appearance.

62. Leadership: Symbolic Model Organizations as cultures (Arnold, 1938; Schein 1985) Myths as creators of meaning and performance (Clark, 1972) Plans and processes as symbols of good management; garbage can theory of meetings (March, 1974)

63. Symbolic Management

64. Open Systems/Learning Organizations

65. Leadership: Open Systems Model Systems Approach (Katz and Kahn, 1966) An organization is a system with interdependent social and technical subsystems, which seek to maintain equilibrium and therefore adapt to environmental disturbances

66. Leadership: Open Systems Model Contingency Approach (Lawrence and Lorsch, 1967) Organizational size and processes are shaped by contingencies of technology, size, environment, and strategic choice.

67. Leadership: Open Systems Model Learning Organization (Senge, 1990) Organizations will survive and thrive on the basis of the continual learning of their members. Learning is accomplished through five disciplines: 1) systems thinking, 2) personal mastery, 3) shedding mental models, 4) building shared vision, and 5) team learning and dialogue.

68. Open Systems: Adaptive Leadership Adaptive vs Technical Leadership (Heifetz and Laurie, 1997) shifting approach to leadership functions (direction, protection, role orientation, controlling conflict, norm maintenance) from technical to adaptive

69. 1970’s- 1990’s Open Systems/Learning Organizations

70. Open Systems: Adaptive Leadership Six Principles 1. “Get on the balcony” to see patterns 2. Identify challenges and ask key questions 3. Let the organization feel pressure 4. Challenge current roles without defining new ones 5. Expose conflict or let it emerge 6. Challenge unproductive norms Heifitz and Laurie, 1997

71. Leadership: Open Systems Model Self-Organizing Systems (Wheatley, 1992) Organizations are fluid, self-organizing systems that use relationships, information, and self-reference to maintain stability.

72. Leadership: New Scientific Management Organizations are self-renewing interdependent systems Information is the driver and must be everywhere Participation, communication, and teams are the keys to learning Shared vision provides meaning and stability Redefine processes

73. 1990’s Organizations and Management

74. Uncertainty calls for Situational Leadership Managerial Grid (Blake and Mouton, 1969) Concern for Task vs Concern for People Situational Leadership (Hersey and Blanchard, 1977) Balance of Task vs Relationship (telling, selling, participating, delegating)

75. Situational Leadership Four Frames (Bolman and Deal, 1991) Operating in all four frames (human resource, structural, symbolic, political) Competing Values Competency Framework (Quinn,1983) Mastering competing roles and competencies

76. Leadership: Four Frames Model “ The truly effective manger and leader will need multiple tools, the skills to use each of them, and the wisdom to match frames and situations.” Bolman and Deal Human Resource Structural Political Symbolic

77. Leadership: Competing Values Framework (Adapted from Quinn)

78. Leadership: Competing Values Framework Innovator

80. Leadership: Competing Values Framework

81. Leadership: Competing Values Framework

82. Leadership: Competing Values Framework Understanding self and others Communicating effectively Developing employees

83. Leadership: Competing Values Framework

85. Leadership: Competing Values Framework (2011)

87. Leadership Personal Organizational Challenging the Process 1. Search for opportunities 2. Experiment and take risks Inspiring a Shared Vision 3. Envision the future 4. Enlist others Setting the Course 1. Build consensus on the vision 2. Define values 3. Set organizational goals Fueling Improvement 4. Create partnerships 5. Put enablers in place: -training & development -rewards & recognition -employee communication - resource allocation

88. Leadership Personal Organizational Enabling Others to Act 5. Foster Collaboration 6. Strengthen others Modeling the Way 7. Set the example 8. Plan the small wins Encouraging the Heart 9. Recognize individual contribution 10. Celebrate accomplishments *Kouzes and Posner, The Leadership Challenge - employee involvement - info & measurement 6. Create the right organizational structure 7. Give and seek feedback on progress Ensuring Success 8. Know performance results 9. Celebrate accomplishments 10. Communicate areas for improvement

89. Leadership for Change Present State Vision of Transition Desired State

90. Total Quality Management New concepts: customer (internal and external), process, value added, supplier to output chain, empowerment, systems Dilemma: balancing public policy with customer needs

91. What will help her ? What can hinder her ?

92. You are Elizabeth Best. What should you do from the perspective of : the symbolic frame the political frame the human resource frame the structural frame ? (Discuss for 10 minutes and come back!)

93. 2nd day mapped out a strategy For 3 weeks, visit agencies and take notes on what could be done Wore a different dress each day Talked to managers- and clerks and secretaries, then sat with directors Made appointment to meet with Secretary and went through list (most important last)

94. Budget!! Sold top advisor Collected data, did staff work (jobs, other states, etc.) Collected proposals Sold $4 M increase to old buddy in charge of budgets ($2 M brings 6M revenues) Redid budget, making up titles Got budget

95. Leadership: Four Frames Model “ The truly effective manger and leader will need multiple tools, the skills to use each of them, and the wisdom to match frames and situations.” Bolman and Deal Human Resource Structural Political Symbolic

96. 5/13/03 Structural Frame Organization as Factory/Machine Goals Specialized roles Formal relationships Focus is on Data Logic Structure Plans Policies Draws from sociology and management science.Draws from sociology and management science.

97. 5/13/03 Human Resource Frame Goal Align organizational and human needs Keep people involved and communication open Strategic Planning Gatherings to promote participation Decision Making Open process to produce commitment Communication Exchange information, needs, and feelings Leader Servant Catalyst

98. 5/13/03 Political Frame Organization as Jungle Power Conflict Competition Organizational politics Focus is on Build a power base Get access Influence key players

99. 5/13/03 Symbolic Frame Organization as Theater/Temple Culture Meaning Metaphor Ritual Ceremony Stories Heroes Focus is on Meaning Belief Faith

100. Leadership: Competing Values Framework (Adapted from Quinn)

102. Recognize mutual dependence (need for information and resources) Seek information and help to do the job Understand boss’s goals, pressures, style Understand yourself and how you react to the boss Accept your independence Adjust to develop compatible styles Trust! John Kotter

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