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Tales from the Sausage Factory: How the Federal Government Gets a Budget. Neile L. Miller Director Office of Budget U.S. Department of Energy. Fiscal Year is Oct 1-Sept 30 Process takes 18 Months before money is available to spend During that time 3 budgets are in play. As of April, 2008:

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tales from the sausage factory how the federal government gets a budget

Tales from the Sausage Factory:How the Federal Government Gets a Budget

Neile L. Miller

Director

Office of Budget

U.S. Department of Energy

slide2

Fiscal Year is Oct 1-Sept 30

Process takes 18 Months before money is available to spend

During that time 3 budgets are in play. As of April, 2008:

FY-08 Budget is being spent

FY-09 budget is on the Hill

FY-10 Budget is being formulated in the agencies

Budget Calendar

~April

Outlines of the Administration budget for the coming year are in place.

April - Sept

Agencies prepare budget requests.

Sept

Agencies submit budgets to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB).

Sept-Nov

OMB analysis of agency submissions

Nov-Dec

Negotiations – Agencies and OMB.

Dec-Jan

Final decisions by Administration.

Feb

President submits Budget to Congress.

Feb – July

Congressional Hearings /Committee Markups.

June - July

Appropriations committees report bills.

Aug - Sept

Appropriations bills passed by Congress.

Oct 1- Sep 30

The new fiscal year (FY). Agencies spend the amounts appropriated.

slide3

Projections:

Inflation

Unemployment

Economic Growth

Size of Deficit

Administration Initiatives, e.g. Social Security

Budget Calendar

~April

Outlines of the Administration budget for the coming year are in place.

slide4

Agency Targets from OMB

Bottom up agency Process

Competition for funding within target

New Projects depending on room within target

Budget Calendar

~April

Outlines of the Administration budget for the coming year are in place.

April - Sept

Agencies prepare budget requests.

slide5

Budget within target

Over-Target items that agency is willing to argue for (or see cut if OMB does not increase target)

Budget Calendar

~April

Outlines of the Administration budget for the coming year are in place.

April - Sept

Agencies prepare budget requests.

Sept

Agencies submit budgets to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB).

slide6

Discussions with agencies

Director’s Review

Input from other offices in Executive Office of Pres.

Passback

Budget Calendar

~April

Outlines of the Administration budget for the coming year are in place.

April - Sept

Agencies prepare budget requests.

Sept

Agencies submit budgets to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB).

Sept-Nov

OMB analysis of agency submissions

slide7

Appeals to:

OMB Assoc Dirs.

OMB Director

President

Budget Calendar

~April

Outlines of the Administration budget for the coming year are in place.

April - Sept

Agencies prepare budget requests.

Sept

Agencies submit budgets to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB).

Sept-Nov

OMB analysis of agency submissions

Nov-Dec

Negotiations – Agencies and OMB.

slide8

Budget Calendar

~April

Outlines of the Administration budget for the coming year are in place.

April - Sept

Agencies prepare budget requests.

Sept

Agencies submit budgets to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB).

Sept-Nov

OMB analysis of agency submissions

Nov-Dec

Negotiations – Agencies and OMB.

Dec-Jan

Final decisions by Administration.

Feb

President submits Budget to Congress.

Feb – July

Congressional Hearings /Committee Markups.

June - July

Appropriations committees report bills.

Aug - Sept

Appropriations bills passed by Congress.

Oct 1- Sep 30

The new fiscal year (FY). Agencies spend the amounts appropriated.

slide9

Congressional Budget Process

But first a word about the Committees

slide10

Authorizing Committees

Senate Committees

(16)

Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry Appropriations Armed Services Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs Budget Commerce, Science, and Transportation Energy and Natural Resources Environment and Public Works Finance Foreign Relations Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Judiciary Rules and Administration Small Business and Entrepreneurship Veterans Affairs

Every program, e.g. Weapons, Yucca Mtn, was created by an authorizing committee.

After being created, they get a budget each year from the appropriations committee.

Special, Select, and OtherIndian Affairs Select Committee on Ethics Select Committee on Intelligence Special Committee on Aging JointJoint Committee on Printing Joint Committee on Taxation Joint Committee on the Library Joint Economic Committee

slide11

House Committees

(20)

Committee on Agriculture

Committee on Appropriations

Committee on Armed Services

Committee on the Budget

Committee on Education and the Workforce

Committee on Energy and Commerce

Committee on Financial Services

Committee on Government Reform

Committee on Homeland Security

Committee on House Administration

Committee on International Relations

Committee on the Judiciary

Committee on Resources

Committee on Rules

Committee on Science

Committee on Small Business

Committee on Standards of Official Conduct

Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure

Committee on Veterans\' Affairs

Committee on Ways and Means

Special, Select, and Other

House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence

Joint

Joint Committee on Printing

Joint Committee on Taxation

Joint Committee on the Library

Joint Economic Committee

slide12

Programs in place already.

Funding provided for those programs.

Funding levels changed each year

About 40% of budget

slide13

Programs themselves changed by legislation.

Spending dictated by eligibility (entitlements – Soc. Sec, Medicare)

Formulas (highway, grants)

About 60% of budget)

Congressional Budget Process

slide14

Spending levels can differ:

From those in the Request

Between House and Senate

Congressional Budget Process

slide17

Note that one agency may have to deal with more than one subcommittee.

Highlights show which committees deal with Defense Department

slide19

Congressional Budget Process

Hearings

Feb-July

Bills Reported & passed June-July

Conference Committees July-Aug

Final Bills passed Aug-Sept

Spending starts Oct 1

slide20

Status of the DOE Appropriations Bills – Oct 1, 2006

Ref. http://thomas.loc.gov/home/approp/app07.html

slide21

Federal Debt and Deficit

  • Data for FY 2005:
      • Outlays were $2.47 T
      • Deficit was $0.32 T
      • Debt was $7.9 T
  • Which means that:
      • The Government borrowed 13% of the money spent was borrowed.
      • Government debt was 3.2 times amount spent.

U.S. Budget for 2007: Charts 23.1, 16.2

slide22

FY 2005 FEDERAL BUDGET OUTLAYS

Total = $2.472 Trillion

Net Interest on Debt 7%

Defense

Discretionary

20%

Social Security,

Medicare, Medicaid,

Welfare, Other

Non-Defense

Mandatory

Discretionary

54%

19.%

  • Includes:
  • Homeland Security
  • Veterans Affairs
  • International Affairs

Ref: US Budget 2007 Table 20-2

slide23

Federal Debt and Deficit

  • Surplus in 4 of last 25 years.
slide24

Federal Debt and Deficit

U.S. Budget for 2007: Charts 12.1, 16.2

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