Cs 575 spring 2010 class meeting 3
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CS 575 Spring 2010 Class Meeting 3. Bapa Rao. Outline. administrative Review of previous week Douglas Engelbart’s demo Student Presentations Agenda for next week. Administrative. Comments / questions. Review of previous meeting. Berners-Lee videos “semantic web” Data, data, data

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CS 575 Spring 2010 Class Meeting 3

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CS 575 Spring 2010Class Meeting 3

Bapa Rao


Outline

  • administrative

  • Review of previous week

  • Douglas Engelbart’s demo

  • Student Presentations

  • Agenda for next week


Administrative

  • Comments / questions


Review of previous meeting

  • Berners-Lee videos

  • “semantic web”

  • Data, data, data

  • Links between Data

  • Web R & D as a collective social-scientific process

  • Web science


More Berners-Lee

  • Social / human aspect of R&D cycle

  • Macroscopic human effects

  • Scientific analysis phase

  • Emergence or “magic”

  • Process of web science

  • Email webgoogleweb 2.0semantic web

  • Technical aspects of semantic web

  • Conceptual aspects

  • Pragmatic aspects

  • Challenges of web science


Engelbart “mother of all demos”


Engelbart and “augmenting the human intellect”


Engelbart Paper Overview

  • Capability to obtain better solutions to complex problems

  • Benefit ‘information workers’

  • New conceptual framework

  • What to augment

    • Artifacts, language, methodology, training

    • Whorf’s hypothesis & the weighted pencil expt

    • Problem-solving process

    • Structure: bureaucratic to more distributed

    • Executive capability—choosing from repertoire

  • What is the impact of augmentation?


Engelbart: Two-domain system

  • H-LAM/T


Last week’s presentations

  • Cloud computing—Tam Nguyen

  • Human interaction in Internet communities—Jerry Chang

  • HCC and HCM—Ashok Sahu

  • Artificial Life—Saeid Mousavi


Engelbart (contd)

  • Capability repertoire hierarchy

    • Basic capabilities (human and artifact) are the raw materials

    • Mental structuring (cognitive structures)

      • Development Models: garden, basketball team, machine building

    • Concept structuring

    • Symbol structuring

    • Process structuring

      • ‘M’ in H-LAM/T

    • Physical structuring

      • A in H-LAM/T

    • Interdependence among all these structures


Engelbart (contd)

  • Concept structuring

    • concepts are tools

    • concepts have handles--representations

    • concept structures map to mental structures

    • some concept structures are better than others

    • language (natural lang esp) is the grand concept structuring tool


Engelbart (contd)

  • Symbol structuring

    • some symbols work better than others

      • depends on the purpose

    • need flexibility, translatability

    • view generation capability (rather than physical linear ordering)


Engelbart (contd)

  • Interdependence among hierarchies

    • Cyclic

    • Regenerative

      • Improvement in one category feeds improvement in other categories


Augmenting the Human Intellect

  • 1962 report/proposal to Air Force Ofc. Of Scientific Research

  • Capability to obtain better solutions to complex problems

  • New conceptual framework

    • Not small tricks

  • Example scenario: an architect’s workday

    • Design alternatives

    • Operational environments

    • Functional specifications

    • Detailed design

    • Tools

      • Synthesis, analysis, verification, debugging


Engelbart (contd)

  • Who will benefit

    • Every person who does his thinking with symbolized concepts

      • Human language, pictographs, formal logic, mathematics, …

    • Architects, engineers, lawyers, writers, …

    • ‘information workers’


Engelbart (contd)

  • Conceptual framework is needed to know

    • What to augment

      • artifacts

      • language

      • methodology

      • Training

    • Goal: problem solving process

      • Process is what we actually do, and are trying to do more effectively

    • Structure or organization across the board

      • Little steps, organized as a process hierarchy

        • Versus objects?

      • Process repertoire or toolkit

      • Basic capabilities (‘hardware’) to higher-level capabilities

        • Synergy, emergent capabilities, …

      • Which subprocess to choose?

        • Executive Capability: planning, selecting, and supervising

    • Augmentation impact

      • Suppose you had a better writing tool…

        • Hardware, software, dictionary, spell checker, fact researcher, …

        • Pencil to word processor

          • Benefits?

          • Break down old process, come up with new process

          • New capabilities!


Engelbart: Two-domain system

  • H-LAM/T


Engelbart (contd)

  • How did humans get ‘augmented’ during our development?

    • 1. concept manipulation

    • 2. symbol manipulation

    • 3. Manual, External, Symbol Manipulation

  • Whorf’s hypothesis: Language affects our thinking and capabilities

    • 4. Automated external symbol manipulation (neo-whorfian: technology affects language and capabilities)

      • Language can also evolve to meet conceptual and task needs (counterargument to whorfian hypothesis)


Engelbart (contd)

  • Brick-pencil experiment


Engelbart (contd)

  • Brick-pencil expt (de-augmentation)

    • Typewriter: 7 sec

    • Pencil: 20 secs

    • Brick, small letters: 65+ secs

    • Brick, large letters: 42 secs

  • Impacts on effectiveness of culture

    • Too hard too few people doing it

    • Different concepts for work, record-keeping, etc.

  • What about known impacts of actual augmentation, 46 years after Engelbart wrote this proposal?


Engelbart (contd)

  • Capability repertoire hierarchy

    • Basic capabilities (human and artifact) are the raw materials

    • Mental structuring (cognitive structures)

      • Development Models: garden, basketball team, machine building

    • Concept structuring

    • Symbol structuring

    • Process structuring

      • ‘M’ in H-LAM/T

    • Physical structuring

      • A in H-LAM/T

    • Interdependence among all these structures


Engelbart (contd)

  • Concept structuring

    • concepts are tools

    • concepts have handles--representations

    • concept structures map to mental structures

    • some concept structures are better than others

    • language (natural lang esp) is the grand concept structuring tool


Engelbart (contd)

  • Symbol structuring

    • some symbols work better than others

      • depends on the purpose

    • need flexibility, translatability

    • view generation capability (rather than physical linear ordering)


Engelbart (contd)

  • Interdependence among hierarchies

    • Cyclic

    • Regenerative

      • Improvement in one category feeds improvement in other categories


Engelbart (contd)

  • Roles and levels

    • executive

    • direct-contributive

  • model of executive superstructure

    • Bureaucratic hierarchy is onerous

    • contractor-subcontractor model

  • Flexibility in the Executive Role

    • executive tasks are complex

    • orderly flexibility requirement on symbol etc. structures is costly

    • disorderly process of change must be supported

      • ‘agile methodologies’


Berners-Lee’s view in context

  • Social = Human

  • Concept augmentation is an emergent phenomenon


Student Presentations

  • Jigar Patel: programming paradigms

  • ManthanKatharotiya: Web mining


REMINDER: A [flexible] structure for our study

  • ‘Human issues’ is all-encompassing

  • Many interlocking dimensions

  • Human roles vis-à-vis the computer

    • User

    • Inventor / researcher

    • Visionary

    • Content creator

    • Hacker

    • Criminal

    • Business person

    • Wealth generator

  • Human-computer coupling

    • Symbiosis, tool, …


A [flexible] structure for our study (contd)

  • Domains of human activity

    • Education, Entertainment, Play, Family, Reproduction, Art ,Wealth generation, Government, consumption, religion, philosophy, …

  • Values

    • Many values depend on role, domain, …

    • Absolute values?

    • Creativity, aesthetics, access, opportunity, freedom, spirituality, rationality, peace, brotherhood, prosperity, …

  • Vision, potentials, realities

    • Babbage’s Analytical Engine, Bush’s Memex, …

  • Pragmatics

    • Is it possible? How to get there?

    • Techniques, Design, Technology,

  • Scaling and emergent phenomena

    • Will a whole new thing emerge if huge numbers of humans interact with computers in a certain way? How do we understand that ‘thing’?

  • Other aspects, dimensions?


A [flexible] structure for our study (contd)

  • Use readings and videos of pioneering thinkers and inventors to elicit a concrete jumping-off point for discussion and analysis

  • Use presentations and discussions to ‘tag’ current thoughts, activities, developments, .. along these dimensions

  • Preparation

    • Review Resources and Additional Resources

    • Research and read pioneering articles (like the Memex article, Berners-lee’s articles

  • What should emerge at the end?

    • Open

    • Predictions, critiques, lessons, techniques, new visions, new ideas, stimuli to thought, …


Summary

  • Berners-lee’s push for a collectivized, participatory semantic web science

  • Engelbart’s early technical achievements laid the foundation

  • Engelbart laid a rigorous conceptual foundation that might be called the architecture of man-machine symbiosis

  • We will discuss more about man/machine symbiosis according to Licklider

  • Where do today’s presentations fit in?


Agenda for next week

  • Yuri Muradiyan: Human Enhancement Ethics

  • GaurangJadia: Crowdsourcing

  • Abhishek Sharma: Security, privacy, crime

  • ArmenGalstyan: Entertainment / gaming


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