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# Applied Informatics - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Applied Informatics. Course 04 Information Storage Concepts. assist. eng. Jánó Rajmond , PhD [email protected] Introduction. In the real world information is present in analog form Must be digitized in order to be stored. Analog signal. Digitized signal. Data Representation.

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### Course 04Information Storage Concepts

assist. eng. Jánó Rajmond, PhD

[email protected]

• In the real world information is present in analog form

• Must be digitized in order to be stored

Analog signal

Digitized signal

• logical value (true/false)

• numerical values

• integers

• unsigned – natural numbers

• signed – whole numbers

• fractional

• alphanumeric – text

• multimedia

• audio

• video

• static images

• sequences of frames (video)

• signals – physical process measurements, acquired via sensors/transducers

• logical value (true/false)

• numerical values

• integers

• unsigned – natural numbers

• signed – whole numbers

• fractional

• alphanumeric – text

• multimedia

• audio

• video

• static images

• sequences of frames (video)

• signals – physical process measurements, acquired via sensors/transducers

• A numeral system is defined by

• the base of the system: b

• symbols used: 0, 1, 2, … (b-1)

• representation: Xb = xn…x2x1x0.x-1x-2…xm

• calculation of the value:

X= xn.bn+...+x2.b2+x1.b1+x0.b0 +x-1.b-1 + x-2.b-2 + ...+ xm.b-m

Numeral systems used in IT:

• binary

b = 2, s = [0, 1]

• decimal

b = 10, s = [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9]

b = 16, s = [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E, F]

• Integer part

• divide successively with the base (b) and retain the modulo of the division until 0 is reached

• read the moduli in inverse order for final result

35(10) = 100011(2)

• Fractional part

• multiply successively the factional part with the base (b) and retain the integer part

• read the retained integers in the obtained order

0.35(10) = 0.010110…(2)

What is 35.35(10) in binary?

100011.010110

Convert to binary the following:

• 3.14(10)

• 10.10(10)

• 23.45(10)

11.00100(2)

1010.00011(2)

10111.01110(2)

MSB

LSB

• X(10) = xn.2n+...+x2.22+x1.21+x0.20 +x-1.2-1 + x-2.2-2 + x-3.2-3 +...

X(10) = 1.25+1.24+0.23+1.22+1.21+0.20+0.2-1+1.2-2+0.2-3+1.2-4+0.2-5+0.2-6

= 32 + 16 + 0 + 4 + 2 + 0 + 0 +0.25+ 0+0.0625+ 0+ 0

= 54.3125

Convert to decimal the following values

• 1010(2)

• 1101.0101(2)

10(10)

13.3125(10)

• used to shorten the binary information

1 byte = 8 bits

1 nibble = 4 bits

1 nibble = 4 bits

1 nibble = 4 bits

D

6

11010110(2) = D6(16)

D6(16) = D6h = 0xD6

Binary Coded Decimal (BCD)

• To opposite operation to binary to hexa conversion

• Needs the exact same steps reversed

5 A

0101

1010

0x5A = 01011010b = 90

A microcontroller is connected via 8 digital lines to two BCD coded seven segment displays.

• What information should the microcontroller transmit to the displays in order to show: 45, 7A, bC?

• What information will the displays show of they receive: 1000 1111, 0011 1001?

• What decimal values correspond to the above hexadecimal values?

0100 0101

0111 1010

1011 1100

1000 1111

0011 1001

What is the highest number that can be represented on 8 bits?

1111 1111b = 0xFF = 255

• logical value (true/false)

• numerical values

• integers

• unsigned – natural numbers

• signed – whole numbers

• fractional

• alphanumeric – text

• multimedia

• audio

• video

• static images

• sequences of frames (video)

• signals – physical process measurements, acquired via sensors/transducers

• logical value (true/false)

• numerical values

• integers

• unsigned – natural numbers

• signed – whole numbers

• fractional

• alphanumeric – text

• multimedia

• audio

• video

• static images

• sequences of frames (video)

• signals – physical process measurements, acquired via sensors/transducers

• used to code alphanumeric characters and simple graphics that can be stored at the size of a single character

• widest used standard is the ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) standard (1 byte – max. 255 characters)

• the Unicode standard extends ASCII by adding an extra byte (2 bytes – max. 65536 characters)

The following message is stored in a computer’s RAM memory, coded in hexa ASCII. Decode the message!

Code the following message using the ASCII standard!

• logical value (true/false)

• numerical values

• integers

• unsigned – natural numbers

• signed – whole numbers

• fractional

• alphanumeric – text

• multimedia

• audio

• video

• static images

• sequences of frames (video)

• signals – physical process measurements, acquired via sensors/transducers

• logical value (true/false)

• numerical values

• integers

• unsigned – natural numbers

• signed – whole numbers

• fractional

• alphanumeric – text

• multimedia

• audio

• video

• static images

• sequences of frames (video)

• signals – physical process measurements, acquired via sensors/transducers

• combination of text, audio, images, animations, video and other forms of interactive content

• it usually needs special decoding processes which are aware of the coding methods used

specialized software

specialized hardware

CODEC

• acquired via data acquisition systems

Available online at:

http://www.ael.utcluj.ro/

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