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“The awkward fact with which US policy wrestles is that People flee the world’s Haitis for a combination of motives. PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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“The awkward fact with which US policy wrestles is that People flee the world’s Haitis for a combination of motives. All are deserving of some compassion but how much?” Newsweek , Dec. 4 1991. “Give me your tired, your poor, Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free,

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“The awkward fact with which US policy wrestles is that People flee the world’s Haitis for a combination of motives.

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“The awkward fact with which US policy wrestles is that

People flee the world’s Haitis for a combination of motives.

All are deserving of some compassion but how much?”

Newsweek, Dec. 4 1991

“Give me your tired, your poor,

Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free,

The wretched refuse of your teeming shore.

Send these, the homeless, tempest-tossed, to me”

Inscribed at base of Statue of Liberty, by Emma Lazarus


As you know

in the developing world treatable

infectious diseases remain big killers

Leading causes of death in Sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, and Southeast Asia for persons age

0-44 (World Health Organization)


Now it’s time to look at number 3:

Malaria

Leading causes of death in Sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, and Southeast Asia for persons age

0-44 (World Health Organization)


That’s right:

300 million new cases per year

making it the most prevalent serious infectious disease!

Leading causes of death in Sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, and Southeast Asia for persons age

0-44 (World Health Organization)


  • 2.1 billion people live in MALARIOUS areas


  • Like HIV and TB, malaria is

  • unequally distributed, even in the tropics


  • In areas of Africa with high transmission

  • there are 2700 deaths per day = 2 per minute

www.columbia.edu/itc/hs/medical/pathophys/parasitology/2006/PAR-05Color .pdf


It’s especially hard on kids


It’s especially hard on kids

75% of the deaths are among African children


www.uhhg.org/mcrh/resources/video/malariappt.pdf


What Is malaria?

  • A mosquito-borne infectious disease caused by Protozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium


What Is malaria?

  • Transmitted only by Anopheles Mosquitoes

    (>60 species!)

Seattle Biomedical Research Institute


What Is malaria?

  • The Disease can be Acute or Chronic


Acute Symptoms

  • Classical features include cyclic symptoms

    • Cold stage: chills and shaking

    • Hot stage: fever, headache, vomiting, seizures in children

    • Sweating stage: weakness

    • Feel well for period of time, then cycle repeats itself

www.uhhg.org/mcrh/resources/video/malariappt.pdf


In fact it is several different diseases


www.columbia.edu/itc/hs/medical/pathophys/parasitology/2006/PAR-05Color .pdf


Each disease has a distinct course


Each disease has a distinct course

“Tertian Malaria”

(P.falciparum, P.ovale and P.vivax)

fever occurs every third day.

“Quartan Malaria”

(P. malariae)

fever occurs every fourth day.

www.uhhg.org/mcrh/resources/video/malariappt.pdf


Each disease has a distinct course

P.ovale and P.vivax

can cause chronic malaria,

reappearing after months or years

due to latent parasites in liver

www.uhhg.org/mcrh/resources/video/malariappt.pdf


Each disease also has a distinct geographical distribution

www.uhhg.org/mcrh/resources/video/malariappt.pdf


Each disease also has a distinct geographical distribution

www.columbia.edu/itc/hs/medical/pathophys/parasitology/2006/PAR-05Color .pdf


Each disease also has a distinct geographical distribution

www.columbia.edu/itc/hs/medical/pathophys/parasitology/2006/PAR-05Color .pdf


Malaria damages the bodyin a number of ways

  • Red blood cell destruction -> anemia

  • Waves of parasites bursting red blood cells

    Lead to classic cycles of fever and chills


Malaria damages the bodyin a number of ways

  • Changes adhesive properties of infected

    Red blood cells -> blocking blood vessels leading to Tissue hypoxia


Malaria damages the bodyin a number of ways

  • If this happens in brain it is cerebral malaria

    which is often fatal

    Blocking blood

    vessels can also

    cause kidney failure


Malaria damages the bodyin a number of ways

In severe cases 20% of patients can die,

even with the best care


DIAGNOSIS

  • Gold standard: Multiple thick and thin smears


Malaria is not currently a serious threat in the US

  • 1300 cases in US per year

  • Essentially all “imported”

  • Also transfusion related malaria

www.uhhg.org/mcrh/resources/video/malariappt.pdf


Although….

www.columbia.edu/itc/hs/medical/pathophys/parasitology/2006/PAR-05Color .pdf


Malaria is not currently a serious threat in the US


However, this was not always the case


Not that long ago….

www.columbia.edu/itc/hs/medical/pathophys/parasitology/2006/PAR-05Color .pdf


It could come back!

www.columbia.edu/itc/hs/medical/pathophys/parasitology/2006/PAR-05Color .pdf


Let step back and lookat the parasites that cause malaria


It was discovered more than 100 years ago

A French army doctor in Algeria observed parasites inside red blood cells of malaria patients and proposed for the first time that a protozoan caused disease

Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran

www.uhhg.org/mcrh/resources/video/malariappt.pdf


1907 Nobel Prize for Physiology

or Medicine!

French army doctor in Algeria observed parasites inside red blood cells of malaria patients and proposed for the first time that a protozoan caused disease

Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran

www.uhhg.org/mcrh/resources/video/malariappt.pdf


So just who

is this

Plasmodium?

www.columbia.edu/itc/hs/medical/pathophys/parasitology/2006/PAR-05Color .pdf


It’s not a

bacterium or

virus but a

eukaryote

like us

www.columbia.edu/itc/hs/medical/pathophys/parasitology/2006/PAR-05Color .pdf


However,

unlike us

it lives a

solitary life

as a single

cell

www.columbia.edu/itc/hs/medical/pathophys/parasitology/2006/PAR-05Color .pdf


Let’s go back to the family tree


Let’s go back to the family tree

http://drnelson.utmem.edu/Woods.Hole/slide5.png


Let’s go back to the family tree

You and me

http://drnelson.utmem.edu/Woods.Hole/slide5.png


mushrooms

You and me

http://drnelson.utmem.edu/Woods.Hole/slide5.png


mushrooms

You and me

plants

http://drnelson.utmem.edu/Woods.Hole/slide5.png


We are family….

mushrooms

You and me

Plasmodium

plants

http://drnelson.utmem.edu/Woods.Hole/slide5.png


They are on the same region of

the eukaryote tree as plants

You and me

Plasmodium

plants

http://drnelson.utmem.edu/Woods.Hole/slide5.png


Consistent with this,

we now know Plasmodium

and its relatives have a

remnant of the chloroplast

called the apicoplast

which may help it digest

heme and other things

it harvests from red blood cells


Consistent with this,

we now know Plasmodium

and its relatives have a

remnant of the chloroplast

called the apicoplast

which may help it digest

heme and other things

It harvests from red blood cells

We don’t have this sort of organelle

How might we use that fact??!


Plasmodium and its relatives

also have a specialized

Structure at one end of the cell

Involved in invading other cells


www.columbia.edu/itc/hs/medical/pathophys/parasitology/2006/PAR-05Color .pdf


Plasmodium’s closer relatives

Include parasites causing

Babesiosis, Toxoplasmosis,

And Cryptosporidiosis


Plasmodium has a wildly complex life cycle

6

2

5

3

4

1

Purves et al., Life: The Science of Biology, 4th Edition


And that’s just in the mosquito!

6

2

5

3

4

1

Purves et al., Life: The Science of Biology, 4th Edition


The wildly complex life cycle continued

7

8

Purves et al., Life: The Science of Biology, 4th Edition


Had enough yet??

9

Purves et al., Life: The Science of Biology, 4th Edition


Now we get to the troublesome stage

Cycles of replication inside red blood cells

Lead to cycles of fever and chills

And aggregated blood cells block blood vessels

10

Purves et al., Life: The Science of Biology, 4th Edition


We also need to get back to the next mosquito to complete the cycle

11

Purves et al., Life: The Science of Biology, 4th Edition


Here’s Glaxo-

SmithKline’s

Cliff Notes

version


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