Ch 8 section 3 segregation and discrimination
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Ch 8, Section 3 Segregation and Discrimination. What is a lynching ? A death-by-hanging of a person without legal trial, usually at the hands of an angry mob. Often, the lynching victim was a member of a minority group

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Ch 8, Section 3 Segregation and Discrimination

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Ch 8 section 3 segregation and discrimination

Ch 8, Section 3Segregation and Discrimination


Ch 8 section 3 segregation and discrimination

  • What is a lynching?

  • A death-by-hanging of a person without legal trial, usually at the hands of an angry mob.

  • Often, the lynching victim was a member of a minority group

    2. During the late-1800s and early 1900s, individuals from what group of people, on many occasions, were victims of lynching?

  • African-Americans

  • From the 1890 to 1920, over 3000 Blacks were lynched in the United States

  • The last known lynching in the United States was in Mobile, Alabama in 1981, near McGill-Toolen Catholic School. Michael Donald, a young African-American was lynched by Ku Klux Klan members.


Ch 8 section 3 segregation and discrimination

3. In the late 1800s, African-American journalist, Ida Wells reported persistently on what theme?

  • Racial Injustice against Black Americans

    4. What is racial segregation?

  • A government-mandated and government-enforced social system in which racial groups are required to live separately from one another.


Ch 8 section 3 segregation and discrimination

5. What are some examples of how racial segregation manifested itself in the Southern States?

  • Blacks and Whites were forbidden to marry

  • Blacks and Whites attended separate schools

  • Blacks and Whites had separate public facilities such as water fountains and restrooms

  • Blacks and whites were forbidden to eat together in restaurants and lunch counters.


Ch 8 section 3 segregation and discrimination

6. The 15th Amendment (passed in 1870) of the United States Constitution forbids voting restrictions on account of what?

  • Race

  • In other words, a Southern state could not merely pass a law outlawing Black voting

    7. Then how did the Southern States, by the late 1800s, find a way to restrict Black voting?

  • By finding ways to keep Blacks from registering to vote

  • In short, only registered voters could vote. Unregistered voters could not vote.


Ch 8 section 3 segregation and discrimination

8. What were three ways in which Southern states restricted Black voter registration but ensured that most whites could register to vote?

  • Poll Taxes

  • Literacy Tests

  • Grandfather Clauses

    9. What was a poll tax?

  • An annual tax that had to be paid in order to vote


Ch 8 section 3 segregation and discrimination

10. Why didn’t Blacks in the South just pay the poll tax?

  • Most African-Americans in the South were poor and could not afford to pay the poll tax

    11. What was a literacy test?

  • In order to prove one’s worthiness to register to vote, one must pass a reading test in order to prove that a person could read


Ch 8 section 3 segregation and discrimination

12. Why was the literacy test used to discriminate against potential Black voters?

  • First, white officials administered and graded the tests.

  • Usually Black test-takers were judged as having failed


Ch 8 section 3 segregation and discrimination

13. But wait. Weren’t there many poor Southern whites who could not afford to pay the poll tax as well?

  • Yes, that is true

    14. And…weren’t there many whites who could not read as well?

  • Yes, that is true


Ch 8 section 3 segregation and discrimination

15. OK…Well, how did Southern States make it possible for most whites (whether rich or poor) to register to vote, while keeping almost all African-Americans unregistered?

  • Through the Grandfather Clause

    16. Who benefited from the Grandfather Clause?

  • Potential White voters


Ch 8 section 3 segregation and discrimination

17. What was the Grandfather Clause?

  • Several Southern States made laws allowing for someone to register to vote ifhe, his father, or his grandfather had been eligible to vote prior to January 1, 1867.

  • Hence, thousands of poor whites (and illiterate whites) were grandfathered inand allowed to register to vote.


Ch 8 section 3 segregation and discrimination

18. In the South, especially Deep South States like Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Georgia, and South Carolina, how long were Blacks systematically kept from registering to vote?

  • From the late 1800s until the passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965

    19. In States like Alabama, what happened in November 1966?

  • For the first time in nearly 100 years, African-Americans voted in massive numbers.


Ch 8 section 3 segregation and discrimination

20. At the same time that Southern Blacks were disenfranchised (the ability to vote being taken away), what other types of laws were passed in the South?

  • Jim Crow Laws

    21. What are Jim Crow laws?

  • Laws that required the separation of Whites and Blacks in most key areas of life, namely the home, the workplace, the school, public facilities, and even the cemetery.


Ch 8 section 3 segregation and discrimination

22. Basically “Jim Crow” was a synonym for what?

  • Racial Segregation

    23. What did the 1896 U.S. Supreme Court decision in Plessy v. Ferguson declare to be legal?

  • The Court declared that “separate but equal” segregated public facilities and schools are legal.

    24. When was Plessy v. Ferguson overturned by a U.S. Supreme Court?

  • On May 17, 1954 when, in the Brown v. Board of Education, when the Court declared that “separate but equal” is unconstitutional.


Ch 8 section 3 segregation and discrimination

25. Thus, for nearly 60 years, what remained legal in the United States (1896-1954)?

  • Jim Crow Segregation

    26. In addition to legally-required segregation in the South, what forms of informal discrimination did Southern Blacks face?

  • In general, Blacks were expected to be very subservient to Whites.

  • Blacks were expected to be overly polite to Whites, and never express disapproval to segregation


Ch 8 section 3 segregation and discrimination

27. While Jim Crow Segregation was largely a southern practice, what type of Black-White relations existed outside the South in the late 1800s and early 1900s?

  • In the North, Midwest, and West Coast, Black Americans faced numerous forms of bigotry and discrimination, though the discrimination was less formal than in the South.


Ch 8 section 3 segregation and discrimination

28. In 1900, what non-Southern city experienced a racially-oriented riot?

  • New York City

    29. What is debt peonage?

  • A system of near-slavery in which a laborer is forced to continue providing labor to a boss in order to work off a pre-existing debt.


Ch 8 section 3 segregation and discrimination

30. In the American Southwest, what groups were sometimes victims of debt peonage in the late 1800s and early 1900s?

  • Mexicans and African-Americans


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