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Chapter 20 Applied Psychology. Please answer the following True or False An aptitude test measures a persons general knowledge base. Scientific management (Theory X) is an approach to managing employees that emphasizes work efficiency.

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Chapter 20 Applied Psychology

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Chapter 20 applied psychology

Chapter 20 Applied Psychology

Chapter 20 applied psychology

  • Please answer the following True or False

  • An aptitude test measures a persons general knowledge base.

  • Scientific management (Theory X) is an approach to managing employees that emphasizes work efficiency.

  • 3. Territorial markers are objects and other signals that are used only to mark residential settings

  • 4. Attentional overload is a stressful condition caused when sensory stimulation, information and social contacts make excessive demands on attention

  • 5.Open teaching is instruction based on active teacher student discussion


Industrial organizational psychology

Industrial-Organizational Psychology

  • Applied Psychology: Use of psychological principles and research methods to solve practical problems

  • Also used in:

  • Employment settings, machine design, educational settings, jury selections

Other aspects of i o psychology

Other Aspects of I-O Psychology

  • Personnel Psychology: Branch of I-O psychology concerned with testing, selection, placement, and promotion of employees

  • Job Analysis: Detailed description of skills, knowledge, and activities required by a particular job

  • Critical Incidents: Situations where competent employees must be able to cope

  • Biodata: Detailed biographical information about a job applicant

Chapter 20 applied psychology

Fig. 20-1, p. 663

Psychological testing

Psychological Testing

  • Vocational Interest Tests

  • Aptitude Tests

  • Multimedia Computerized Tests

  • Assessment Centers

Other types of tests

Other types of tests

  • Situational Judgment Tests

  • In Basket test

  • Leaderless group discussion

Management theories

Management Theories

  • Scientific Management (Theory X): Approach to managing employees that emphasizes work efficiency

  • Theory Y: Emphasizes human relations at work; sees people as industrious, responsible, and interested in challenging work

  • Which do you think is more effective?

Management strategies

Management Strategies

  • Participative Management: Employees at all levels are directly involved in decision making

  • Management by Objectives: Workers are given specific goals to meet so they can know if they are doing a good job

  • Self-Managed Team: Group of employees who work together toward shared goals

  • Quality Circles: Voluntary employee discussion groups that look to improve quality and look for ways to solve business problems

Job satisfaction is highest when

Job Satisfaction Is Highest When:

  • Listed in order of importance:

    • Work is interesting

    • Enough help and equipment exist to get job done

    • Enough information to get job done

    • Enough authority to get job done

  • Note that nothing relating to pay is listed in the top four (pay is ranked fifth)!

Four styles of response to needing a new job

Four styles of response to needing a new job

  • Vigilant

  • Complacent

  • Defensive Avoidant

  • Hypervigilant

Environmental psychology

Environmental Psychology

  • Physical Environments

  • Social Environments

  • Behavioral Environments

Chapter 20 applied psychology

Table 20-3, p. 672

Cognitive representations of the physical environment

Cognitive Representations of the Physical Environment

Example: a therapist telling a kid to draw a picture of their family

Draw a map of this campus

Draw a Map of this campus

Map processing

Map Processing

  • What things are on your maps?

  • What did you leave out from your maps?

  • What common landmarks did you have with your neighbors?

  • Were some parts overrepresented than others? (bigger or more detailed)

  • Does this map show what’s most important to you at RCC?



  • Territorial Behavior: Any behavior that tends to define a space as one’s own or that protects it from intruders

  • Territorial Markers: Objects and other signals that indicate ownership or control of a particular area

    • Gates, pictures, plants, posters, decorations

    • Check your psychology professor’s office to find some examples of territorial markers

    • This is why everyone is sitting so close together today



  • Crowding: Subjective feelings of being overstimulated by social inputs or loss of privacy

    • When crowding causes a loss of control over one’s immediate social environment, stress can result

    • John Calhoun’s “Horrible Mousery” is a good example of how overcrowding can affect mice, population returns to baseline

    • When do people react differently to crowds? And why?

Chapter 20 applied psychology

Fig. 20-2, p. 672

Human potential

Human Potential

Humans can actually pay attention to and process more than twice the amount of stimuli we normally receive

Architectural psychology

Architectural Psychology

  • Study of the effects buildings have on behavior; buildings can be designed using psychological and behavioral principles

    • Making rooms with more space and more light, having bathrooms in the middle of the hall; higher or lower ceilings

    • Feng Shui

Chapter 20 applied psychology

Fig. 20-3, p. 678

Attentional overload

Attentional Overload

  • Stressful condition that occurs when sensory stimulation, information, and social contacts make excessive demands on attention

  • Noise Pollution: Stressful, annoying, and intrusive noise. Usually generated by machines (jackhammers, sirens, planes)

Teaching styles

Teaching Styles

  • Direction Instruction: Factual information presented by lecture, demonstration, and rote practice

  • Open Teaching: Active student-teacher discussion is emphasized

  • What are the benefits? What does Ben use?

Jury behavior

Jury Behavior

  • Jurors rarely can put aside biases, attitudes, and beliefs when making a decision

  • Jurors are not very good at separating evidence from other information

  • Final verdict is often influenced by inadmissible evidence

  • Jurors cannot suspend judgment until all information is in; opinion often formed early in trial

Jury selection

Jury Selection

  • Mock Jury: Group that realistically simulates a courtroom jury

  • CSI: if we have time

Scientific jury selection

Scientific Jury Selection

  • Social science principles are applied to jury selection process

    • Gather demographic information

    • Perform community survey to get information about attitudes towards case

    • Look for authoritarian personality traits in potential jurors

      • Tend to believe that punishment is effective and more likely to vote to convict

    • Look at nonverbal behavior

Death qualified jury

Death-Qualified Jury

  • Jury composed of people who favor death penalty or are at least indifferent to it

Sports psychology

Sports Psychology

  • Study of behavioral dimensions of sports performance

  • Task Analysis: Breaking sports skills into subparts so that key elements can be identified and taught

  • Motor Skills: Series of actions molded into a smooth and efficient performance

  • Mental Practice: Imagining a skilled performance to help learning

  • Peak Performance: Physical, emotional, and mental states are harmonious and optimal

Chapter 20 applied psychology

Fig. 20-4, p. 684

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