The Emotive Component of Meaning. By Louis B. Salomon From Semantics and Common Sense. Warming up. What does these words mean? (literal/implied) Dove : a bird of the pigeon family; a symbol of peace; a person who prefers peace to war. Hawk: a strong fast bird of prey;
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By Louis B. Salomon
From Semantics and Common Sense
a bird of the pigeon family;
a symbol of peace;
a person who prefers peace to war.
a strong fast bird of prey;
a symbol of force;
a person who supports the use of military force to solve problems.
male human being;
female human being;
[+人]、 [ -男性]、 [+成年]，除此以外，“女人”一词还有非本质特征，如身躯特征：“苗条的”、“轻盈的”；性格特征如：“温柔的”、“易动感情的”等等，这些特征是开放的，不确定的，随社会和个人因素而异。内涵意义是语言单位通过所指事物来传递的意义。
Words that carry emotion:
Words that do not carry emotion:
Questions: J.S. Mill. The denotation of a term, e.g. ‘woman’, is all the individuals to which it correctly applies, e.g. Mrs Smith, Lady Gaga, etc. The connotation of terms consists in the attributes by which it is defined, e.g., being human, adult, female. A term’s connotation determines its denotation. According to Mill, connotation is taken to be meaning. Terms like proper names, e.g. “Diana”, which have denotation, since there is someone so called, but no connotation, since no attributes define “Diana”, are taken to lack meaning. (
Why is the human mind unable to operate like a calculating machine?
What would happen to a word if the human mind indeed operates like a calculating machine, unaffected by emotion?
Our response to a word is not always rational. Can you explain it by an example?
What accounts for our irrational response to words? (e.g., dog)
When does a word acquire an emotive value?Para.1
1. Because the human mind is endowed with the ability to think and feel. Our reasoning process is prone to constant emotional interference.
4.It is due to the strong feeling that keeps interfering with our perception of things. Due to the work of emotion, the word “friend”, for example, which simply denotes companion or an associate, has the connotation of loyalty or affection. And “traitor” connotes revulsion and contempt. “viper” connotes disgust. These show that our reason will be at the mercy of our emotion.
5. A word acquires an emotive meaning when human reaction to the word is more or less the same. In other words, it is the frequency and uniformity of our emotional response to a word that eventually gives the word an emotive meaning. The writer points out that the emotional meaning to a word is not determined by the individual, but the fairly general response to it.
informer: one who secretly accuses another, often for a reward Informant: one who gives or serves as a source of information
sweat (n.& vi.): informal and colloquial
Perspiration (n.): more formal and literary
Montague emotional charge, positive or negative. Inappropriate use of certain words, therefore, may cause embarrassment and serious result.