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Thinking About Psychology: The Science of Mind and Behavior. Charles T. Blair-Broeker Randal M. Ernst. Sensation and Perception. Chapter 04. Sensation. Module 09. Introduction. Module 9: Sensation. Sensation/Perception. Pulfrich Effect Demonstration Describe what occurred

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Thinking about psychology the science of mind and behavior

Thinking About Psychology: The Science of Mind and Behavior

Charles T. Blair-Broeker

Randal M. Ernst



Sensation

Sensation

Module 09


Introduction

Introduction

Module 9: Sensation


Sensation perception
Sensation/Perception

  • Pulfrich Effect Demonstration

  • Describe what occurred

  • Why did you see the optical illusion?

  • What aspect of the demonstration represented sensation? Perception?


Sensation1
Sensation

  • The process by which our sensory systems (eyes, ears, and other sensory organs) and nervous system receive stimuli from the environment

  • A person’s awareness of the world


Bottom up processing
Bottom-Up Processing

  • Information processing that focuses on the raw material entering through the eyes, ears, and other organs of sensation


Perception
Perception

  • The process of organizing and interpreting sensory information


Top down processing
Top-Down Processing

  • Information processing that focuses on expectations and experiences in interpreting incoming sensory information


Sensation perception1
Sensation & Perception

How do we construct our representations of the external world?

To represent the world, we must detect physical energy (a stimulus) from the environment and convert it into neural signals. This is a process called sensation.

When we select, organize, and interpret our sensations, the process is called perception.


Bottom up processing1
Bottom-up Processing

Analysis of the stimulus begins with the sense receptors and works up to the level of the brain and mind. ASSOCIATE WITH SENSATION.

Letter “A” is really a black blotch broken down into features by the brain that we perceive as an “A.”


Count the f s in the following text
Count the f’s in the following text:

  • FINISHED FILES ARE THE RESULT OF YEARS OF SCIENTIFIC STUDY COMBINED WITH THE EXEPERIENCE OF YEARS


Top down processing1
Top-Down Processing

Information processing guided by higher-level mental processes as we construct perceptions, drawing on our experience and expectations. ASSOCIATE WITH PERCEPTION (schemas also)

THE CHT


Can you read this
CAN YOU READ THIS?

  • Aoccdrnig to rscheearch at an Biritsh uinervtisy, it deosn't mttaer in waht oredr the ltteers in a wrod are. The olny iprmoatnt tihng is taht the frist and lsat ltteer is at the rghit pclae. The rset can be a toatl mses and you can sitll raed it wouthit a porbelm. Tihs is bcuseae we do not raed ervey lteter by itslef but the wrod as a wlohe.


Making sense of complexity
Making Sense of Complexity

Our sensory and perceptual processes work together to help us sort out complex images.

“The Forest Has Eyes,” Bev Doolittle


Sensing the world
Sensing the World

Senses are nature’s gift that suit an organism’s needs.

A frog feeds on flying insects; a male silkworm moth is sensitive to female sex-attractant odor; and we as human beings are sensitive to sound frequencies that represent the range of human voice.


Thresholds

Thresholds

Module 9: Sensation


Threshold
Threshold

  • An edge or a boundary


Difference threshold
Difference Threshold

  • The minimum difference that a person can detect between two stimuli 50% of the time

  • Also called just noticeable difference



Thresholds signal detection theory

Thresholds: Signal Detection Theory

Module 9: Sensation


Signal detection theory
Signal Detection Theory

  • Set of formulas and principles that predict when we will detect the presence of a faint stimulus (signal) amid background stimulation (noise)

  • Developed out of the Cold War


Signal detection theory1
Signal Detection Theory

  • Three kinds of variables

    • Stimulus variables

    • Environmental variables

    • Organismic variables


Sensory adaptation

Sensory Adaptation

Module 9: Sensation


Sensory adaptation1
Sensory Adaptation

  • Diminished sensitivity as a result of constant stimulation

  • If a stimulus is constant and unchanging, eventually a person may fail to respond to it

  • Examples of Sensory Adaptation in your own world?


Sensory adaptation2
Sensory Adaptation

Diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation(unchanging stimulus).

Put a band aid on your arm and after awhile

you don’t sense it.


Sensory adaptation3
SENSORY ADAPTATION

  • Sensory receptors are alert to novelty. Example?

  • Benefit of sensory adaptation: Focus on informative change in our environment, without distractions of uninformative constant stimulation

  • Fundamental lesson: We perceive the world not exactly as it is, but as it is useful for us to perceive it.



Selective attention

Selective Attention

Module 9: Sensation


Selective attention1
Selective Attention

  • Focusing conscious awareness on a particular stimulus to the exclusion of others

  • The ability to focus on one stimulus at a time

  • Allows a person to function in a world filled with many stimuli





Electromagnetic energy
Electromagnetic Energy

  • An energy spectrum that includes X-rays, radar, and radio waves

  • A small portion of the spectrum includes light visible to the human eye



Hue

  • The color of light as determined by the wavelength of the light energy

  • Includes: red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo and violet (ROY G BIV)

  • The eye can detect 7 million separate hues



Amplitude
Amplitude

  • The brightness of light as determined by height of the wave

  • The taller the wave, the brighter the color




Cornea
Cornea

  • The clear bulge on the front of the eyeball

  • Begins to focus the light by bending it toward a central focal point

  • Protects the eye



Iris

  • A ring of muscle tissue that forms the colored portion of the eye; creates a hole in the center of the iris (pupil)

  • Regulates the size of the pupil by changing its size--allowing more or less light to enter the eye



Pupil
Pupil

  • The adjustable opening in the center of the eye that controls the amount of light entering the eye (surrounded by the iris)

  • In bright conditions the iris expands, making the pupil smaller.

  • In dark conditions the iris contracts, making the pupil larger.



Lens

  • A transparent structure behind the pupil; focuses the image on the back of the eye (retina)

  • Muscles that change the thickness of the lens change how the light is bent thereby focusing the image

  • Glasses or contacts correct problems in the lens’ ability to focus.



Retina
Retina

  • Light-sensitive surface with cells that convert light energy to nerve impulses

  • At the back of the eyeball

  • Made up of three layers of cells

    • Receptor cells

    • Bipolar cells

    • Ganglion cells



Receptor cells
Receptor Cells

  • These cells are present in every sensory system to change (transduce) some other form of energy into neural impulses.

  • In sight they change light into neural impulses the brain can understand.

  • Visual system has two types of receptor cells – rods and cones


Rods

  • Visual receptor cells located in the retina

  • Can only detect black and white

  • Respond to less light than do cones


Cones
Cones

  • Visual receptor cells located in the retina

  • Can detect sharp images and color

  • Need more light than the rods

  • Many cones are clustered in the fovea.


Fovea
Fovea

  • The central focal point of the retina

  • The spot where vision is best (most detailed)



Bipolar cells
Bipolar Cells

  • Gather information from the rods and cones and pass it on to the ganglion cells

  • Cells that form the middle layer in the retina


Ganglion cells
Ganglion Cells

  • Pass the information from the bipolar cells through their axons

  • Together these cells form the optic nerve.

  • The top layer of the cells in the retina






Optic nerve
Optic Nerve

  • The nerve that carries visual information from the eye to the occipital lobes of the brain



Blind spot
Blind Spot

  • The point at which the optic nerve travels through the retina to exit the eye

  • There are no rods and cones at this point, so there is a small blind spot in vision.





The visual system color vision

The Visual System: Color Vision

Module 9: Sensation


Photoreceptors
Photoreceptors

E.R. Lewis, Y.Y. Zeevi, F.S Werblin, 1969


Trichromatic three color theory
Trichromatic (three-color) Theory

  • Theory of color vision that says cones are “tuned” to be sensitive to red, green and blue light

  • All the colors we see are a combination of these three colors.

  • Based on work of Helmholtz and Young

  • Similar to the design of a color TV



Subtractive color mixing
Subtractive Color Mixing

  • When mixing colored paints, each new color SUBTRACTS (soaks up) another wavelength.

  • Red, blue, and yellow combine to make black paint.


Additive color mixing
Additive Color Mixing

  • When mixing colored lights, each new color ADDS another wavelength.

  • Red, green, and blue combine to make white light.


Color deficient vision
Color Deficient Vision

  • People who lack one of the three types of cones

  • Usually the red or green receptors are missing

  • Usually referred to as color blindness

  • In inherited and found more in males


Opponent process theory of color
Opponent-Process Theory of Color

  • Theory that says color is processed in opponent pairs of color:

    • Red-green, yellow-blue, black-white

  • Light that stimulated one half of the pair inhibits the other half

  • Ewald Hering

  • Explains the afterimage effect



Hearing the nature of sound

Hearing: The Nature of Sound

Module 9: Sensation


Sound
Sound

  • Sound, like light, comes in waves

  • Sound is vibration

  • Features of sound include:

    • Pitch

    • Hertz

    • decibels


Pitch
Pitch

  • A sound’s highness or lowness

  • Dependent on the frequency of the sound wave

  • Is measured as hertz (Hz)


Hertz hz
Hertz (Hz)

  • A measure of the number of sound wave peaks per second; measures “frequency”

  • Determines the pitch of the sound

  • Human hearing goes from 20 Hz to 20,000 Hz


Decibel db
Decibel (dB)

  • A measure of the height of the sound wave

  • Determines the loudness of the sound

  • Sometimes called amplitude


Hearing the structure of the auditory system

Hearing: The Structure of the Auditory System

Module 9: Sensation



Auditory canal
Auditory Canal

  • The opening through which sound waves travel as they move into the ear for processing

  • Ends at the tympanic membrane (eardrum)



Tympanic membrane eardrum
Tympanic Membrane (eardrum)

  • The tissue barrier that transfers sound vibration from the air to the tine bones of the middle ear

  • Can be damaged by objects in the ear or exceptionally loud noises



Ossicles
Ossicles

  • Three tiny bones that transfer sound waves from the eardrum to the cochlea

  • Hammer, anvil and stirrup



Cochlea
Cochlea

  • A hearing organ where sound waves are changed into neural impulses

  • The major organ of hearing

  • Filled with fluid; a snail shaped body tube



Oval window
Oval Window

  • The point on the surface of the cochlea which receives the sound vibration from the ossicles

  • As the oval window vibrates, the fluid in the cochlea vibrates.



Hair cells
Hair Cells

  • The receptor cells for hearing in the cochlea that change sound vibrations into neural impulses

  • Similar to the rods and cones within the eye



Auditory nerve
Auditory Nerve

  • The nerve that carries sound information from the ears to the temporal lobes of the brain



Semicircular canals
Semicircular Canals

  • Organs in the inner ear used in sensing body orientation and balance (vestibular sense)

  • Relies on fluid in the canals

  • Spinning in circles disrupts the fluid.



Divisions of the ear
Divisions of the Ear

  • Ear’s structure can be divided into:

    • The outer ear

    • The middle ear

    • The inner ear





Hearing sound localization

Hearing: Sound Localization

Module 9: Sensation


Localization of sound
Localization of Sound

  • Locating where sound is originating from

  • Done through two cues:

    • Which ear hears the sound first?

    • Which ear hears the louder sound?



Other senses taste

Other Senses: Taste

Module 9: Sensation


Taste
Taste

  • Taste is a chemical sense.

  • Receptor cells are located primarily on the tongue and in the mouth.

  • Four different tastes:

    • Salty, sweet, sour and bitter

  • Damaged taste receptor cells are replaced within a few days.


Supertasters
Supertasters

  • People with an abundance of taste receptors

  • Approximately 25% of the population


Nontasters
Nontasters

  • People with a minimum of taste receptors

  • Taste with less intensity than the rest of the population

  • Approximately 25% of the population


Supertasters and nontasters
Supertasters and Nontasters

  • Play “Tasters and Supertasters” (14:00) Segment #12 from Scientific American Frontiers: Video Collection for Introductory Psychology (2nd edition).


Other senses smell

Other Senses: Smell

Module 9: Sensation


Smell
Smell

  • Smell is a chemical sense.

  • Olfactory cells in the upper nasal passages detect molecules in the air.

  • Taste and smell interact to produce flavor.


Olfactory cells
Olfactory Cells

  • The chemical receptor cells for smell

  • Located in the nasal passages





Other senses touch

Other Senses: Touch

Module 9: Sensation


Touch
Touch

  • Touch receptors are on the skin

  • Four basic skin senses are

    • Pain, warmth, cold, and pressure

  • All skin sensations are a combination of these four basic senses


Gate control theory of pain
Gate-control Theory of Pain

  • Pain messages travel on one set of nerve fibers containing pain gates.

  • The gates are open when pain is felt.

  • Other sensory messages go through another set of fibers.

  • The nonpain fibers can close the pain gates to stop the sense of pain.


Pain and phantom pain
Pain and Phantom Pain

  • Play “Phantom Limb Pain: Fooling the Mind” (4:29) Segment #20 from The Mind: Psychology Teaching Modules (2nd edition).


Other senses body senses

Other Senses: Body Senses

Module 9: Sensation


Kinesthetic sense
Kinesthetic Sense

  • The system for sensing the position and movement of individual body parts

  • Relies on receptor cells from the muscles and joints

  • One’s leg “falling asleep” is a disruption of the kinesthetic sense


Vestibular sense
Vestibular Sense

  • The system for sensing body orientation and balance

  • Relies on fluid in the semicircular canals of the inner ear

  • Spinning in circles disrupts the fluid.



Kinesthetic and vestibular sense
Kinesthetic and Vestibular Sense

  • Play “Sensory-Motor Integration” (3:27) Module #11 from The Brain: Teaching Modules (2nd edition).



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