End user attitudes towards edm use in project work a case study of the kamppi center project
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End-user attitudes towards EDM use in project work A case study of the Kamppi Center project. M.Sc. thesis research methods and results. 29 March 2006 Mathias Hjelt Swedish School of Economics and Business Administration. Research objectives.

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End-user attitudes towards EDM use in project work A case study of the Kamppi Center project

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End user attitudes towards edm use in project work a case study of the kamppi center project

End-user attitudes towards EDM use in project workA case study of the Kamppi Center project

M.Sc. thesis research methods and results

29 March 2006

Mathias Hjelt

Swedish School of Economics and Business Administration


Research objectives

Research objectives

  • Explore end-user attitudes towards EDM usage in a large construction project:

    • How do users across different segments of the project organisation perceive the benefits and challenges of EDM use?

  • Propose a model describing factors affecting individual EDM adoption


Case kamppi center

Case: Kamppi Center

  • 500 million EUR construction project including:

    • a shopping centre

    • underground bus and cargo terminals

    • 12,500 m² of office space

    • 5,700 m ² of residential apartments

    • parking facilities

  • SRV Viitoset appointed design & build contractor

    • 3 architectural offices

    • ~ 20 structural / technical design offices

    • Hundreds of subcontractors


  • Case kamppi center1

    Case: Kamppi Center

    • Electronic document management in the project:

      • ASP / web based Raksanet

      • Used by 340 users from 90 organisations

      • 17,000 documents organised in 1700 folders

      • Mainly DWG, PLT, PDF, Word, Excel

      • Automatic paper copy distribution


    Ict adoption theory

    ICT adoption theory

    Adoption decisions in an organization(Gallivan 2001)

    Management

    objectives

    and intentions

    for change

    Mandate

    to adopt

    Primary

    innovation

    adoption

    process

    Secondary

    innovation

    adoption

    process

    Availability of

    technological

    innovation

    Other

    influences


    Ict adoption theory1

    ICT adoption theory

    Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology(Venkatesh et al 2003)

    • The UTAUT model is based on previous frameworks: innovation diffusion theory, TRA, TAM, MPCU, etc..

    • Intention and actual use influenced by:

      • effort expectancy

      • perfomance expectancy

      • social influence

      • facilitating conditions


    Ict adoption theory2

    ICT adoption theory

    Updated IS Success Model(DeLone & McLean 2003)

    • User’s intention to use is influenced by three dimensions of quality:

      • system quality

      • information quality

      • support quality


    Research design

    Research design

    • Phase 2

    • Objective: gain deeper understanding

    • Qualitative

    • 5 users + 1 expert

    • Sample based on phase 1

    In-depth

    Interviews

    • Phase 1

    • Objective: “draw the big picture”

    • Quantitative

    • Entire user base

    Survey

    Log file

    analysis


    Survey

    Survey

    • 19 Likert-scale questions on the topics of:

      • Respondent background (e.g. previous EDM experience)

      • Support quality (received training, support, guidelines)

      • System quality (e.g. reliability, functionality, ease of use)

      • Information quality (contents of the EDM, structure)

      • EDM vs other channels of communication

      • Overall perception of benefits

    • 1 free-text comment

    • Web based implementation

      • Covering letter sent by e-mail to all active users (n=282)

      • Each respondent given a unique URL in the e-mail

        • http://kamppi.iterate.fi/KABCDE

        • The link contains an ID which helps tracking responses

      • Answer required on all quantitative questions

        • Effect: 20 partial responses  13 complete ones


    Ensuring a satisfactory response rate

    Ensuring a satisfactory response rate

    • Cover letter credibility

      • From: SRV Viitoset’s director of planning

    • Low effort

      • Questionnaire can be completed in 5 minutes

      • All questions on page – you see what you’re in for

    • Incentives

      • Non-monetary: ”get your voice heard”

      • Monetary: 2 x 100 € gift certificates

    • Timing

      • post-holidays, Monday a.m.

    • Follow-up / reminder

      • ”You still have a chance to give your input / win a gift certificate”


    Response statistics

    Response statistics

    • Respondents:

      • 282 intended recipients

      • 13 unreachable (invalid email addresses, over-quota mailboxes etc)

      • 167 actual responses

      • Active response rate 167/(282-13) = 62 %


    Interviews

    Interviews

    • 5 end-user interviews

      • 2 project management

      • 1 architect

      • 1 subcontractor

      • 1 city planning

    • 1 expert interview


    Previous edm experience

    Previous EDM experience

    • 53 % were first-time EDM users


    Attitude towards edm

    Attitude towards EDM

    • At the outset of the project:

      • Experienced EDM users were more confident regarding benefits than first-time EDM users

      • Subcontractors were the least experienced; thus also the most sceptical

    • At the end of the project:

      • A majority reported that their attitude had improved

      • Subcontractors reported the biggest improvement!


    Perceived benefits of edm usage

    Perceived benefits of EDM usage

    • Most respondents considered EDM essential in a project of this size and complexity


    Other channels of communication

    Other channels of communication

    • Still the use of parallel channels was considered a major source of stress and extra work!


    Perceived barriers to edm use

    Perceived barriers to EDM use

    • Why didn’t EDM replace other channels of communication?

      • Using the system was considered slow and cumbersome - sending a file by email much easier and faster

      • Users did not receive enough training or guidelines – the complexity of the contents was perceived as the biggest challenge to getting started


    Key findings

    Key findings

    • Users quick to revert to other channels if EDM not perceived as easy to use or useful

    • Two aspects influence ease-of-use and usefulness:

      • System quality: The technical aspects of using the software

      • Information quality: The actual contents, structure, meta-data practices, etc

    • Users need training and guidelines regarding both aspects!

      • Self-learning not always viable

      • Learning from colleagues not always viable

      • Thus, formal training should be organised


    End user attitudes towards edm use in project work a case study of the kamppi center project

    Service provided

    End users

    Dimensions of quality

    Acceptance factors

    Individual properties

    System quality

    - functionality

    - usability

    Effort expectancy

    Involvement in project

    Involvement in the information process

    Information accessibility

    Performance expectancy

    IT skills & personality

    Information quality

    - up to date, accurate

    - complete

    - well structured

    Social influence

    Company properties

    Management attitude

    Support quality

    - training

    - guidelines

    Infrastructure

    Facilitating conditions

    Support from collegues

    Use

    User satisfaction


    Evaluation of research methods

    Evaluation of research methods

    • Web-based questionnaire successful, but...

      • respondents skewed towards more active users

      • difficult trade-off between detail and likelihood of getting a broad response (4-point Likert scales perhaps too coarse, certain questions ambiguous..)

    • Matching of quantitative and qualitative data

      • quantitative answers appeared largely positive; free-text comments and interview responses much more critical

    • Number of interviews...


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