the respiratory system
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THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM. Chapter 22. RESPIRATION. The exchange of gases between the atmosphere, lungs, blood, and tissues. Respiration. Pulmonary ventilation =“breathing” External respiration =occurs within the lungs Transport of respiratory gases =via the blood

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Presentation Transcript
respiration
RESPIRATION

The exchange of gases between the atmosphere, lungs, blood, and tissues

respiration3
Respiration
  • Pulmonary ventilation=“breathing”
  • External respiration=occurs within the lungs
  • Transport of respiratory gases=via the blood
  • Internal respiration=occurs within the tissues
requirements
REQUIREMENTS
  • Gas exchange surfaces must be thin.
  • Gas exchange surfaces must remain moist.
  • Gas exchange surfaces must be large in relation to the size of the organism.
functional anatomy
FUNCTIONAL ANATOMY
  • Nose and nasal cavity
  • Pharynx
  • Larynx
  • Trachea
  • Bronchial tree
  • Lungs
  • Diaphragm
tissue changes summarized
Tissue Changes Summarized
  • Pseudostratified ciliated columnar
  • Simple columnar
  • Cuboidal
  • Smooth muscle
  • Cartilage rings
  • Cilia
  • Simple squamous
pressures
Pressures
  • Atmospheric pressure
  • Alveolar pressure (intrapulmonary pressure)
  • Intrapleural pressure
  • Boyle’s Law
    • More volume=less pressure
    • Less volume=more pressure
factors influencing pulmonary ventilation
Factors Influencing Pulmonary Ventilation
  • Airway Resistance
  • Surface Tension
  • Lung Compliance
dead space
Dead Space
  • Anatomical dead space
  • Alveolar dead space
  • Total dead space
regulation of respiration
Regulation of Respiration
  • Medullary respiratory center
    • Dorsal respiratory center (DRC)
    • Ventral respiratory center (VRC)
  • Pontine center

formerly called the Pneumotaxic center

  • Hypothalamus
basic properties of gases
Basic Properties of Gases

Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures

homeostatic imbalances of the respiratory system
Sinusitis

Laryngitis

Pleurisy

Atelectasis

Pneumothorax

Dyspnea

Pneumonia

Infant respiratory distress syndrome (IRDS)

Emphysema

Chronic bronchitis

Asthma

Tuberculosis

Cystic fibrosis

Pulmonary embolism

Sleep apnea

Hypoxia

Homeostatic Imbalances of the Respiratory System
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