Thinking, Language , and Intelligence Thinking Language Intelligence. Thinking. Concepts Solving problems Making good (and bad) decisions and judgments Thinking critically about: The fear factor—why we fear the wrong things Thinking creatively Close-up: Fostering your own creativity
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A burst of right temporal lobe EEG activity (yellow area) accompanied insight solutions to word problems (Jung-Beeman et al., 2004).
The red dots show placement of the EEG electrodes. The light gray lines show patterns of brain activity during insight.
From Marc Jung-Beeman, Northwestern University and John Kounios, Drexel University
How would you arrange six matches to form four equilateral triangles?
An effortless, immediate, automatic feeling or thought, as contrasted with explicit, conscious reasoning
Asimple thinking strategy that often allows you to make judgments and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier but also more error prone than algorithms
A simple thinking strategy that often allows you to make judgments more error prone than algorithms
Involves judging the likelihood of an event based on its availability in memory; if an event comes readily to mind, we assume it must be common
Solution to the matchstickproblem Were you, by chance, fixated on two-dimensional solutions? Solving problems often requires taking a new angle on the situation.
SCARING US ONTO DEADLY HIGHWAYS In the three months after 9/11, those faulty perceptions led more Americans to travel, and some to die, by car. (Adapted from Gigerenzer, 2004.)
Can you think of any such decisions?
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What is the difference between receptive and productive language, and when do children normally hit these milestones in language development?
Susan Meiselas/ Magnum PhotosHOW DO WE LEARN GRAMMAR?
CREATING A LANGUAGE Young deaf children in Nicaragua were brought together as if on a desert island (actually a school). They drew upon sign gestures from their own home to create their own Nicaraguan Sign Language, complete with words and intricate grammar.
AP Photo/Arizona Daily Star, A.E. Araiza
NEW LANGUAGE LEARNING GETS HARDER WITH AGE Young children have a readiness to learn language. Ten years after coming to the United States, Asian immigrants took a grammar test. Those who arrived before age 8 understood American English grammar as well as native speakers
did. Those who arrived later did not. (From Johnson & Newport, 1991.)
What was Noam Chomsky’s explanation of language development?
Why is it so difficult to learn a new language in adulthood?
________ is the part of the brain that, if damaged, might impair your ability to speak words.
If you damage ________ you might impair
your ability to understand language.
What is mental practice, and how can it help you to prepare for an upcoming event?
If your dog barks at a stranger at the front door, does this qualify as language? What if the dog yips in a telltale way to let you know that she needs to go out?
Matt Savage, an award-winning
jazz musician, is a BerkleeCollege of Music graduate who has released many albums.
His success has been hard-won given his early childhood diagnosis of what is now called autism spectrum disorder, which came with struggles to communicate and an initial inability to tolerate sounds of any kind.
Boston Globe/Getty Images
How does the existence of savant syndrome support Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences?
How do Gardner’s and Sternberg’s theories of multiple intelligences differ?
David Wechsler: Separate scores for separate skills
David Wechsler: Separate scores for separate skills
Lew Merrim / Science Source
A block design puzzle like this one can test children’s visual abstract processing ability.
administered intelligence test comes in forms suited for adults and children.
What did Binethope to achieve by establishing a child’s mental age?
An employer with a pool of applicants for a single available position is interested in testing each applicant’s potential. She should use an ________ (achievement/aptitude) test. That same employer wishing to test the effectiveness of a new, on-the-job training program would be wise to use an _______ (achievement/aptitude) test.
What is the IQ of a 4-year-old with a mental age of 5?
Scores on aptitude tests tend to form a normal, or bell-shaped, curve around an average score. For the Wechsler scale, for example, the average score is 100.
THE NORMAL CURVE
What are the three requirements that a psychological test must meet in order to be widely accepted? Explain.
INTELLIGENCE: NATURE AND NURTURE The PARENTSmost genetically similar people have the most similar intelligence scores. Remember: 1.0 indicates
a perfect correlation; zero indicates no correlation at all. (Data from McGue et al., 1993.)
Christopher Fitzgerald/The Image Works
Extremes of Intelligence PARENTS
Joe Klamar/AFP/Getty Images
When Ian Deary and his colleagues (2004) retested 80-year-old Scots, using an intelligence test they had taken as 11-year-olds, their scores across seven decades correlated +.66.
(When 207 survivors were again retested at age 87, the correlation with their age 11 scores was +.51 [Gow et al., 2011].)
WITH AGE WE LOSE AND WE WIN Studies reveal that word power grows with age, while fluid intelligence declines.
Do the know the answer?
Even PARENTSif the variation between members within a group reflects genetic differences, the average difference between groups may be wholly due to the environment. Imagine that seeds from the same mixture are sown in different soils. Although height differences within each window box of flowers will be genetic, the height difference between the two groups will be environmental. (From Lewontin, 1976.)GROUP DIFFERENCES AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT
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Larry Williams/ CORBIS PARENTSWHAT DO YOU THINK?
Might racial and ethnic gaps be similarly
The heritability of intelligence scores PARENTSwill be greater in a society marked by equal opportunity than in a society of poor peasants and wealthy aristocrats. Why?