Loading in 2 Seconds...
Loading in 2 Seconds...
Metabolic State Alters Economic Decision Making under Risk in Humans – A critique. Symmonds , Emmanuel, Drew, Batterham & Dolan, 2010. 19 men with BMI of 22.6±1.7 Anthropometric measurements were taken Standardisation procedure Fasting until the next morning
Symmonds, Emmanuel, Drew, Batterham & Dolan, 2010
Symmonds et al. (2010).
This paper aims to provide a real world application of Prospect Theory.
Prospect Theory focuses on gains and losses, rather than on final wealth position (Markowitz, 1952).
Direct analogies from animals\' foraging behaviour have been drawn from Prospect Theory\'s account of the relationship between risk-taking and reference points.Prospect theory
Small sample size- only 19 participants\' data included in most of the final analyses
Allowed to drink water during fasting period- may have tried to make themselves feel full
Fasting/ Satiated/ Post- satiated conditions occurred in the same order each time- possibility for practice/fatigue effects
Significance level used for risk and body fat correlation unsatisfactory
Randomised lottery position to reduce habituation.
Same lottery choices across all conditions.
Performed an awareness check at debrief.
Unlimited time to make lottery decision.
Hunger levels underwent significant change.Positive methodology critiques
Conclusion adds to field of research by showing findings not predicted by normative economic theory.
Findings make interesting link under paradigm of economic prospect theory.
Results have important implications to eating disorders
The researchers had no declared competing interests.Positive conclusion critiques
Conduct study again using mixed gender/ all female sample. (Dreber, Rand & Wernerfelt et al, 2011)
Conduct using larger sample size.
A study using recruited participants rather than volunteers is essential in removing extraneous variables. (Rosenthal, 1965, cited by Schultz, 1969; Zuckerman & Kuhlman)Directions for further research
Environment for fasting element should be more controlled.
Vary time of day in future conditions.
Propose non-hypothetical gambling experiment.
Clark, L. A., Watson, D., & Leeka, J. (1989) Diurnal Variation in thePositive Affects. Motivation and Emotion. 13 (3), 205-234
Stubbs, R.J., Hughes, D.A., Johnstone, A.M., Rowley, E., Reid, C., Stratton, R., Delargy, H., King, N., & Blundell, J.E., (2000). The use of visual analogue scales to assess motivation to eat in human subjects: a review of their reliability and validity with an evaluation of new hand-held computerized systems for temporal tracking of appetite ratings. British Journal of Nutrition. 84 (4) p405-415.