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Industrial Regions. Western Europe HDI: 0.93. strong tradition of economic growth and development. Relied on colonization for raw materials. Industrial Regions. United Kingdom Rhine-Ruhr Valley Mid-Rhine Northern Italy. United Kingdom.

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western europe hdi 0 93
Western Europe HDI: 0.93
  • strong tradition of economic growth and development.
  • Relied on colonization for raw materials
industrial regions1
Industrial Regions
  • United Kingdom
  • Rhine-Ruhr Valley
  • Mid-Rhine
  • Northern Italy
united kingdom
United Kingdom
  • Industrial Revolution originated within the United Kingdom.
  • majority of factories in UK survived WWII
  • Because of outdated factories of production the UK has steadily been losing its comparative advantage to progressing nations.
rhine ruhr valley
Rhine-Ruhr Valley
  • Northwestern Germany, Belgium, France, and the Netherlands
    • large coal and iron reservoirs leading to a massive steel, locomotive, machinery, and armament industry
    • Creation of a major port due to a river; Rotterdam the largest port in Europe.
northern italy
Northern Italy
  • region allowed for cheaper labor as well as hydroelectric power
  • Major textile region emerging at the end of the 19th century and early 20th century
eastern europe hdi 0 80
Eastern Europe HDI: 0.80
  • Distance Decay – the closer countries are to W. Europe, the better their economy
  • Because of a slow transition Russia has been declining gradually across the years in HDI.
russian industry
Russian Industry
  • Central Industrial district – oldest region located around Moscow. Chosen for its central location and population center.
  • St. Petersburg Industrial district – major industry of shipbuilding and sea trading
  • Volga Industrial district – large natural gas reservoirs with resources created that can be sent down the Volga river.
russian cont
Russian cont.
  • Ural industrial district – mineral rich sector heavily industrialized by the Russians. Remote access means energy resources must be shipped to this sector.
  • Kuznetsk industrial district – large deposits of coal and iron leading to major steel productions within the region. Largest development East of the Ural Mountains.
eastern europe industry
Eastern Europe Industry
  • Eastern Ukraine – large coal reserves and deposits of iron ore make this region the largest producer of cheap steel in Eastern Europe.
  • Silesia – Poland and Czech Republic industrial section because of large coal deposits regardless of limited resource of iron ore.
ecological disaster
Ecological Disaster
  • Eastern Europe has some of the worst ecological disasters in history.
  • High levels of Sulfurous Oxide released from industrial centers have led to regions of dangerously high levels of Acid rain and pollution
the black triangle
The Black Triangle
  • Region in Eastern Europe of severe environmental damage due to over-industrialization
  • pH measurements have been as low as 2.4 in this region (normal rain is 5.5)
  • By product of the massive amount of industrialization byproduct released from industry within Germany.
commonwealth of independent states cis
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)
  • This is the Russian version of the European Union
  • A collection of former USSR member states united together for common economic purpose
  • Eurasian Economic Community (EEC)
  • Not nearly as strong as other regional organizations and hurt by its lack of supranationalism
conflict between eu and cis
Conflict between EU and CIS
  • CIS near constant state of economic hardship due to the flagging Russian economy
  • Member states increasing interest in leaving CIS to apply for membership in the EU (ex. Georgia)
  • Russia cannot afford to lose key trading partners which is resulting in strained relations within the CIS.
japan hdi 0 94
Japan HDI: 0.94
  • Initially exploited its
    • high population and
    • low cost of production to get a foothold in the global economy.
  • In the middle of the 20th century it switched to invest in education and specialized training in order to have a highly specialized workforce
  • Investments in Japan focus on research and development with enormous budgets in these areas by both businesses and government aid.
european model
European Model
  • Japan’s rapid industrial development was fueled by its early colonialism in Korea and Northern China (cheap labor)
  • With the aid of US foreign investment coupled with preventionist policies for private business, Japan was able to recover from the destruction of World War II.
japan today
Japan Today
  • Japan has the 3rd highest GDP at $4 trillion
  • Japan is the leading producers of automobiles within the world.
  • This is also an example of extreme capitalism
south pacific hdi 0 87
South Pacific HDI: 0.87
  • Economies are traditionally tied to the United Kingdom but have been increasing involvement with Asian nations.
  • Major exporter of food and resources but limited in economic influence due to its periphery location
east asia hdi 0 76
East Asia HDI: 0.76
  • Chinese Economy (4th in the world in GDP, 1/3 total world economic growth)
  • Low wages of Chinese workers has resulted in lower international factory wages.
  • China has an enormous demand on resources causing most industrial centers to be on the coast cutting cost of shipping supplies inland.
  • China - forgo environmental regulations as well as expanding development within the interior of the country.
southeast asia hdi 0 58
Southeast Asia HDI: 0.58

Climate does not allow for traditional cultivation which has forced countries to be exporters of industrial goods

  • Initially achieved high levels of development but due to corruption within the government foreign investment has decreased.
  • The governments are now trying to draw investment back to the state at cost to its citizens
south asia hdi 0 58
South Asia HDI: 0.58
  • Has high level of mineral resources but is hindered by its enormous population
  • Produces a large supply of agricultural goods that usually lead to surplus; issues is these good are reliant on seasonal rains.
  • India is a booming service economy. Telephone calling services have become a large part of the economy.
middle east hdi 0 68
Middle East HDI: 0.68
  • only region in the world that enjoys trade surplus due to increased oil reserves
  • struggles to balance economic development with cultural/religious beliefs
middle east cont
Middle East cont.
  • Alternative Human Development Index
    • Helps to explain how the Middle East lags in HDI
    • Operates on three principles of the region
      • Lack of Political Freedom
      • Low levels of education and literacy rates
      • Lack of opportunities for women
anglo america hdi 0 94
Anglo-America HDI: 0.94
  • Anglo-America is highly developed and endowed with uniform religion and language.
  • This region contains large amounts of mineral supplies as well as being underdeveloped for Agriculture
  • It provides much of the specialized labor in the global community and has adapted from a secondary economic system to a tertiary economic system.
  • Canada is primarily a resource exporting country
  • There is limited manufacturing and aside from Primary the economy is largely focused in the Tertiary sector of the economy
  • Most of the industry that does exist occurs close to the border with the United States
canadian shield
Canadian Shield
  • This is one of the richest mineral deposits in the world
united states
United States
  • The development of United States industry was delayed because of their dependence on the United Kingdom
  • By 1860 the United States was the second largest industrial power in the world behind the United Kingdom
  • It was not until the later part of the 19th Century that American industry started to use the steel making process
latin america hdi 0 80
Latin America: HDI: 0.80
  • Majority of the population is concentrated in urban centers.
  • Mexico is greatly aided in industrialization by its proximity to the United States.
  • The interior of South America remains undeveloped and has been increasing in deforestation for lumber and agriculture.
  • Central America lags behind in development because of an inequity in land distribution by wealthy plantation owners.
major industrial centers
Major Industrial Centers
  • The two largest countries in industry are Brazil and Mexico
  • These countries used protectionists policies in order to prevent foreign industries from interfering with development
  • Most of these companies are located as close as possible to the major population centers.
the path to nafta
The path to NAFTA
  • Because of protectionist policies the companies in Latin America tended to be highly inefficient
  • When financial crisis hit during the 1970s these countries had to open up for outside industries.
  • For Mexico the only option was to work directly with the United States
north american free trade agreement nafta
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
  • This free trade agreement signed in 1994 opened the borders between the US, Canada, and Mexico
  • Without trade restrictions there was a sharp increase in the amount of industrial jobs relocating to Mexico
  • Maquiladora – plants located along the US-Mexico border that are taking advantage of cheap labor as well as proximity to the market
problems with nafta
Problems with NAFTA
  • Deindustrialization within the United States
  • Inconsistency with ‘free’ trade
  • With the United States’ enormous agricultural production Mexican farmers are unable to make a living
sub saharan africa hdi 0 51
Sub-Saharan Africa HDI: 0.51
  • This is a heavily rich region in resources
  • Faces issues with its enormous percent of population living in poverty.
  • Does not have the agricultural means to support the largest growing population in the world.
  • Faces internal issues due to previous colonial status.
  • Lack ability to ship goods from the country.
brandt line north south line1
Brandt Line (North/South Line)
  • This line is used to show the clear global trend of LDCs existing in the territory below 30° N latitude, with the exception of the South Pacific.
  • The LDCs closest to this line tend to have higher indexes then those further away.