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COEUR - BCM Business Creativity Module Critical Thinking and the Creative Personality Carolyn McNicholas Aberdeen Business School, RGU. Key Questions. How do creative/ entrepreneurial people differ? What makes one creative/ entrepreneurial? Can anyone be creative/ entrepreneurial?

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COEUR - BCMBusiness Creativity ModuleCritical Thinking and the Creative Personality Carolyn McNicholasAberdeen Business School, RGU

key questions
Key Questions
  • How do creative/ entrepreneurial people differ?
  • What makes one creative/ entrepreneurial?
  • Can anyone be creative/ entrepreneurial?
  • Do you need special skills and characteristics to be an entrepreneur?
  • Are entrepreneurs born or made?
personality traits
Personality Traits

Strong need for achievement (Nach) McCelland 1965

  • high achievers
  • spend time considering how to do a job better or how to accomplish something important to them.
  • They actively seek out opportunities to take responsibility and
  • They welcome feedback on their actions

Risk taking propensity

  • Medium, calculated risk takers
  • Avoid high and low risk situations
  • Ability to evaluate risk
personality traits1
Personality Traits
  • Locus of control Rotter 1966
  • desire to be in control of their own fate
  • High internal LOC
  • the achievement of a goal is dependent on their own behaviour
  • Tolerance of ambiguity Schere 1982
  • have an open mind,
  • respond quickly to change,
  • need to know only the key facts
  • have a flexible attitude
personality traits2
Personality Traits
  • Desire for autonomyBirley and Westhead 1993
  • high need for independence
  • Smith 1967- fear of external control
  • Determination
  • Initiative
  • Creativity
  • Self confidence
  • Trust
personality traits chell haworth and brearley 1994 chell 2008
Personality Traits Chell, Haworth and Brearley (1994) & Chell 2008
  • Opportunity recognition/ Opportunistic
  • Entrepreneurial self-efficacy (ESE)
  • Social competence
  • Intuitive
  • Innovative
  • Imaginative
  • Proactive
  • Agents of change
the personality approach
The Personality Approach

Observations are that:

  • Some personality traits can be acquired by people
  • Some traits eg high energy, emotional stability are innate
  • Most entrepreneurs do not possess all of the ideal personality traits
  • The validity and reliability of personality scales are questioned
the personality approach1
The Personality Approach
  • Entrepreneurs are not homogenous
  • Gender, age, social class, nationality and education make a difference
  • Environment and cultural influences must also be taken into account
  • Entrepreneurial decision making is based on the interaction of many factors (motivations, stage in life cycle, personal economic context)
background of entrepreneurs
Background of Entrepreneurs

Entrepreneurs are:

  • Female
  • Immigrant
  • Socially oriented
  • Family oriented
  • Rurally based
  • Young and old
  • Life style oriented (hobby/part time)
  • Serial Entrepreneurs
the 10 ds bygrave 2010
Dreamers

Decisive

Doers

Determined

Dedicated

Devoted

Details

Destiny

Dollars

Distribute

The 10 Ds Bygrave (2010)
critical attributes for success brannick 1995
Critical Attributes for Success Brannick 1995
  • Numerical ability 1%
  • Verbal ability 3%
  • Professional marketing qualification 5%
  • Computer literacy 5%
  • Imagination 17%
  • Observational powers 18%
  • Personal judgement 24%
  • Ability to get on with others 27%
  • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Tod1moy8VZM
desirable and acquirable attitudes timmons 2008
Desirable and Acquirable Attitudes Timmons (2008)

Commitment and determination

  • Tenacity and decisiveness
  • Able to commit quickly
  • Disciplined
  • Persistent in solving problems
  • Willing to undertake personal sacrifice

Leadership 

  • Self starter
  • Team builder and hero
  • Share the wealth
  • Integrity and reliability
  • Superior learner and teacher
desirable and acquirable attitudes timmons 20081
Desirable and Acquirable Attitudes Timmons (2008)
  • Opportunity obsession
  • Have intimate knowledge of customers needs
  • Market driven
  • Obsessed with value creation and enhancement
  • Tolerance of risk, ambiguity and uncertainty
  • Calculated risk taker
  • Risk minimiser/ sharer
  • Tolerant of uncertainty
  • Tolerant of stress
  • Able to resolve problems and integrate solutions
desirable and acquirable attitudes timmons 2008 contd
Desirable and Acquirable Attitudes Timmons (2008) contd
  • Creativity, self-reliance & ability to adapt
  • Creative and lateral thinker
  • Ability to adapt and change; creative problem solver
  • Ability to learn quickly
  • Rely on own judgement & lack of fear of failure
  • Motivation to excel
  • Goal and results orientation
  • Low need for status and power
  • Aware of weaknesses and strengths
  • Have perspective and a sense of humour
characteristics of entrepreneurs kaplan 2009
Characteristics of Entrepreneurs Kaplan 2009
  • Passionately seek to identify new opportunities
  • Pursue opportunities with discipline and focus on a limited number of projects
  • Focus on action and execution
  • Involve and energise networks of relationships
so what is an entrepreneur
So what is an Entrepreneur?
  • “Who is the entrepreneur ?” may be the wrong question
  • Why successful entrepreneurs think the way they do, might be better?
  • Thinking processes can be taught, so we can all be entrepreneurs if we learn how to develop and evaluate opportunities
cognitive abilities westhead wright mcelwee 2011
Cognitive abilitiesWesthead, Wright & McElwee 2011
  • Information acquisition and dissemination
  • Intelligence, ability with information
  • Sense making
  • Unlearning
  • Implementation and improvisation, autonomous behaviour, experimentation, reflection and action
entrepreneurs cognitive processes palich bagby 1995
Entrepreneurs Cognitive Processes (Palich & Bagby 1995)
  • Entrepreneurs do NOT perceive themselves as being more pre-disposed to taking risks than managers
  • Entrepreneurs interpret equivocal data in a more positive way than managers
    • Strengths versus weaknesses
    • Opportunities versus threats
entrepreneurs cognitive processes palich bagby 19951
Entrepreneurs Cognitive Processes (Palich & Bagby 1995)
  • “What each man wishes, that he also believes to be true” - Demonsthenes
  • Entrepreneurs categorise situations as having strengths and opportunities, because the positive attributes, are more salient to them
components of critical thinking
Components of CriticalThinking
  • A set of skills to process and generate information and beliefs, and
  • The habit, based on intellectual commitment, of using those skills to guide behaviour

It is contrasted with the mere acquisition and retention of information alone, (because it involves a particular way in which information is sought and treated)

core critical thinking skills

Critical Thinking

Core Critical Thinking Skills

Interpretation

Analysis

Evaluation

Self-Regulation

Inference

Explanation

Source: Facione, P. A (1998)

attributes of a critical thinker ferrett 1997
Attributes Of A Critical Thinker Ferrett 1997
  • Asks pertinent questions 
  • Can/does admit a lack of understanding or information 
  • Has a sense of curiosity 
  • Is interested to find new solutions 
  • Is willing to examine beliefs, assumptions, and opinions and weigh them against facts 
  • Listens carefully to others and can provide feedback 
  • Seeks evidence to support assumptions and beliefs 
  • Can/does adjust opinions when new facts are found 
hemispheres of the brain ornstein 1896
Hemispheres of the brain Ornstein 1896

The left side handles language, logic and symbols.

  • Information processing; step by step
  • Systematic thinking

The right side takes care of the body\'s emotional, intuitive and spatial functions.

  • Information processing; intuitive
  • Unsystematic thinking

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Spinning_Dancer

right brain thinking lewis 1987
Right brain thinking Lewis 1987
  • ask if there is a better way of doing things;
  • challenge custom, routine and tradition;
  • be reflective – often deep in thought;
  • play mental games, trying to see an issue from a different perspective;
  • realise that there may be more than one “right” answer;
  • see mistakes and failures as pitstops on the route to success;
  • relate seemingly unrelated ideas to a problem to generate a solution; and
  • see an issue from a broader perspective, but have the ability to focus on an area in need of change.
entrepreneurial skills
Entrepreneurial skills
  • communication skills, especially persuasion;
  • creativity skills;
  • critical thinking and assessment skills;
  • leadership skills;
  • negotiation skills;
  • problem-solving skills;
  • social networking skills; and
  • time-management skills.
slide28
Deakins, D and Freel, M. 2009.Entrepreneurship and Small Firms. 5th Edition, McGraw Hill.
  • Kuratko, D, & Hodgetts, M 1995 Entrepreneurship: Theory, Process and Practice Thomson
  • Burns, P 2007 Entrepreneurship and Small Firms 2nd ed. Palgrave Macmillan
  • CHELL, E 2008 The entrepreneurial personality: a social construction
  • HULL, D., BOSLEY, J., UDELL, G 1980 Renewing the hunt for the heffalump: identifying potential entrepreneurs by personality characteristics, Journal of Small Business, 18: 11–18.
  • McCELLAND, D. C. 1965 Achievement motivation can be developed, Harvard Business Review, 43: 6–24, 178.
  • PALICH, L. E. and BAGBY, D. R. (1995) Using cognitive theory to explain entrepreneurial risk-taking – challenging conventional wisdom, Journal of Business Venturing, 10: 425–438.
  • TIMMONS, J. A., SMOLLEN, L. E. and DINGEE, A. L. M. (1985) New Venture Creation, (2nd ed.), Homewood, IL: Irwin.
  • ZHANG, Z, ZYPHUR, M, NARAYANAN, J 2009 The genetic basis of entrepreneurship:effects of gender and personality. Organizational Behavior and Human decision processes110 pp93-107
  • ZHAO, H, SEIBERT, S., LUMPKIN, G 2010 The relationship of personality to entrepreneurial intentions and performance: A meta analytic review Journal of Management 36(2) pp381-404
  • KAPLAN, J 2009 Patterns of entrepreneurship. 3rd ed. New Jersey: Wiley & Sons
  • Bygrave, W & Zacharakis A, 2010 The portable MBA in Entrepreneurship.  
slide29

Timmons, J & Spinelli, S 2008 New venture creation: Entrepreneurship for the 21st Century

  • STOREY, D & GREENE, F 2010 Small business and entrepreneurship Prentice Hall
  • CROMBIE, I., 1996 The Pocket Guide to Critical Appraisal.London: PMJ Publishing Group
  • VAN DEN BRINK-BUDGEN,R., 2000 Critical Thinking for Students. Oxfor
  • COTTRELL, S., 2005 Critical Thinking Skills Basingstoke:Palgrave Lewis, D. (1987), Mind Skills: Giving Your Child a Brighter Future, Souvenir Press, London
  • Ornstein, R. (1986), The Psychology of Consciousness, Penguin, Harmondsworth,
  • David A. Kirby, (2004) "Entrepreneurship education: can business schools meet the challenge?", Education + Training, Vol. 46 (8/9), pp.510 – 519
  • Ferrett, S. (1997) Peak Performance
  • CHELL, E (2008) The entrepreneurial personality; a social construction. 2nd ed. Routledge
  • http://www.get2test.net/index.htm
  • Online test of entrepreneurship
  • http://www.personalitytest.net/quizzes/quiz3/index.htm
  • Online test of right/ left brain
slide30
STEFFENS, P., DAVIDSSON, P, FITZSIMMONS, J 2009 performance configurations over time: implications for growth and profit oriented strategies Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice January pp125-148
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  • BIRLEY, S. and WESTHEAD, P. (1993) A comparison of new businesses established by “novice” and “habitual” founders in Great Britain, International Small Business Journal, 12: 38–60.
  • SMITH, N. R. (1967) The Entrepreneur and His Firm: The Relationship Between Type of Man and Type of Company, East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Press
  • ROTTER, J. B. (1966) Generalised expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement, Psychological Monographs, Whole No. 609, 80: 1–28.
  • SSCHERE, J. C. (1982) Tolerance of ambiguity as a discriminating variable between entrepreneurs and managers, Academy of Management Proceedings, 45: 404–408.
  • DELMAR, F., DAVIDSSON, P. 2000 Where do they come from? Prevalence and characteristics of nascent entrepreneurs Entrepreneurship and Regional Development1 21–23.
  • WESTHEAD, P., WRIGHT., W, MCELWEE, G 2011 Entrepreneurship; perspectives and cases. Harlow: Prentice Hall
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