Applied Informatics

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# Applied Informatics - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Applied Informatics. Course 04 Information Storage Concepts. assist. eng. Jánó Rajmond , PhD [email protected] Introduction. In the real world information is present in analog form Must be digitized in order to be stored. Analog signal. Digitized signal. Data Representation.

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### Course 04Information Storage Concepts

assist. eng. Jánó Rajmond, PhD

[email protected]

Introduction
• In the real world information is present in analog form
• Must be digitized in order to be stored

Analog signal

Digitized signal

Data Representation
• logical value (true/false)
• numerical values
• integers
• unsigned – natural numbers
• signed – whole numbers
• fractional
• alphanumeric – text
• multimedia
• audio
• video
• static images
• sequences of frames (video)
• signals – physical process measurements, acquired via sensors/transducers
Data Representation
• logical value (true/false)
• numerical values
• integers
• unsigned – natural numbers
• signed – whole numbers
• fractional
• alphanumeric – text
• multimedia
• audio
• video
• static images
• sequences of frames (video)
• signals – physical process measurements, acquired via sensors/transducers
Numeral systems
• A numeral system is defined by
• the base of the system: b
• symbols used: 0, 1, 2, … (b-1)
• representation: Xb = xn…x2x1x0.x-1x-2…xm
• calculation of the value:

X= xn.bn+...+x2.b2+x1.b1+x0.b0 +x-1.b-1 + x-2.b-2 + ...+ xm.b-m

Numeral systems

Numeral systems used in IT:

• binary

b = 2, s = [0, 1]

• decimal

b = 10, s = [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9]

b = 16, s = [0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E, F]

Decimal to Binary Conversion
• Integer part
• divide successively with the base (b) and retain the modulo of the division until 0 is reached
• read the moduli in inverse order for final result

35(10) = 100011(2)

Decimal to Binary Conversion
• Fractional part
• multiply successively the factional part with the base (b) and retain the integer part
• read the retained integers in the obtained order

0.35(10) = 0.010110…(2)

What is 35.35(10) in binary?

100011.010110

Decimal to Binary Conversion

Convert to binary the following:

• 3.14(10)
• 10.10(10)
• 23.45(10)

11.00100(2)

1010.00011(2)

10111.01110(2)

Binary to Decimal Conversion

MSB

LSB

• X(10) = xn.2n+...+x2.22+x1.21+x0.20 +x-1.2-1 + x-2.2-2 + x-3.2-3 +...

X(10) = 1.25+1.24+0.23+1.22+1.21+0.20+0.2-1+1.2-2+0.2-3+1.2-4+0.2-5+0.2-6

= 32 + 16 + 0 + 4 + 2 + 0 + 0 +0.25+ 0+0.0625+ 0+ 0

= 54.3125

Binary to Decimal Conversion

Convert to decimal the following values

• 1010(2)
• 1101.0101(2)

10(10)

13.3125(10)

• used to shorten the binary information

1 byte = 8 bits

1 nibble = 4 bits

1 nibble = 4 bits

1 nibble = 4 bits

D

6

11010110(2) = D6(16)

D6(16) = D6h = 0xD6

Binary Coded Decimal (BCD)

• To opposite operation to binary to hexa conversion
• Needs the exact same steps reversed

5 A

0101

1010

0x5A = 01011010b = 90

Exercise

A microcontroller is connected via 8 digital lines to two BCD coded seven segment displays.

• What information should the microcontroller transmit to the displays in order to show: 45, 7A, bC?
• What information will the displays show of they receive: 1000 1111, 0011 1001?
• What decimal values correspond to the above hexadecimal values?
Exercise

0100 0101

0111 1010

1011 1100

Exercise

1000 1111

0011 1001

Exercise

What is the highest number that can be represented on 8 bits?

1111 1111b = 0xFF = 255

Data Representation
• logical value (true/false)
• numerical values
• integers
• unsigned – natural numbers
• signed – whole numbers
• fractional
• alphanumeric – text
• multimedia
• audio
• video
• static images
• sequences of frames (video)
• signals – physical process measurements, acquired via sensors/transducers
Data Representation
• logical value (true/false)
• numerical values
• integers
• unsigned – natural numbers
• signed – whole numbers
• fractional
• alphanumeric – text
• multimedia
• audio
• video
• static images
• sequences of frames (video)
• signals – physical process measurements, acquired via sensors/transducers
Alphanumeric Codes
• used to code alphanumeric characters and simple graphics that can be stored at the size of a single character
• widest used standard is the ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) standard (1 byte – max. 255 characters)
• the Unicode standard extends ASCII by adding an extra byte (2 bytes – max. 65536 characters)
Exercise

The following message is stored in a computer’s RAM memory, coded in hexa ASCII. Decode the message!

Exercise

Code the following message using the ASCII standard!

Data Representation
• logical value (true/false)
• numerical values
• integers
• unsigned – natural numbers
• signed – whole numbers
• fractional
• alphanumeric – text
• multimedia
• audio
• video
• static images
• sequences of frames (video)
• signals – physical process measurements, acquired via sensors/transducers
Data Representation
• logical value (true/false)
• numerical values
• integers
• unsigned – natural numbers
• signed – whole numbers
• fractional
• alphanumeric – text
• multimedia
• audio
• video
• static images
• sequences of frames (video)
• signals – physical process measurements, acquired via sensors/transducers
Multimedia
• combination of text, audio, images, animations, video and other forms of interactive content
• it usually needs special decoding processes which are aware of the coding methods used

specialized software

specialized hardware

CODEC

Signals
• acquired via data acquisition systems
Courses

Available online at:

http://www.ael.utcluj.ro/

Information for Students -> Courses -> Applied Informatics