Metabolic State Alters Economic Decision Making under Risk in Humans – A critique. Symmonds , Emmanuel, Drew, Batterham & Dolan, 2010. 19 men with BMI of 22.6±1.7 Anthropometric measurements were taken Standardisation procedure Fasting until the next morning
Symmonds, Emmanuel, Drew, Batterham & Dolan, 2010
Symmonds et al. (2010).
Risk-taking increases immediately and for up to an hour after a meal. Correlations with leptin & acyl-ghrelin.
Risk preferences in humans is affected by metabolic state.Overview: Results & Conclusion
This paper aims to provide a real world application of Prospect Theory.
Prospect Theory focuses on gains and losses, rather than on final wealth position (Markowitz, 1952).
Direct analogies from animals' foraging behaviour have been drawn from Prospect Theory's account of the relationship between risk-taking and reference points.Prospect theory
Randomised lottery position to reduce habituation.
Same lottery choices across all conditions.
Performed an awareness check at debrief.
Unlimited time to make lottery decision.
Hunger levels underwent significant change.Positive methodology critiques
Conclusion adds to field of research by showing findings not predicted by normative economic theory.
Findings make interesting link under paradigm of economic prospect theory.
Results have important implications to eating disorders
The researchers had no declared competing interests.Positive conclusion critiques
Conduct study again using mixed gender/ all female sample. (Dreber, Rand & Wernerfelt et al, 2011)
Conduct using larger sample size.
A study using recruited participants rather than volunteers is essential in removing extraneous variables. (Rosenthal, 1965, cited by Schultz, 1969; Zuckerman & Kuhlman)Directions for further research
Environment for fasting element should be more controlled.
Vary time of day in future conditions.
Propose non-hypothetical gambling experiment.