Why do we need clean energy
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Why do we need clean energy - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Why do we need clean energy. Name: Mena Jorree Email mena.jorree@gmail.com School: City College Academy of the Arts. Steps of the PPA. Define the Problem Gather the evidence Identify the Causes Examine an existing policy Develop Solutions

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Why do we need clean energy

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Why do we need clean energy

Name: Mena Jorree

Email mena.jorree@gmail.com

School: City College Academy of the Arts

Steps of the PPA

  • Define the Problem

  • Gather the evidence

  • Identify the Causes

  • Examine an existing policy

  • Develop Solutions

  • Select the best solution( Feasibility Vs. effectiveness)

Define the Problem

  • Pollution caused by fossil fuels

    Fossil fuels—coal, oil, and natural gas—are America's primary source of energy, accounting for 85 percent of current US fuel use.

Global Warming

  • Among the gases emitted when fossil fuels are burned, one of the most significant is carbon dioxide, a gas that traps heat in the earth's atmosphere.

  • Over the last 150 years, burning fossil fuels has resulted in more than a 25 percent increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in our atmosphere.

  • Since reliable records began in the late 1800s, the global average surface temperature has risen 0.5-1.1 degrees Fahrenheit (0.3-0.6 degrees Celsius).

Global Warming

Global Warming

  • If carbon dioxide levels continue to increase, the planet will become warmer in the next century.

  • Projected temperature increases will most likely result in a variety of impacts. Such as sea-level rise due to the warming of the melting of glaciers. Countries below sea level are at greatest treat.

  • More extreme weather events. And inland agricultural zones could suffer an increase in the frequency of droughts.

Air pollution

  • Clean air is essential to life and good health. Several important pollutants are produced by fossil fuel combustion: carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, and hydrocarbons. In addition, total suspended particulates contribute to air pollution, and nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons can combine in the atmosphere to form tropospheric ozone, the major constituent of smog.

Air Pollution

  • Carbon monoxide is a gas formed as a by-product during the incomplete combustion of all fossil fuels. Exposure to carbon monoxide can cause headaches and place additional stress on people with heart disease. Cars and trucks are the primary source of carbon monoxide emissions.

Air Pollution

  • Sulfur oxides are produced by the oxidization of the available sulfur in a fuel.

  • Nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides are important constituents of acid rain. These gases combine with water vapor in clouds to form sulfuric and nitric acids, which become part of rain and snow.

  • As the acids accumulate, lakes and rivers become too acidic for plant and animal life. Acid rain also affects crops and buildings.

  • Finally, fossil fuel use also produces particulates, including dust, soot, smoke, and other suspended matter, which are respiratory irritants. In addition, particulates may contribute to acid rain formation.

Water and Land Pollution

  • Production, transportation, and use of oil can cause water pollution. Oil spills, for example, leave waterways and their surrounding shores uninhabitable for some time. Such spills often result in the loss of plant and animal life. Coal mining also contributes to water pollution. Coal contains pyrite, a sulfur compound; as water washes through mines, this compound forms a dilute acid, which is then washed into nearby rivers and streams.

Water and Land Pollution

  • Coal mining, especially strip mining, affects the area that is being mined. Characteristically, the material closest to the coal is acidic. After the mining is completed, the land will remain barren unless special precautions are taken to ensure that proper topsoil is used when the area is replanted. Materials other than coal are also brought to the surface in the coal mining process, and these are left as solid wastes. As the coal itself is washed, more waste material is left. Finally, as the coal is burned, the remaining ash is left as a waste product.

Thermal Pollution

  • During the electricity-generation process, burning fossil fuels produce heat energy, some of which is used to generate electricity. Because the process is inefficient, much of the heat is released to the atmosphere or to water that is used as a coolant. Heated air is not a problem, but heated water, once returned to rivers or lakes, can upset the aquatic ecosystem

Gather the Evidence

  • The U.S. uses fossil fuels to generate more than 2/3 of its electricity. 51% is generated with coal, 15% is generated with natural gas, and 3% is generated with petroleum. In 1999, electric power plants produced approximately 2.2 billion tons of carbon dioxide, 12 million tons of sulfur dioxide, and 7 million tons of nitrogen oxides. The average coal-fired power plant is only 1/3 efficient, meaning 2/3 of the energy in the fuel is wasted.

    U.S. Census Records

Gather the Evidence

This graph, based on the comparison of atmospheric samples contained in ice cores and more recent direct measurements, provides evidence that atmospheric CO2 has increased since the Industrial Revolution. (Source: NOAA) Industrial Revolution. (Source: NOAA)

Gather the Evidence

Sea level rise

  • Global sea level rose about 17 centimeters (6.7 inches) in the last century. The rate in the last decade, however, is nearly double that of the last century.

    Ocean acidification

  • Since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution, the acidity of surface ocean waters has increased by about 30 percent. This increase is the result of humans emitting more carbon dioxide into the atmosphere and hence more being absorbed into the oceans. The amount of carbon dioxide absorbed by the upper layer of the oceans is increasing by about 2 billion tons per year. NOAA

Burning fossil fuels releases significant quantities of carbon dioxide, aggravating climate change. Although it gets less attention these days, combustion also emits volumes of pollutants, which can cause a variety of illnesses. The most extensive consequences across the U.S. are noted below.

Identify the Causes

  • The United States consumed a total of 6.87 billion barrels (18.83 million barrels per day) in 2011 and 7.0 billion barrels (19.18 million barrels per day) of refined petroleum products and biofuels in 2010. For both years, this was about 22% of total world petroleum consumption


Identify the Causes

Fossil fuels are relatively cheaper and readily available.

  • Fossil fuels are cheaper and can be more efficient compared to alternative energy sources such as solar panels.

Identify the Causes

World’s machines are built to run on fossil fuels

The United Statesand most of the world’s machines are built to fossil fuel economy. Our automobiles, trains and planes are fueled almost exclusively by petroleum products like gasoline and diesel. A huge percentage of our power plants use oil, natural gas and coal for their fuel.

Identify the Causes

More Choice In Transportation

  • Stop cutting public transit funds and invest in mass transit, building of railways and other infrastructures to make it more accessible to the people.

  • According to a new report, switching to public transportation would save the average driver a whopping $10,120 a year.

Evaluate an Existing Policy

Support Clean Energy Tax Credits

Appropriate government incentives can be an important tool to speed deployment and reduce costs for clean energy technologies.

In recent years there has been federal support for renewable resources like wind and solar power. However, the government still continues to give larger subsidies to continue the mass production of coal, natural gas, and nuclear power.

UCS ( union of concerned scientists) experts work to identify and promote practical, cost-effective energy policies that emphasize renewable energy, increase energy efficiency, and decrease our use of coal and other fossil fuels.

Evaluate an Existing Policy

The government needs to a fair and stable federal tax policy for renewable energy that will attract new investments and maintain the strong growth that renewables have experienced in recent years. 

The Production Tax Credit (PTC)—a federal incentive that provides crucial financial support for the first ten years of a renewable energy facility's operation—offers a striking example of the benefits, and challenges, of establishing smart government policies for renewable energy.

Develop Solution

Smart Energy Solutions: Strengthen Policy

  • We need smart energy solutions that provide reliable and affordable electricity, contribute to a strong economy, and do not compromise our health or our climate.  No single energy technology can accomplish all of this. The answer lies instead in a diverse energy strategy that focuses on practical, cost-effective solutions with the greatest potential to move the country toward a clean, sustainable energy future.

    Emphasize Renewable Energy

  • Renewable energy is reliable, affordable, and beneficial for our health, our economy, and our climate. The United States has vast wind, solar, geothermal, and other renewable resources to reliably meet our energy needs well into the future.

  • UCS supports a range of initiatives to speed the deployment of the most promising and cost-effective renewable technologies.

Develop Solution

Enhance Policies that Increase Energy Efficiency

  • If we use energy more efficiently, we need less of it in the first place. Improving the efficiency of our power generation—along with increased efficiency in buildings, appliances, and electronic devices—can continue to provide us the same level of services, comforts, and conveniences, while creating significant energy savings that would allow us to safely and reliably shut down old, dirty power plants.

  • http://www.ucsusa.org/clean_energy/smart-energy-solutions/

Select best solution

  • Now that we have go through many possible effective solutions, Complete the worksheet to come up with the best solution.

  • 1. Write down the problem

  • 2. look over the solutions above and summarize them in your own words

  • 3. Which of the solutions discussed above do you think will work best? Keep in mind that your solution must be the most effective and feasible at the same time (explain on the next slide).

    Use the work sheet below as a guide.

Select best solution

What is feasibility?

  • Will your policy cause a lot of money to put in place?

  • See link – Select Best Solution

  • Effectiveness refers to the likelihood that your policy will produce results that lessen the problem.

Select best solution

Make sure that

You select the most

Feasible solution,

Yet the most

Effective solution.

Select best solution

  • The best solution is ___________________________

  • Support your answer.


  • http://www.ucsusa.org/clean_energy/our-energy-choices/coal-and-other-fossil-fuels/the-hidden-cost-of-fossil.html

  • http://www.fuelfromthewind.com/pollution_%26_stats.htm

  • http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=graphic-science-health-care-burden-of-fossil-fuels

  • http://climate.nasa.gov/evidence

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