Adverbs and the advp
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ADVERBS AND THE AdvP. PRACTICE CLASS #3 (#4) 2012-03-13. Today …. … is the day when we finish (off) adverbs and adjectives!. WHAT WE FAILED TO DO LAST WEEK. PAGE 108 – exercise 14. FIRST. LAST. HIGH. IN A SILLY WAY / MANNER. EARLY. LATE. IN A MOTHERLY WAY. MORE CLEARLY.

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ADVERBS AND THE AdvP

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Adverbs and the advp

ADVERBS AND THE AdvP

PRACTICE CLASS #3 (#4)

2012-03-13


Today

Today …


Is the day when we finish off adverbs and adjectives

… is the day when we finish (off) adverbs and adjectives!


What we failed to do last week

WHAT WE FAILED TO DO LAST WEEK


Page 108 exercise 14

PAGE 108 – exercise 14

FIRST

LAST

HIGH

IN A SILLY WAY / MANNER

EARLY

LATE

IN A MOTHERLY WAY

MORE CLEARLY


Page 106 exercise 11 a b c d

PAGE 106 – exercise 11 (a,b,c,d)

The Stock Exchange reacted quite calmly.

These almonds taste bitter.

She smiled bitterly.

To a European, Chinese sounds strange.


Page 106 exercise 11 e f g h

PAGE 106 – exercise 11 (e,f,g,h)

You acted in a cowardly way/manner.

Her mother had slapped her hard.

She walks in an ugly way/manner.

The sports committee meets monthly / once a month / on a monthly basis.


Page 107 exercise 11 i j k l

PAGE 107 – exercise 11 (i,j,k,l)

She glanced at me slyly.

The play impressed me considerably.

He approaches the subject less scientifically.

Bob works much harder than Tom.


Now just adverbs this is still from last week

NOW JUST ADVERBS!!!THIS IS STILL FROM LAST WEEK


Page 109 exercise 16

page 109 – exercise 16


New stuff warm up

“NEW STUFF”: WARM UP


Page 109 exercise 18 a c

page 109 – exercise 18 (a-c)

The lecturer spoke too fast for me to (be able to) take notes.

The subject is too difficult for us to go into (it) now.

Better: It is too difficult a subjet for us to go into now.

Helen is too outspoken for most people to like her.


Page 109 exercise 18 d f

page 109 – exercise 18 (d-f)

He was old enough to be her father.

She was honest enough not to try to deny all responsibility for the accident.

Would you be kind enough to book a room for me?


Inversions locative and negative

INVERSIONS: locative and negative

THEORY AND PRACTICE


Locative inversion

LOCATIVE INVERSION

  • LOCATIVE INVERSION is mainly limited to:

    • Adverbials of place

    • Verbs such as BE, COME, GO, SIT, LIE, STAND

  • LOCATIVE INVERSION is used to put FOCUS on the subject, which is the most important part of the sentence.

    ADVERBIAL+VERB+SUBJECT

    Herecomesthe taxi

    In the town squarestandsthe market hall

    Upwent the prices


Negative inversion

NEGATIVE INVERSION

  • To EMPHASIZE A NEGATIVE, we can place it AT THE FRONT OF THE CLAUSE. However, this triggers an obligatory change of word order, i.e. inversion:

    She at no time mentioned her earlier marriage.

    →At no time did she mention her earlier marriage.

    He hasn’t once offered to help.

    → Not once has he offered to help.


Negative inversion 2 special cases

NEGATIVE INVERSION 2 special cases

  • SCARCELY & HARDLY vs. NO SOONER

    Scarcely / hardly + PAST PERFECT, WHEN + SIMPLE PAST

    Scarcely had I arrived at the station when the train came in.

    Scarcely had I passed from them, when I found her whom my soul loveth.

    No sooner + PAST PERFECT, THAN + SIMPLE PAST

    No sooner had I put the phone down than it rang again.

    No sooner had I left the house than it started raining.


Page 110 exercise 19 a d

PAGE 110 – exercise 19 (a-d)

Never have I met such a man.

On no account should you sign the document.

Only later did I realize what happened.

Seldom does she invite us to her place.


Page 110 exercise 19 e h

PAGE 110 – exercise 19 (e-h)

So terrified was I that I tried to hide under my umbrella.

Bang went the starter’s gun and off went the runners at a good pace.

No other person would I give this to.

Well do I remember Plunger’s look when Ken passed him ten…


Page 110 exercise 19 i l

PAGE 110 – exercise 19 (i-l)

So old was the document that we didn’t dare to touch it.

Only in the country can one get really fresh vegetables.

Along the road came Jim.

On a hill outside the town stands the castle.


Page 110 exercise 20 a d

PAGE 110 – exercise 20 (a-d)

do I come home in the evening, than I switch on the TV.

did Jane give him the use of her flat, but she lent him…

did we know what she was planning at that time.

had I paid for the gadget, when I regretted spending so…


Page 111 exercise 20 e h

PAGE 111 – exercise 20 (e-h)

had they made the announcement, than prices began to rise.

had all my money disappeared, but my clothes had gone as well.

did she say.

in a thousand years would I go there.


Page 111 exercise 20 f h

PAGE 111 – exercise 20 (f-h)

had they made the announcement, than prices began to rise.

had all my money disappeared, but my clothes had gone as well.

did she say.

in a thousand years would I go there.


Page 111 exercise 20 i l

PAGE 111 – exercise 20 (i-l)

until he apologizes will I go.

hangs a plastic chandelier.

had he lain down, than he heard a strange noise.

had I gone to bed, when the phone started ringing.


Page 111 exercise 20 m n

PAGE 111 – exercise 20 (m-n)

he reached the front door, did he discover that he had lost…

would I doubt his integrity.


Comparison of adjectives and adverbs

COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES AND ADVERBS


Comparison of adjs advs semantic analysis

Comparative – for comparison between 2 persons, items etc.

Superlative – for comparison between more than 2 persons, items, etc.

Basis of comparison – either overt or implied

Ana is cleverer/more clever than Jane (is).

John is the politest of the students.

Comparison of sufficiency: enough, so/such…that

She was tall enough to play basketball.

To a lower degree: less & least

The problem is less difficult than the previous one.

COMPARISON OF ADJs & ADVs:semantic analysis

Comparison of excess: too, so/such…that

She was too tall to play table tennis.

To the same degree: as/so…as

John is as old as his girlfriend.

Bill doesn’t study as hard as Jane.


Structures used to express comparison

STRUCTURES USED TO EXPRESS COMPARISON

  • Adjective Phrase with complementation:

    • AP=A+PPJohn is as tall as Peter.

    • AP=A+clauseJohn is as tall as Peter is.

  • Adverb Phrase with complementation:

    • AdvP=AdvP+PP I can play tennis much better than Joe.

    • AdvP=AdvP+cl I play tennis much better than he ever will.

  • Noun Phrases with complementation:

    • NP=Q+N+PPI have more friends than Bill.

    • NP=Q+N+clI have more friends than Bill does.

  • Comparative clauses are complement clauses of ADJs, ADVs and Ns used for expressing comparison:

    I love you AdvP [more than you think].

    He is not AP [as clever as she is].

    She has NP [more friends than you can imagine].


Page 109 exercise 17 a c

page 109 – exercise 17 (a-c)

Comparison of equivalence – to the same extent

AP

Structure: AP = A + Clause

Comparison of non-equivalence – to a higher degree

AdvP

Structure: AdvP = Adv + PP

Comparison of non-equivalence – to a higher degree

NP

Structure: NP=Q+N+PP


Page 109 exercise 17 d f

page 109 – exercise 17 (d-f)

Comparison of non-equivalence – to a higher degree

AdvP

Structure: AdvP = Adv + Clause

Comparison of non-equivalence – comparison of sufficiency

AP

Structure: AP = A + Adv + Clause

Comparison of non-equivalence – comparison of excess

NP

Structure:

NP = discontinuous AP + Det + N

dicontinuous AP = Adv + A + Clause


Page 109 exercise 17 g i

page 109 – exercise 17 (g-i)

Comparison of non-equivalence – comparison of excess

AdvP

Structure: AdvP = Adv + Adv + Clause

Comparison of equivalence

NOTE: negated comparison of equiv.

AdvP

Structure: AdvP = Adv + PP

Comparison of non-equivalence – to a higher degree

NP

Structure: Q + N + Clause


Now let s really

Now, let’s really…


Finish off advs and as

…finish off ADVs and As!


Syntactic function of adverbs pg 99

SYNTACTIC FUNCTION OF ADVERBS (pg. 99)

ADVERBIAL:

He speaks slowly.

MODIFIER:

extremely slow

very slowly

rather a mess

straight through the wall

over ten victims

COMPLEMENT OF PREPOSITION:

over here

till then

from inside


Independent adverbs adverbials

INDEPENDENT ADVERBS = ADVERBIALS

ADVERBIALS

INTEGRATED into the CLAUSE STRUCTURE

PERIPHERAL in the CLAUSE STRUCTURE

Primarily NON-LINKING:

Provide speaker’s comment

Primarily LINKING:

connect sentences

ADJUNCTS

DISJUNCTS

CONJUNCTS

I sent Ross a personal invitation. He will therefore be there tomorrow.

Ross is behavingnaturally.

Naturally, Ross is behaving.


Page 108 exercise 13 a k

PAGE 108 – exercise 13 (a-k)

DISJUNCT

Modifier of AdvP

/ADJUNCT

CONJUNCT

Modifier of NP

Modifier of PP

Modifier of AP

ADJUNCT

ADJUNCT

Modifier of AP

Modifier of AP

Modifier of NP


Page 108 exercise 13 l q

PAGE 108 – exercise 13 (l-q)

Modifier of PP

DISJUNCT

Modifier of AP

Modifier of AP

Modifier of NP (such [lovely weather]) OR Modifier of AP ([such lovely] weather)

Modifier of NP

ADJUNCT /

Modifier of AP


The end

THE END

Actually, to be continued…


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