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Galen’s medical theories bugging us.

Few willing to undergo surgery

Limited research & knowledge

Galen’s medical theories

FC.98 THE DISCOVERY OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM & BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSIOLOGY

Taboos vs. surgery & dissection

Nothing to kill pain in surgery

Forced to rely on research on animals bled to death

Aristotle’s theory of 4 elements (FC. 22)

Incorrect analogies to human body

Empty veins Idea air flows in them

Various misconceptions synthesized into Galen’s theories:

Theory of 4 humors Must be in balance to stay healthy

Air goes from lungs to heart in order to cool it

Blood goes from heart to body & is absorbed by it

Blood & air mixPneuma Consciousness

Belief that disease is purely a matter of internal balance of humors, not any external factors Purging, esp. bloodletting, will restore balance of humors & patient’s health

Ren. Find anc. Grks opposing Galen (FC. 76)

Ren. art Stress realistic anatomy (FC. 77A)

Church & tradition back Galen (FC. 66)

New findings contradicting Galen

Explanations in context of Galen

Vesalius (1514-1564):

Paracelsus (1493-1541):

Taught in vernacular

Said factors outside the body caused disease

Taught fr. experience

Did his own dissections

Anatomy book set standard of accuracy

Made own instruments

Mounting evidence contradicting Galen:

Blood flows fr. arteries to veins & back toward heart

Valves that prevent flow of blood out of the heart

Air doesn’t flow naturally from the lungs to the heart

William Harvey’s synthesis & book (1628) show blood constantly recirculates Further research on human anatomy



a bugging us.

FC.98 THE DISCOVERY OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM & BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSIOLOGY

Why was there so little progress in surgery & knowledge of how the body works?


a bugging us.

FC.98 THE DISCOVERY OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM & BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSIOLOGY

Nothing to kill pain in surgery


a bugging us.

Few willing to undergo surgery

Number of surgeries?

FC.98 THE DISCOVERY OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM & BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSIOLOGY

Taboos vs. surgery & dissection

Nothing to kill pain in surgery


a bugging us.

Few willing to undergo surgery

Limited research & knowledge

Research & knowledge?

FC.98 THE DISCOVERY OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM & BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSIOLOGY

Taboos vs. surgery & dissection

Nothing to kill pain in surgery


a bugging us.

Few willing to undergo surgery

Limited research & knowledge

FC.98 THE DISCOVERY OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM & BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSIOLOGY

Taboos vs. surgery & dissection

Nothing to kill pain in surgery

Forced to base research on?


Few willing to undergo surgery bugging us.

Limited research & knowledge

FC.98 THE DISCOVERY OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM & BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSIOLOGY

Taboos vs. surgery & dissection

Nothing to kill pain in surgery

Forced to rely on research on animals bled to death

Problem w/that?


Few willing to undergo surgery bugging us.

Limited research & knowledge

Empty veins conclusion that…

FC.98 THE DISCOVERY OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM & BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSIOLOGY

Taboos vs. surgery & dissection

Nothing to kill pain in surgery

Forced to rely on research on animals bled to death

Incorrect analogies to human body


Few willing to undergo surgery bugging us.

Limited research & knowledge

FC.98 THE DISCOVERY OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM & BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSIOLOGY

Taboos vs. surgery & dissection

Nothing to kill pain in surgery

Forced to rely on research on animals bled to death

Incorrect analogies to human body

Empty veins Idea air flows in them

Most important medical authority?


Galen (130-199 A.D.) bugging us.

Few willing to undergo surgery

Limited research & knowledge

FC.98 THE DISCOVERY OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM & BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSIOLOGY

Taboos vs. surgery & dissection

Nothing to kill pain in surgery

Forced to rely on research on animals bled to death

Incorrect analogies to human body

Empty veins Idea air flows in them


Galen (130-199 A.D.) bugging us.

- Autopsies banned in Rome

Few willing to undergo surgery

Limited research & knowledge

FC.98 THE DISCOVERY OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM & BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSIOLOGY

Taboos vs. surgery & dissection

Nothing to kill pain in surgery

Forced to rely on research on animals bled to death

Incorrect analogies to human body

Empty veins Idea air flows in them


Galen (130-199 A.D.) bugging us.

- Autopsies banned in Rome

 Used monkeys & pigs

Few willing to undergo surgery

Limited research & knowledge

FC.98 THE DISCOVERY OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM & BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSIOLOGY

Taboos vs. surgery & dissection

Nothing to kill pain in surgery

Forced to rely on research on animals bled to death

Incorrect analogies to human body

Empty veins Idea air flows in them


Galen (130-199 A.D.) bugging us.

- Autopsies banned in Rome

 Used monkeys & pigs

 Find small intestine is long

Few willing to undergo surgery

Limited research & knowledge

FC.98 THE DISCOVERY OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM & BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSIOLOGY

Taboos vs. surgery & dissection

Nothing to kill pain in surgery

Forced to rely on research on animals bled to death

Incorrect analogies to human body

Empty veins Idea air flows in them


Galen (130-199 A.D.) bugging us.

- Autopsies banned in Rome

 Used monkeys & pigs

 Find small intestine is long

 Need to eat less often

Few willing to undergo surgery

Limited research & knowledge

FC.98 THE DISCOVERY OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM & BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSIOLOGY

Taboos vs. surgery & dissection

Nothing to kill pain in surgery

Forced to rely on research on animals bled to death

Incorrect analogies to human body

Empty veins Idea air flows in them


Galen (130-199 A.D.) bugging us.

- Autopsies banned in Rome

 Used monkeys & pigs

 Find small intestine is long

 Need to eat less often

-Galen did see corpses left

by bandits & drowned (?)

Few willing to undergo surgery

Limited research & knowledge

FC.98 THE DISCOVERY OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM & BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSIOLOGY

Taboos vs. surgery & dissection

Nothing to kill pain in surgery

Forced to rely on research on animals bled to death

Incorrect analogies to human body

Empty veins Idea air flows in them



Galen (130-199 A.D.) bugging us.

- Autopsies banned in Rome

 Used monkeys & pigs

 Find small intestine is long

 Need to eat less often

-Galen did see corpses left

by bandits & drowned (?)

Few willing to undergo surgery

Limited research & knowledge

FC.98 THE DISCOVERY OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM & BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSIOLOGY

Taboos vs. surgery & dissection

Nothing to kill pain in surgery

Forced to rely on research on animals bled to death

Aristotle’s theory of 4 elements (FC. 22)

Incorrect analogies to human body

Empty veins Idea air flows in them


Galen (130-199 A.D.) bugging us.

- Autopsies banned in Rome

 Used monkeys & pigs

 Find small intestine is long

 Need to eat less often

-Galen did see corpses left

by bandits & drowned (?)

Good health requires balance of?

Galen’s medical theories

Few willing to undergo surgery

Limited research & knowledge

Galen’s medical theories

FC.98 THE DISCOVERY OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM & BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSIOLOGY

Taboos vs. surgery & dissection

Nothing to kill pain in surgery

Forced to rely on research on animals bled to death

Aristotle’s theory of 4 elements (FC. 22)

Incorrect analogies to human body

Empty veins Idea air flows in them

Various misconceptions synthesized into Galen’s theories:

Theory of 4 humors Must be in balance to stay healthy

Air goes from lungs to heart in order to cool it

Blood goes from heart to body & is absorbed by it

Blood & air mixPneuma Consciousness


Galen (130-199 A.D.) bugging us.

- Autopsies banned in Rome

 Used monkeys & pigs

 Find small intestine is long

 Need to eat less often

-Galen did see corpses left

by bandits & drowned (?)

Limited research & knowledge

Galen’s medical theories

Few willing to undergo surgery

Galen’s medical theories

FC.98 THE DISCOVERY OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM & BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSIOLOGY

Taboos vs. surgery & dissection

Nothing to kill pain in surgery

Forced to rely on research on animals bled to death

Aristotle’s theory of 4 elements (FC. 22)

Incorrect analogies to human body

Empty veins Idea air flows in them

Various misconceptions synthesized into Galen’s theories:

Theory of 4 humors Must be in balance to stay healthy

Air goes from lungs to heart in order to cool it

Blood goes from heart to body & is absorbed by it

Blood & air mixPneuma Consciousness


Blood bugging us.: corresponded to air (which is hot and wet), and also to the planet Jupiter, the apostle Mark, morning, spring, and the astrological signs of Gemini, Taurus, and Aries. Theophrastus, the successor of Aristotle in the Peripatetic school, stated that people with too much blood were bound to be sanguine (contented, positive) individuals.


Yellow bugging us.Yellow bile corresponded to fire (which is hot and dry) and to Mars, the apostle Paul, summer, noon, the liver, and the signs of Virgo, Leo, and Cancer. People with too much yellow bile, which medieval doctors claimed was manufactured in the gall bladder, were said to be bold & exuberant, but also choleric (cantankerous) individuals.


Black Bile bugging us. corresponded to earth (which is cold and dry), Saturn, the apostle John, the afternoon, autumn, the spleen and to Sagitarius, Scorpio, and Libra in the Zodiac. Individuals suffering from a disproportionately large amount of black bile in their bodies were said to be melancholic (gloomy).


Phlegm bugging us. corresponded to water (which is cold and wet), the moon, the apostle Peter, evening, winter, and the signs of Pisces, Aquarius, and Capricorn. Individuals with too much phlegm in their bodies were said to be phlegmatic: not easily excited to action or display of emotion; apathetic, and sluggish.


Galen (130-199 A.D.) bugging us.

- Autopsies banned in Rome

 Used monkeys & pigs

 Find small intestine is long

 Need to eat less often

-Galen did see corpses left

by bandits & drowned (?)

Air goes from lungs to?

Galen’s medical theories

Few willing to undergo surgery

Limited research & knowledge

Galen’s medical theories

FC.98 THE DISCOVERY OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM & BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSIOLOGY

Taboos vs. surgery & dissection

Nothing to kill pain in surgery

Forced to rely on research on animals bled to death

Aristotle’s theory of 4 elements (FC. 22)

Incorrect analogies to human body

Empty veins Idea air flows in them

Various misconceptions synthesized into Galen’s theories:

Theory of 4 humors Must be in balance to stay healthy

Air goes from lungs to heart in order to cool it

Blood goes from heart to body & is absorbed by it

Blood & air mixPneuma Consciousness


Galen (130-199 A.D.) bugging us.

- Autopsies banned in Rome

 Used monkeys & pigs

 Find small intestine is long

 Need to eat less often

-Galen did see corpses left

by bandits & drowned (?)

What happens to blood in heart?

Galen’s medical theories

Few willing to undergo surgery

Limited research & knowledge

Galen’s medical theories

FC.98 THE DISCOVERY OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM & BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSIOLOGY

Taboos vs. surgery & dissection

Nothing to kill pain in surgery

Forced to rely on research on animals bled to death

Aristotle’s theory of 4 elements (FC. 22)

Incorrect analogies to human body

Empty veins Idea air flows in them

Various misconceptions synthesized into Galen’s theories:

Theory of 4 humors Must be in balance to stay healthy

Air goes from lungs to heart in order to cool it

Blood goes from heart to body & is absorbed by it

Blood & air mixPneuma Consciousness


Galen (130-199 A.D.) bugging us.

- Autopsies banned in Rome

 Used monkeys & pigs

 Find small intestine is long

 Need to eat less often

-Galen did see corpses left

by bandits & drowned (?)

Blood & air mix Pneuma

Galen’s medical theories

Few willing to undergo surgery

Limited research & knowledge

Galen’s medical theories

FC.98 THE DISCOVERY OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM & BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSIOLOGY

Taboos vs. surgery & dissection

Nothing to kill pain in surgery

Forced to rely on research on animals bled to death

Aristotle’s theory of 4 elements (FC. 22)

Incorrect analogies to human body

Empty veins Idea air flows in them

Various misconceptions synthesized into Galen’s theories:

Theory of 4 humors Must be in balance to stay healthy

Air goes from lungs to heart in order to cool it

Blood goes from heart to body & is absorbed by it

Blood & air mixPneuma Consciousness


Galen (130-199 A.D.) bugging us.

- Autopsies banned in Rome

 Used monkeys & pigs

 Find small intestine is long

 Need to eat less often

-Galen did see corpses left

by bandits & drowned (?)

Belief that disease is purely a matter of?

Galen’s medical theories

Few willing to undergo surgery

Limited research & knowledge

Galen’s medical theories

FC.98 THE DISCOVERY OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM & BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSIOLOGY

Taboos vs. surgery & dissection

Nothing to kill pain in surgery

Forced to rely on research on animals bled to death

Aristotle’s theory of 4 elements (FC. 22)

Incorrect analogies to human body

Empty veins Idea air flows in them

Various misconceptions synthesized into Galen’s theories:

Theory of 4 humors Must be in balance to stay healthy

Air goes from lungs to heart in order to cool it

Blood goes from heart to body & is absorbed by it

Blood & air mixPneuma Consciousness


Galen (130-199 A.D.) bugging us.

- Autopsies banned in Rome

 Used monkeys & pigs

 Find small intestine is long

 Need to eat less often

-Galen did see corpses left

by bandits & drowned (?)

Limited research & knowledge

Few willing to undergo surgery

Galen’s medical theories

Galen’s medical theories

FC.98 THE DISCOVERY OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM & BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSIOLOGY

Taboos vs. surgery & dissection

Nothing to kill pain in surgery

Forced to rely on research on animals bled to death

Aristotle’s theory of 4 elements (FC. 22)

Incorrect analogies to human body

Empty veins Idea air flows in them

Various misconceptions synthesized into Galen’s theories:

Theory of 4 humors Must be in balance to stay healthy

Air goes from lungs to heart in order to cool it

Blood goes from heart to body & is absorbed by it

Blood & air mixPneuma Consciousness

Belief that disease is purely a matter of internal balance of humors, not any external factors Purging, esp. bloodletting, will restore balance of humors & patient’s health

Treatment?


Galen (130-199 A.D.) bugging us.

- Autopsies banned in Rome

 Used monkeys & pigs

 Find small intestine is long

 Need to eat less often

-Galen did see corpses left

by bandits & drowned (?)

Limited research & knowledge

Galen’s medical theories

Few willing to undergo surgery

Galen’s medical theories

FC.98 THE DISCOVERY OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM & BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSIOLOGY

Taboos vs. surgery & dissection

Nothing to kill pain in surgery

Forced to rely on research on animals bled to death

Aristotle’s theory of 4 elements (FC. 22)

Incorrect analogies to human body

Empty veins Idea air flows in them

Various misconceptions synthesized into Galen’s theories:

Theory of 4 humors Must be in balance to stay healthy

Air goes from lungs to heart in order to cool it

Blood goes from heart to body & is absorbed by it

Blood & air mixPneuma Consciousness

Belief that disease is purely a matter of internal balance of humors, not any external factors Purging, esp. bloodletting, will restore balance of humors & patient’s health

Church & tradition back Galen (FC. 66)


Galen (130-199 A.D.) bugging us.

- Autopsies banned in Rome

 Used monkeys & pigs

 Find small intestine is long

 Need to eat less often

-Galen did see corpses left

by bandits & drowned (?)

Galen’s medical theories

Few willing to undergo surgery

Limited research & knowledge

Galen’s medical theories

FC.98 THE DISCOVERY OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM & BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSIOLOGY

Taboos vs. surgery & dissection

Nothing to kill pain in surgery

Forced to rely on research on animals bled to death

Aristotle’s theory of 4 elements (FC. 22)

Incorrect analogies to human body

Empty veins Idea air flows in them

Various misconceptions synthesized into Galen’s theories:

Theory of 4 humors Must be in balance to stay healthy

Air goes from lungs to heart in order to cool it

Blood goes from heart to body & is absorbed by it

Blood & air mixPneuma Consciousness

Belief that disease is purely a matter of internal balance of humors, not any external factors Purging, esp. bloodletting, will restore balance of humors & patient’s health

Church & tradition back Galen (FC. 66)


Galen (130-199 A.D.) bugging us.

- Autopsies banned in Rome

 Used monkeys & pigs

 Find small intestine is long

 Need to eat less often

-Galen did see corpses left

by bandits & drowned (?)

Galen’s medical theories

Few willing to undergo surgery

Limited research & knowledge

Galen’s medical theories

FC.98 THE DISCOVERY OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM & BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSIOLOGY

Taboos vs. surgery & dissection

Nothing to kill pain in surgery

Forced to rely on research on animals bled to death

Aristotle’s theory of 4 elements (FC. 22)

Incorrect analogies to human body

Empty veins Idea air flows in them

Various misconceptions synthesized into Galen’s theories:

Theory of 4 humors Must be in balance to stay healthy

Air goes from lungs to heart in order to cool it

Blood goes from heart to body & is absorbed by it

Blood & air mixPneuma Consciousness

Belief that disease is purely a matter of internal balance of humors, not any external factors Purging, esp. bloodletting, will restore balance of humors & patient’s health

ROLE OF THE RENAISSANCE?

Ren. Find anc. Grks opposing Galen (FC. 76)

Church & tradition back Galen (FC. 66)


Galen (130-199 A.D.) bugging us.

- Autopsies banned in Rome

 Used monkeys & pigs

 Find small intestine is long

 Need to eat less often

-Galen did see corpses left

by bandits & drowned (?)

Galen’s medical theories

Few willing to undergo surgery

Limited research & knowledge

Galen’s medical theories

FC.98 THE DISCOVERY OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM & BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSIOLOGY

Taboos vs. surgery & dissection

Nothing to kill pain in surgery

Forced to rely on research on animals bled to death

Aristotle’s theory of 4 elements (FC. 22)

Incorrect analogies to human body

Empty veins Idea air flows in them

Various misconceptions synthesized into Galen’s theories:

Theory of 4 humors Must be in balance to stay healthy

Air goes from lungs to heart in order to cool it

Blood goes from heart to body & is absorbed by it

Blood & air mixPneuma Consciousness

Belief that disease is purely a matter of internal balance of humors, not any external factors Purging, esp. bloodletting, will restore balance of humors & patient’s health

ROLE OF REN. ART?

Ren. Find anc. Grks opposing Galen (FC. 76)

Ren. art Stress realistic anatomy (FC. 77A)

Church & tradition back Galen (FC. 66)


Galen (130-199 A.D.) bugging us.

- Autopsies banned in Rome

 Used monkeys & pigs

 Find small intestine is long

 Need to eat less often

-Galen did see corpses left

by bandits & drowned (?)

Galen’s medical theories

Few willing to undergo surgery

Limited research & knowledge

Galen’s medical theories

FC.98 THE DISCOVERY OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM & BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSIOLOGY

Taboos vs. surgery & dissection

Nothing to kill pain in surgery

Forced to rely on research on animals bled to death

Aristotle’s theory of 4 elements (FC. 22)

Incorrect analogies to human body

Empty veins Idea air flows in them

Various misconceptions synthesized into Galen’s theories:

Theory of 4 humors Must be in balance to stay healthy

Air goes from lungs to heart in order to cool it

Blood goes from heart to body & is absorbed by it

Blood & air mixPneuma Consciousness

Belief that disease is purely a matter of internal balance of humors, not any external factors Purging, esp. bloodletting, will restore balance of humors & patient’s health

Ren. Find anc. Grks opposing Galen (FC. 76)

Ren. art Stress realistic anatomy (FC. 77A)

Church & tradition back Galen (FC. 66)


Galen (130-199 A.D.) bugging us.

- Autopsies banned in Rome

 Used monkeys & pigs

 Find small intestine is long

 Need to eat less often

-Galen did see corpses left

by bandits & drowned (?)

Dissections

- Banned. in Rome & Muslim

world, but not by Church

Galen’s medical theories

Few willing to undergo surgery

Limited research & knowledge

Galen’s medical theories

FC.98 THE DISCOVERY OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM & BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSIOLOGY

Taboos vs. surgery & dissection

Nothing to kill pain in surgery

Forced to rely on research on animals bled to death

Aristotle’s theory of 4 elements (FC. 22)

Incorrect analogies to human body

Empty veins Idea air flows in them

Various misconceptions synthesized into Galen’s theories:

Theory of 4 humors Must be in balance to stay healthy

Air goes from lungs to heart in order to cool it

Blood goes from heart to body & is absorbed by it

Blood & air mixPneuma Consciousness

Belief that disease is purely a matter of internal balance of humors, not any external factors Purging, esp. bloodletting, will restore balance of humors & patient’s health

Ren. Find anc. Grks opposing Galen (FC. 76)

Ren. art Stress realistic anatomy (FC. 77A)

Church & tradition back Galen (FC. 66)


Galen (130-199 A.D.) bugging us.

- Autopsies banned in Rome

 Used monkeys & pigs

 Find small intestine is long

 Need to eat less often

-Galen did see corpses left

by bandits & drowned (?)

Dissections

- Banned. in Rome & Muslim

world, but not by Church

- More pub. dissect’s in 1300's

Galen’s medical theories

Few willing to undergo surgery

Limited research & knowledge

Galen’s medical theories

FC.98 THE DISCOVERY OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM & BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSIOLOGY

Taboos vs. surgery & dissection

Nothing to kill pain in surgery

Forced to rely on research on animals bled to death

Aristotle’s theory of 4 elements (FC. 22)

Incorrect analogies to human body

Empty veins Idea air flows in them

Various misconceptions synthesized into Galen’s theories:

Theory of 4 humors Must be in balance to stay healthy

Air goes from lungs to heart in order to cool it

Blood goes from heart to body & is absorbed by it

Blood & air mixPneuma Consciousness

Belief that disease is purely a matter of internal balance of humors, not any external factors Purging, esp. bloodletting, will restore balance of humors & patient’s health

Ren. Find anc. Grks opposing Galen (FC. 76)

Ren. art Stress realistic anatomy (FC. 77A)

Church & tradition back Galen (FC. 66)


Galen (130-199 A.D.) bugging us.

- Autopsies banned in Rome

 Used monkeys & pigs

 Find small intestine is long

 Need to eat less often

-Galen did see corpses left

by bandits & drowned (?)

Dissections

- Banned. in Rome & Muslim

world, but not by Church

- More pub. dissect’s in 1300's

 Mostly condemned crim’s

 often dismembered;

Galen’s medical theories

Few willing to undergo surgery

Limited research & knowledge

Galen’s medical theories

FC.98 THE DISCOVERY OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM & BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSIOLOGY

Taboos vs. surgery & dissection

Nothing to kill pain in surgery

Forced to rely on research on animals bled to death

Aristotle’s theory of 4 elements (FC. 22)

Incorrect analogies to human body

Empty veins Idea air flows in them

Various misconceptions synthesized into Galen’s theories:

Theory of 4 humors Must be in balance to stay healthy

Air goes from lungs to heart in order to cool it

Blood goes from heart to body & is absorbed by it

Blood & air mixPneuma Consciousness

Belief that disease is purely a matter of internal balance of humors, not any external factors Purging, esp. bloodletting, will restore balance of humors & patient’s health

Ren. Find anc. Grks opposing Galen (FC. 76)

Ren. art Stress realistic anatomy (FC. 77A)

Church & tradition back Galen (FC. 66)


Galen (130-199 A.D.) bugging us.

- Autopsies banned in Rome

 Used monkeys & pigs

 Find small intestine is long

 Need to eat less often

-Galen did see corpses left

by bandits & drowned (?)

Dissections

- Banned. in Rome & Muslim

world, but not by Church

- More pub. dissect’s in 1300's

 Mostly condemned crim’s

 often dismembered;

- Few women criminals

 Little info on female anat.

Galen’s medical theories

Few willing to undergo surgery

Limited research & knowledge

Galen’s medical theories

FC.98 THE DISCOVERY OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM & BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSIOLOGY

Taboos vs. surgery & dissection

Nothing to kill pain in surgery

Forced to rely on research on animals bled to death

Aristotle’s theory of 4 elements (FC. 22)

Incorrect analogies to human body

Empty veins Idea air flows in them

Various misconceptions synthesized into Galen’s theories:

Theory of 4 humors Must be in balance to stay healthy

Air goes from lungs to heart in order to cool it

Blood goes from heart to body & is absorbed by it

Blood & air mixPneuma Consciousness

Belief that disease is purely a matter of internal balance of humors, not any external factors Purging, esp. bloodletting, will restore balance of humors & patient’s health

Ren. Find anc. Grks opposing Galen (FC. 76)

Ren. art Stress realistic anatomy (FC. 77A)

Church & tradition back Galen (FC. 66)


Galen (130-199 A.D.) bugging us.

- Autopsies banned in Rome

 Used monkeys & pigs

 Find small intestine is long

 Need to eat less often

-Galen did see corpses left

by bandits & drowned (?)

Dissections

- Banned. in Rome & Muslim

world, but not by Church

- More pub. dissect’s in 1300's

 Mostly condemned crim’s

 often dismembered;

- Few women criminals

 Little info on female anat.

- Getting cadavers hard

 Grave robbing till 1700's

Limited research & knowledge

Galen’s medical theories

Few willing to undergo surgery

Galen’s medical theories

FC.98 THE DISCOVERY OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM & BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSIOLOGY

Taboos vs. surgery & dissection

Nothing to kill pain in surgery

Forced to rely on research on animals bled to death

Aristotle’s theory of 4 elements (FC. 22)

Incorrect analogies to human body

Empty veins Idea air flows in them

Various misconceptions synthesized into Galen’s theories:

Theory of 4 humors Must be in balance to stay healthy

Air goes from lungs to heart in order to cool it

Blood goes from heart to body & is absorbed by it

Blood & air mixPneuma Consciousness

Belief that disease is purely a matter of internal balance of humors, not any external factors Purging, esp. bloodletting, will restore balance of humors & patient’s health

Ren. Find anc. Grks opposing Galen (FC. 76)

Ren. art Stress realistic anatomy (FC. 77A)

Church & tradition back Galen (FC. 66)


Galen (130-199 A.D.) bugging us.

- Autopsies banned in Rome

 Used monkeys & pigs

 Find small intestine is long

 Need to eat less often

-Galen did see corpses left

by bandits & drowned (?)

Dissections

- Banned. in Rome & Muslim

world, but not by Church

- More pub. dissect’s in 1300's

 Mostly condemned crim’s

 often dismembered;

- Few women criminals

 Little info on female anat.

- Getting cadavers hard

 Grave robbing till 1700's

- No refrig  done quickly,

continuously, & outside

Galen’s medical theories

Few willing to undergo surgery

Limited research & knowledge

Galen’s medical theories

FC.98 THE DISCOVERY OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM & BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSIOLOGY

Taboos vs. surgery & dissection

Nothing to kill pain in surgery

Forced to rely on research on animals bled to death

Aristotle’s theory of 4 elements (FC. 22)

Incorrect analogies to human body

Empty veins Idea air flows in them

Various misconceptions synthesized into Galen’s theories:

Theory of 4 humors Must be in balance to stay healthy

Air goes from lungs to heart in order to cool it

Blood goes from heart to body & is absorbed by it

Blood & air mixPneuma Consciousness

Belief that disease is purely a matter of internal balance of humors, not any external factors Purging, esp. bloodletting, will restore balance of humors & patient’s health

Ren. Find anc. Grks opposing Galen (FC. 76)

Ren. art Stress realistic anatomy (FC. 77A)

Church & tradition back Galen (FC. 66)


Left: Early anatomy lesson where doctor reads from Galen while students dissect

Below: Jacob Sylvius, one of the most ardent and prestigious supporters of Galen in the mid 1500s.

Apparently, he was also known as a “stingy-gut” as seen in his epitaph:

"Here lies Sylvius who never did a thing w/o a fee

Even in death, he grieves that you read this for free."


Galen (130-199 A.D.) while students dissect

- Autopsies banned in Rome

 Used monkeys & pigs

 Find small intestine is long

 Need to eat less often

-Galen did see corpses left

by bandits & drowned (?)

Dissections

- Banned. in Rome & Muslim

world, but not by Church

- More pub. dissect’s in 1300's

 Mostly condemned crim’s

 often dismembered;

- Few women criminals

 Little info on female anat.

- Getting cadavers hard

 Grave robbing till 1700's

- No refrig  done quickly,

continuously, & outside

How are they explained?

Galen’s medical theories

Few willing to undergo surgery

Limited research & knowledge

Galen’s medical theories

FC.98 THE DISCOVERY OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM & BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSIOLOGY

Taboos vs. surgery & dissection

Nothing to kill pain in surgery

Forced to rely on research on animals bled to death

Aristotle’s theory of 4 elements (FC. 22)

Incorrect analogies to human body

Empty veins Idea air flows in them

Various misconceptions synthesized into Galen’s theories:

Theory of 4 humors Must be in balance to stay healthy

Air goes from lungs to heart in order to cool it

Blood goes from heart to body & is absorbed by it

Blood & air mixPneuma Consciousness

Belief that disease is purely a matter of internal balance of humors, not any external factors Purging, esp. bloodletting, will restore balance of humors & patient’s health

Ren. Find anc. Grks opposing Galen (FC. 76)

Ren. art Stress realistic anatomy (FC. 77A)

Church & tradition back Galen (FC. 66)

New findings contradicting Galen

Explanations in context of Galen


Galen (130-199 A.D.) while students dissect

- Autopsies banned in Rome

 Used monkeys & pigs

 Find small intestine is long

 Need to eat less often

-Galen did see corpses left

by bandits & drowned (?)

Dissections

- Banned. in Rome & Muslim

world, but not by Church

- More pub. dissect’s in 1300's

 Mostly condemned crim’s

 often dismembered;

- Few women criminals

 Little info on female anat.

- Getting cadavers hard

 Grave robbing till 1700's

- No refrig  done quickly,

continuously, & outside

Galen’s medical theories

Few willing to undergo surgery

Limited research & knowledge

Galen’s medical theories

FC.98 THE DISCOVERY OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM & BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSIOLOGY

Taboos vs. surgery & dissection

Nothing to kill pain in surgery

Forced to rely on research on animals bled to death

Aristotle’s theory of 4 elements (FC. 22)

Incorrect analogies to human body

Empty veins Idea air flows in them

Various misconceptions synthesized into Galen’s theories:

Theory of 4 humors Must be in balance to stay healthy

Air goes from lungs to heart in order to cool it

Blood goes from heart to body & is absorbed by it

Blood & air mixPneuma Consciousness

Belief that disease is purely a matter of internal balance of humors, not any external factors Purging, esp. bloodletting, will restore balance of humors & patient’s health

Ren. Find anc. Grks opposing Galen (FC. 76)

Ren. art Stress realistic anatomy (FC. 77A)

Church & tradition back Galen (FC. 66)

New findings contradicting Galen

Explanations in context of Galen


Galen (130-199 A.D.) while students dissect

- Autopsies banned in Rome

 Used monkeys & pigs

 Find small intestine is long

 Need to eat less often

-Galen did see corpses left

by bandits & drowned (?)

Dissections

- Banned. in Rome & Muslim

world, but not by Church

- More pub. dissect’s in 1300's

 Mostly condemned crim’s

 often dismembered;

- Few women criminals

 Little info on female anat.

- Getting cadavers hard

 Grave robbing till 1700's

- No refrig  done quickly,

continuously, & outside

Paracelsus (1493-1541)

Taught in what language?

Galen’s medical theories

Few willing to undergo surgery

Limited research & knowledge

Galen’s medical theories

FC.98 THE DISCOVERY OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM & BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSIOLOGY

Taboos vs. surgery & dissection

Nothing to kill pain in surgery

Forced to rely on research on animals bled to death

Aristotle’s theory of 4 elements (FC. 22)

Incorrect analogies to human body

Empty veins Idea air flows in them

Various misconceptions synthesized into Galen’s theories:

Theory of 4 humors Must be in balance to stay healthy

Air goes from lungs to heart in order to cool it

Blood goes from heart to body & is absorbed by it

Blood & air mixPneuma Consciousness

Belief that disease is purely a matter of internal balance of humors, not any external factors Purging, esp. bloodletting, will restore balance of humors & patient’s health

Ren. Find anc. Grks opposing Galen (FC. 76)

Ren. art Stress realistic anatomy (FC. 77A)

Church & tradition back Galen (FC. 66)

New findings contradicting Galen

Explanations in context of Galen

Paracelsus (1493-1541):

Taught in vernacular

Said factors outside the body caused disease

Taught fr. experience


  • Galen (130-199 A.D.) while students dissect

  • - Autopsies banned in Rome

  •  Used monkeys & pigs

  •  Find small intestine is long

  •  Need to eat less often

  • -Galen did see corpses left

  • by bandits & drowned (?)

  • Dissections

  • - Banned. in Rome & Muslim

  • world, but not by Church

  • - More pub. dissect’s in 1300's

  •  Mostly condemned crim’s

  •  often dismembered;

  • - Few women criminals

  •  Little info on female anat.

  • - Getting cadavers hard

  •  Grave robbing till 1700's

  • - No refrig  done quickly,

  • continuously, & outside

  • Paracelsus (1493-1541)

  • Taught in vernacular

  •  vs Hippocr. oath Dr's mad

  •  Most books not printed

Said what caused disease?

Galen’s medical theories

Few willing to undergo surgery

Limited research & knowledge

Galen’s medical theories

FC.98 THE DISCOVERY OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM & BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSIOLOGY

Taboos vs. surgery & dissection

Nothing to kill pain in surgery

Forced to rely on research on animals bled to death

Aristotle’s theory of 4 elements (FC. 22)

Incorrect analogies to human body

Empty veins Idea air flows in them

Various misconceptions synthesized into Galen’s theories:

Theory of 4 humors Must be in balance to stay healthy

Air goes from lungs to heart in order to cool it

Blood goes from heart to body & is absorbed by it

Blood & air mixPneuma Consciousness

Belief that disease is purely a matter of internal balance of humors, not any external factors Purging, esp. bloodletting, will restore balance of humors & patient’s health

Ren. Find anc. Grks opposing Galen (FC. 76)

Ren. art Stress realistic anatomy (FC. 77A)

Church & tradition back Galen (FC. 66)

New findings contradicting Galen

Explanations in context of Galen

Paracelsus (1493-1541):

Taught in vernacular

Said factors outside the body caused disease

Taught fr. experience


  • Galen (130-199 A.D.) while students dissect

  • - Autopsies banned in Rome

  •  Used monkeys & pigs

  •  Find small intestine is long

  •  Need to eat less often

  • -Galen did see corpses left

  • by bandits & drowned (?)

  • Dissections

  • - Banned. in Rome & Muslim

  • world, but not by Church

  • - More pub. dissect’s in 1300's

  •  Mostly condemned crim’s

  •  often dismembered;

  • - Few women criminals

  •  Little info on female anat.

  • - Getting cadavers hard

  •  Grave robbing till 1700's

  • - No refrig  done quickly,

  • continuously, & outside

  • Paracelsus (1493-1541)

  • Taught in vernacular

  •  vs Hippocr. oath Dr's mad

  •  Most books not printed

  • - Outside causes Disease:

  • poisons, minerals, stars

Taught based on what?

Galen’s medical theories

Few willing to undergo surgery

Limited research & knowledge

Galen’s medical theories

FC.98 THE DISCOVERY OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM & BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSIOLOGY

Taboos vs. surgery & dissection

Nothing to kill pain in surgery

Forced to rely on research on animals bled to death

Aristotle’s theory of 4 elements (FC. 22)

Incorrect analogies to human body

Empty veins Idea air flows in them

Various misconceptions synthesized into Galen’s theories:

Theory of 4 humors Must be in balance to stay healthy

Air goes from lungs to heart in order to cool it

Blood goes from heart to body & is absorbed by it

Blood & air mixPneuma Consciousness

Belief that disease is purely a matter of internal balance of humors, not any external factors Purging, esp. bloodletting, will restore balance of humors & patient’s health

Ren. Find anc. Grks opposing Galen (FC. 76)

Ren. art Stress realistic anatomy (FC. 77A)

Church & tradition back Galen (FC. 66)

New findings contradicting Galen

Explanations in context of Galen

Paracelsus (1493-1541):

Taught in vernacular

Said factors outside the body caused disease

Taught fr. experience


  • Galen (130-199 A.D.) while students dissect

  • - Autopsies banned in Rome

  •  Used monkeys & pigs

  •  Find small intestine is long

  •  Need to eat less often

  • -Galen did see corpses left

  • by bandits & drowned (?)

  • Dissections

  • - Banned. in Rome & Muslim

  • world, but not by Church

  • - More pub. dissect’s in 1300's

  •  Mostly condemned crim’s

  •  often dismembered;

  • - Few women criminals

  •  Little info on female anat.

  • - Getting cadavers hard

  •  Grave robbing till 1700's

  • - No refrig  done quickly,

  • continuously, & outside

  • Paracelsus (1493-1541)

  • Taught in vernacular

  •  vs Hippocr. oath Dr's mad

  •  Most books not printed

  • - Outside causes Disease:

  • poisons, minerals, stars

Galen’s medical theories

Few willing to undergo surgery

Limited research & knowledge

Galen’s medical theories

FC.98 THE DISCOVERY OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM & BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSIOLOGY

Taboos vs. surgery & dissection

Nothing to kill pain in surgery

Forced to rely on research on animals bled to death

Aristotle’s theory of 4 elements (FC. 22)

Incorrect analogies to human body

Empty veins Idea air flows in them

Various misconceptions synthesized into Galen’s theories:

Theory of 4 humors Must be in balance to stay healthy

Air goes from lungs to heart in order to cool it

Blood goes from heart to body & is absorbed by it

Blood & air mixPneuma Consciousness

Belief that disease is purely a matter of internal balance of humors, not any external factors Purging, esp. bloodletting, will restore balance of humors & patient’s health

Ren. Find anc. Grks opposing Galen (FC. 76)

Ren. art Stress realistic anatomy (FC. 77A)

Church & tradition back Galen (FC. 66)

New findings contradicting Galen

Explanations in context of Galen

Paracelsus (1493-1541):

Taught in vernacular

Said factors outside the body caused disease

Taught fr. experience


  • Dissections while students dissect

  • - Banned. in Rome & Muslim

  • world, but not by Church

  • - More pub. dissect’s in 1300's

  •  Mostly condemned crim’s

  •  often dismembered;

  • - Few women criminals

  •  Little info on female anat.

  • - Getting cadavers hard

  •  Grave robbing till 1700's

  • - No refrig  done quickly,

  • continuously, & outside

  • Paracelsus (1493-1541)

  • Taught in vernacular

  •  vs Hippocr. oath Dr's mad

  •  Most books not printed

  • - Outside causes Disease:

  • poisons, minerals, stars

  • Vesalius (1514-64)

  • - Saw lots of executions

Who did his dissections?

Galen’s medical theories

Few willing to undergo surgery

Limited research & knowledge

Galen’s medical theories

FC.98 THE DISCOVERY OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM & BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSIOLOGY

Taboos vs. surgery & dissection

Nothing to kill pain in surgery

Forced to rely on research on animals bled to death

Aristotle’s theory of 4 elements (FC. 22)

Incorrect analogies to human body

Empty veins Idea air flows in them

Various misconceptions synthesized into Galen’s theories:

Theory of 4 humors Must be in balance to stay healthy

Air goes from lungs to heart in order to cool it

Blood goes from heart to body & is absorbed by it

Blood & air mixPneuma Consciousness

Belief that disease is purely a matter of internal balance of humors, not any external factors Purging, esp. bloodletting, will restore balance of humors & patient’s health

Ren. Find anc. Grks opposing Galen (FC. 76)

Ren. art Stress realistic anatomy (FC. 77A)

Church & tradition back Galen (FC. 66)

New findings contradicting Galen

Explanations in context of Galen

Vesalius (1514-1564):

Paracelsus (1493-1541):

Taught in vernacular

Said factors outside the body caused disease

Taught fr. experience

Did his own dissections

Anatomy book set standard of accuracy

Made own instruments


  • Dissections while students dissect

  • - Banned. in Rome & Muslim

  • world, but not by Church

  • - More pub. dissect’s in 1300's

  •  Mostly condemned crim’s

  •  often dismembered;

  • - Few women criminals

  •  Little info on female anat.

  • - Getting cadavers hard

  •  Grave robbing till 1700's

  • - No refrig  done quickly,

  • continuously, & outside

  • Paracelsus (1493-1541)

  • Taught in vernacular

  •  vs Hippocr. oath Dr's mad

  •  Most books not printed

  • - Outside causes Disease:

  • poisons, minerals, stars

  • Vesalius (1514-64)

  • - Saw lots of executions

Galen’s medical theories

Few willing to undergo surgery

Limited research & knowledge

Galen’s medical theories

FC.98 THE DISCOVERY OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM & BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSIOLOGY

Taboos vs. surgery & dissection

Nothing to kill pain in surgery

Forced to rely on research on animals bled to death

Aristotle’s theory of 4 elements (FC. 22)

Incorrect analogies to human body

Empty veins Idea air flows in them

Various misconceptions synthesized into Galen’s theories:

Theory of 4 humors Must be in balance to stay healthy

Air goes from lungs to heart in order to cool it

Blood goes from heart to body & is absorbed by it

Blood & air mixPneuma Consciousness

Belief that disease is purely a matter of internal balance of humors, not any external factors Purging, esp. bloodletting, will restore balance of humors & patient’s health

Ren. Find anc. Grks opposing Galen (FC. 76)

Ren. art Stress realistic anatomy (FC. 77A)

Church & tradition back Galen (FC. 66)

New findings contradicting Galen

Explanations in context of Galen

Vesalius (1514-1564):

Paracelsus (1493-1541):

Taught in vernacular

Said factors outside the body caused disease

Taught fr. experience

Did his own dissections

Anatomy book set standard of accuracy

Made own instruments


By the 1600s, professors doing their own dissections, not just reading from Galen in the corner, were becoming the norm.

Left & below left: Anatomy lesson of Dr. Tulp and The Anatomy Lesson of Joan Deij, both by Rembrandt.

Below: Another anatomy class where the doctor performs the dissection


The amphitheater in Padua where doctors performed public operations, a popular form of entertainment before medical advances made it likely patients would survive such operations.


  • Dissections operations, a popular form of entertainment before medical advances made it likely patients would survive such operations.

  • - Banned. in Rome & Muslim

  • world, but not by Church

  • - More pub. dissect’s in 1300's

  •  Mostly condemned crim’s

  •  often dismembered;

  • - Few women criminals

  •  Little info on female anat.

  • - Getting cadavers hard

  •  Grave robbing till 1700's

  • - No refrig  done quickly,

  • continuously, & outside

  • Paracelsus (1493-1541)

  • Taught in vernacular

  •  vs Hippocr. oath Dr's mad

  •  Most books not printed

  • - Outside causes Disease:

  • poisons, minerals, stars

  • Vesalius (1514-64)

  • - Saw lots of executions

  • - Introduced practice of

  • displaying organ in auditor.

Limited research & knowledge

Few willing to undergo surgery

Vesalius’ anatomy book?

Galen’s medical theories

Galen’s medical theories

FC.98 THE DISCOVERY OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM & BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSIOLOGY

Taboos vs. surgery & dissection

Nothing to kill pain in surgery

Forced to rely on research on animals bled to death

Aristotle’s theory of 4 elements (FC. 22)

Incorrect analogies to human body

Empty veins Idea air flows in them

Various misconceptions synthesized into Galen’s theories:

Theory of 4 humors Must be in balance to stay healthy

Air goes from lungs to heart in order to cool it

Blood goes from heart to body & is absorbed by it

Blood & air mixPneuma Consciousness

Belief that disease is purely a matter of internal balance of humors, not any external factors Purging, esp. bloodletting, will restore balance of humors & patient’s health

Ren. Find anc. Grks opposing Galen (FC. 76)

Ren. art Stress realistic anatomy (FC. 77A)

Church & tradition back Galen (FC. 66)

New findings contradicting Galen

Explanations in context of Galen

Vesalius (1514-1564):

Paracelsus (1493-1541):

Taught in vernacular

Said factors outside the body caused disease

Taught fr. experience

Did his own dissections

Anatomy book set standard of accuracy

Made own instruments


  • Galen (130-199 A.D.) operations, a popular form of entertainment before medical advances made it likely patients would survive such operations.

  • Dissections

  • - Banned. in Rome & Muslim

  • world, but not by Church

  • - More pub. dissect’s in 1300's

  •  Mostly condemned crim’s

  •  often dismembered;

  • - Few women criminals

  •  Little info on female anat.

  • - Getting cadavers hard

  •  Grave robbing till 1700's

  • - No refrig  done quickly,

  • continuously, & outside

  • Paracelsus (1493-1541)

  • Taught in vernacular

  •  vs Hippocr. oath Dr's mad

  •  Most books not printed

  • - Outside causes Disease:

  • poisons, minerals, stars

  • Vesalius (1514-64)

  • - Saw lots of executions

  • - Introduced practice of

  • displaying organ in auditor.

  • 1543- De Humani Corporis

  • Fabrica Libri Septem

  • - Illustr. by Titian's student,

  • Stephen van Calcar

  •  Very detailed & accurate

Galen’s medical theories

Few willing to undergo surgery

Limited research & knowledge

Galen’s medical theories

FC.98 THE DISCOVERY OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM & BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSIOLOGY

Taboos vs. surgery & dissection

Nothing to kill pain in surgery

Forced to rely on research on animals bled to death

Aristotle’s theory of 4 elements (FC. 22)

Incorrect analogies to human body

Empty veins Idea air flows in them

Various misconceptions synthesized into Galen’s theories:

Theory of 4 humors Must be in balance to stay healthy

Air goes from lungs to heart in order to cool it

Blood goes from heart to body & is absorbed by it

Blood & air mixPneuma Consciousness

Belief that disease is purely a matter of internal balance of humors, not any external factors Purging, esp. bloodletting, will restore balance of humors & patient’s health

Ren. Find anc. Grks opposing Galen (FC. 76)

Ren. art Stress realistic anatomy (FC. 77A)

Church & tradition back Galen (FC. 66)

New findings contradicting Galen

Explanations in context of Galen

Vesalius (1514-1564):

Paracelsus (1493-1541):

Taught in vernacular

Said factors outside the body caused disease

Taught fr. experience

Did his own dissections

Anatomy book set standard of accuracy

Made own instruments


Detailed drawings from Vesalius’ operations, a popular form of entertainment before medical advances made it likely patients would survive such operations.De Fabrica. Compare them to the medieval anatomical drawings in the lower left.


The frontpiece to Vesalius’ operations, a popular form of entertainment before medical advances made it likely patients would survive such operations.De Fabrica shows Vesalius himself doing the dissection. The skeleton presiding over the scene symbolizes Vesalius’ emphasis on teaching anatomy according to structure. The monkey and dog in the lower corners, which Galen used for his dissections, have been replaced by a human cadaver which is now the center of attention. Being out of work, monkeys and dogs would both pursue new careers in the circus.


  • Dissections operations, a popular form of entertainment before medical advances made it likely patients would survive such operations.

  • - Banned. in Rome & Muslim

  • world, but not by Church

  • - More pub. dissect’s in 1300's

  •  Mostly condemned crim’s

  •  often dismembered;

  • - Few women criminals

  •  Little info on female anat.

  • - Getting cadavers hard

  •  Grave robbing till 1700's

  • - No refrig  done quickly,

  • continuously, & outside

  • Paracelsus (1493-1541)

  • Taught in vernacular

  •  vs Hippocr. oath Dr's mad

  •  Most books not printed

  • - Outside causes Disease:

  • poisons, minerals, stars

  • Vesalius (1514-64)

  • - Saw lots of executions

  • - Introduced practice of

  • displaying organ in auditor.

  • 1543- De Humani Corporis

  • Fabrica Libri Septem

  • - Illustr. by Titian's student,

  • Stephen van Calcar

  •  Very detailed & accurate

His instruments?

Galen’s medical theories

Few willing to undergo surgery

Limited research & knowledge

Galen’s medical theories

FC.98 THE DISCOVERY OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM & BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSIOLOGY

Taboos vs. surgery & dissection

Nothing to kill pain in surgery

Forced to rely on research on animals bled to death

Aristotle’s theory of 4 elements (FC. 22)

Incorrect analogies to human body

Empty veins Idea air flows in them

Various misconceptions synthesized into Galen’s theories:

Theory of 4 humors Must be in balance to stay healthy

Air goes from lungs to heart in order to cool it

Blood goes from heart to body & is absorbed by it

Blood & air mixPneuma Consciousness

Belief that disease is purely a matter of internal balance of humors, not any external factors Purging, esp. bloodletting, will restore balance of humors & patient’s health

Ren. Find anc. Grks opposing Galen (FC. 76)

Ren. art Stress realistic anatomy (FC. 77A)

Church & tradition back Galen (FC. 66)

New findings contradicting Galen

Explanations in context of Galen

Vesalius (1514-1564):

Paracelsus (1493-1541):

Taught in vernacular

Said factors outside the body caused disease

Taught fr. experience

Did his own dissections

Anatomy book set standard of accuracy

Made own instruments


  • Dissections operations, a popular form of entertainment before medical advances made it likely patients would survive such operations.

  • - Banned. in Rome & Muslim

  • world, but not by Church

  • - More pub. dissect’s in 1300's

  •  Mostly condemned crim’s

  •  often dismembered;

  • - Few women criminals

  •  Little info on female anat.

  • - Getting cadavers hard

  •  Grave robbing till 1700's

  • - No refrig  done quickly,

  • continuously, & outside

  • Paracelsus (1493-1541)

  • Taught in vernacular

  •  vs Hippocr. oath Dr's mad

  •  Most books not printed

  • - Outside causes Disease:

  • poisons, minerals, stars

  • Vesalius (1514-64)

  • - Saw lots of executions

  • - Introduced practice of

  • displaying organ in auditor.

  • 1543- De Humani Corporis

  • Fabrica Libri Septem

  • - Illustr. by Titian's student,

  • Stephen van Calcar

  •  Very detailed & accurate

Galen’s medical theories

Few willing to undergo surgery

Limited research & knowledge

Galen’s medical theories

FC.98 THE DISCOVERY OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM & BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSIOLOGY

Taboos vs. surgery & dissection

Nothing to kill pain in surgery

Forced to rely on research on animals bled to death

Aristotle’s theory of 4 elements (FC. 22)

Incorrect analogies to human body

Empty veins Idea air flows in them

Various misconceptions synthesized into Galen’s theories:

Theory of 4 humors Must be in balance to stay healthy

Air goes from lungs to heart in order to cool it

Blood goes from heart to body & is absorbed by it

Blood & air mixPneuma Consciousness

Belief that disease is purely a matter of internal balance of humors, not any external factors Purging, esp. bloodletting, will restore balance of humors & patient’s health

Ren. Find anc. Grks opposing Galen (FC. 76)

Ren. art Stress realistic anatomy (FC. 77A)

Church & tradition back Galen (FC. 66)

New findings contradicting Galen

Explanations in context of Galen

Vesalius (1514-1564):

Paracelsus (1493-1541):

Taught in vernacular

Said factors outside the body caused disease

Taught fr. experience

Did his own dissections

Anatomy book set standard of accuracy

Made own instruments


  • Dissections operations, a popular form of entertainment before medical advances made it likely patients would survive such operations.

  • - Banned. in Rome & Muslim

  • world, but not by Church

  • - More pub. dissect’s in 1300's

  •  Mostly condemned crim’s

  •  often dismembered;

  • - Few women criminals

  •  Little info on female anat.

  • - Getting cadavers hard

  •  Grave robbing till 1700's

  • - No refrig  done quickly,

  • continuously, & outside

  • Paracelsus (1493-1541)

  • Taught in vernacular

  •  vs Hippocr. oath Dr's mad

  •  Most books not printed

  • - Outside causes Disease:

  • poisons, minerals, stars

  • Vesalius (1514-64)

  • - Saw lots of executions

  • - Introduced practice of

  • displaying organ in auditor.

  • 1543- De Humani Corporis

  • Fabrica Libri Septem

  • - Illustr. by Titian's student,

  • Stephen van Calcar

  •  Very detailed & accurate

Galen’s medical theories

Few willing to undergo surgery

Limited research & knowledge

Galen’s medical theories

FC.98 THE DISCOVERY OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM & BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSIOLOGY

Taboos vs. surgery & dissection

Nothing to kill pain in surgery

Forced to rely on research on animals bled to death

Aristotle’s theory of 4 elements (FC. 22)

Incorrect analogies to human body

Empty veins Idea air flows in them

Various misconceptions synthesized into Galen’s theories:

Theory of 4 humors Must be in balance to stay healthy

Air goes from lungs to heart in order to cool it

Blood goes from heart to body & is absorbed by it

Blood & air mixPneuma Consciousness

Belief that disease is purely a matter of internal balance of humors, not any external factors Purging, esp. bloodletting, will restore balance of humors & patient’s health

Ren. Find anc. Grks opposing Galen (FC. 76)

Ren. art Stress realistic anatomy (FC. 77A)

Church & tradition back Galen (FC. 66)

New findings contradicting Galen

Explanations in context of Galen

Vesalius (1514-1564):

Paracelsus (1493-1541):

Taught in vernacular

Said factors outside the body caused disease

Taught fr. experience

Did his own dissections

Anatomy book set standard of accuracy

Made own instruments

Mounting evidence contradicting Galen:

Blood flows fr. arteries to veins & back toward heart

Valves that prevent flow of blood out of the heart

Air doesn’t flow naturally from the lungs to the heart

Direction of blood flow?


  • Dissections operations, a popular form of entertainment before medical advances made it likely patients would survive such operations.

  • - Banned. in Rome & Muslim

  • world, but not by Church

  • - More pub. dissect’s in 1300's

  •  Mostly condemned crim’s

  •  often dismembered;

  • - Few women criminals

  •  Little info on female anat.

  • - Getting cadavers hard

  •  Grave robbing till 1700's

  • - No refrig  done quickly,

  • continuously, & outside

  • Paracelsus (1493-1541)

  • Taught in vernacular

  •  vs Hippocr. oath Dr's mad

  •  Most books not printed

  • - Outside causes Disease:

  • poisons, minerals, stars

  • Vesalius (1514-64)

  • - Saw lots of executions

  • - Introduced practice of

  • displaying organ in auditor.

  • 1543- De Humani Corporis

  • Fabrica Libri Septem

  • - Illustr. by Titian's student,

  • Stephen van Calcar

  •  Very detailed & accurate

Galen’s medical theories

Few willing to undergo surgery

Limited research & knowledge

Galen’s medical theories

FC.98 THE DISCOVERY OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM & BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSIOLOGY

Taboos vs. surgery & dissection

Nothing to kill pain in surgery

Forced to rely on research on animals bled to death

Aristotle’s theory of 4 elements (FC. 22)

Incorrect analogies to human body

Empty veins Idea air flows in them

Various misconceptions synthesized into Galen’s theories:

Theory of 4 humors Must be in balance to stay healthy

Air goes from lungs to heart in order to cool it

Blood goes from heart to body & is absorbed by it

Blood & air mixPneuma Consciousness

Belief that disease is purely a matter of internal balance of humors, not any external factors Purging, esp. bloodletting, will restore balance of humors & patient’s health

Ren. Find anc. Grks opposing Galen (FC. 76)

Ren. art Stress realistic anatomy (FC. 77A)

Church & tradition back Galen (FC. 66)

New findings contradicting Galen

Explanations in context of Galen

Vesalius (1514-1564):

Paracelsus (1493-1541):

Taught in vernacular

Said factors outside the body caused disease

Taught fr. experience

Did his own dissections

Anatomy book set standard of accuracy

Made own instruments

Mounting evidence contradicting Galen:

Blood flows fr. arteries to veins & back toward heart

Valves that prevent flow of blood out of the heart

Air doesn’t flow naturally from the lungs to the heart

Valves that did what?


  • Dissections operations, a popular form of entertainment before medical advances made it likely patients would survive such operations.

  • - Banned. in Rome & Muslim

  • world, but not by Church

  • - More pub. dissect’s in 1300's

  •  Mostly condemned crim’s

  •  often dismembered;

  • - Few women criminals

  •  Little info on female anat.

  • - Getting cadavers hard

  •  Grave robbing till 1700's

  • - No refrig  done quickly,

  • continuously, & outside

  • Paracelsus (1493-1541)

  • Taught in vernacular

  •  vs Hippocr. oath Dr's mad

  •  Most books not printed

  • - Outside causes Disease:

  • poisons, minerals, stars

  • Vesalius (1514-64)

  • - Saw lots of executions

  • - Introduced practice of

  • displaying organ in auditor.

  • 1543- De Humani Corporis

  • Fabrica Libri Septem

  • - Illustr. by Titian's student,

  • Stephen van Calcar

  •  Very detailed & accurate

Galen’s medical theories

Few willing to undergo surgery

Limited research & knowledge

Galen’s medical theories

FC.98 THE DISCOVERY OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM & BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSIOLOGY

Taboos vs. surgery & dissection

Nothing to kill pain in surgery

Forced to rely on research on animals bled to death

Aristotle’s theory of 4 elements (FC. 22)

Incorrect analogies to human body

Empty veins Idea air flows in them

Various misconceptions synthesized into Galen’s theories:

Theory of 4 humors Must be in balance to stay healthy

Air goes from lungs to heart in order to cool it

Blood goes from heart to body & is absorbed by it

Blood & air mixPneuma Consciousness

Belief that disease is purely a matter of internal balance of humors, not any external factors Purging, esp. bloodletting, will restore balance of humors & patient’s health

Ren. Find anc. Grks opposing Galen (FC. 76)

Ren. art Stress realistic anatomy (FC. 77A)

Church & tradition back Galen (FC. 66)

New findings contradicting Galen

Explanations in context of Galen

Vesalius (1514-1564):

Paracelsus (1493-1541):

Taught in vernacular

Said factors outside the body caused disease

Taught fr. experience

Did his own dissections

Anatomy book set standard of accuracy

Made own instruments

Mounting evidence contradicting Galen:

Blood flows fr. arteries to veins & back toward heart

Valves that prevent flow of blood out of the heart

Air doesn’t flow naturally from the lungs to the heart

Direction of air flow?


  • Dissections operations, a popular form of entertainment before medical advances made it likely patients would survive such operations.

  • - Banned. in Rome & Muslim

  • world, but not by Church

  • - More pub. dissect’s in 1300's

  •  Mostly condemned crim’s

  •  often dismembered;

  • - Few women criminals

  •  Little info on female anat.

  • - Getting cadavers hard

  •  Grave robbing till 1700's

  • - No refrig  done quickly,

  • continuously, & outside

  • Paracelsus (1493-1541)

  • Taught in vernacular

  •  vs Hippocr. oath Dr's mad

  •  Most books not printed

  • - Outside causes Disease:

  • poisons, minerals, stars

  • Vesalius (1514-64)

  • - Saw lots of executions

  • - Introduced practice of

  • displaying organ in auditor.

  • 1543- De Humani Corporis

  • Fabrica Libri Septem

  • - Illustr. by Titian's student,

  • Stephen van Calcar

  •  Very detailed & accurate

Galen’s medical theories

Few willing to undergo surgery

Limited research & knowledge

Galen’s medical theories

FC.98 THE DISCOVERY OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM & BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSIOLOGY

Taboos vs. surgery & dissection

Nothing to kill pain in surgery

Forced to rely on research on animals bled to death

Aristotle’s theory of 4 elements (FC. 22)

Incorrect analogies to human body

Empty veins Idea air flows in them

Various misconceptions synthesized into Galen’s theories:

Theory of 4 humors Must be in balance to stay healthy

Air goes from lungs to heart in order to cool it

Blood goes from heart to body & is absorbed by it

Blood & air mixPneuma Consciousness

Belief that disease is purely a matter of internal balance of humors, not any external factors Purging, esp. bloodletting, will restore balance of humors & patient’s health

Ren. Find anc. Grks opposing Galen (FC. 76)

Ren. art Stress realistic anatomy (FC. 77A)

Church & tradition back Galen (FC. 66)

New findings contradicting Galen

Explanations in context of Galen

Vesalius (1514-1564):

Paracelsus (1493-1541):

Taught in vernacular

Said factors outside the body caused disease

Taught fr. experience

Did his own dissections

Anatomy book set standard of accuracy

Made own instruments

Mounting evidence contradicting Galen:

Who provided the synthesis?

Blood flows fr. arteries to veins & back toward heart

Valves that prevent flow of blood out of the heart

Air doesn’t flow naturally from the lungs to the heart


William Harvey*** operations, a popular form of entertainment before medical advances made it likely patients would survive such operations.


  • Paracelsus (1493-1541) operations, a popular form of entertainment before medical advances made it likely patients would survive such operations.

  • Taught in vernacular

  •  vs Hippocr. oath Dr's mad

  •  Most books not printed

  • - Outside causes Disease:

  • poisons, minerals, stars

  • Vesalius (1514-64)

  • - Saw lots of executions

  • - Introduced practice of

  • displaying organ in auditor.

  • 1543- De Humani Corporis

  • Fabrica Libri Septem

  • - Illustr. by Titian's student,

  • Stephen van Calcar

  •  Very detailed & accurate

  • William Harvey (1578-1657)

  • - Theories forming by 1616

  •  Delayed printing De Motu

  • Cordis (1628) from fear

  •  People still called him mad

  •  Lost business

Galen’s medical theories

Few willing to undergo surgery

Limited research & knowledge

Galen’s medical theories

FC.98 THE DISCOVERY OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM & BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSIOLOGY

Taboos vs. surgery & dissection

Nothing to kill pain in surgery

Forced to rely on research on animals bled to death

Aristotle’s theory of 4 elements (FC. 22)

Incorrect analogies to human body

Empty veins Idea air flows in them

Various misconceptions synthesized into Galen’s theories:

Theory of 4 humors Must be in balance to stay healthy

Air goes from lungs to heart in order to cool it

Blood goes from heart to body & is absorbed by it

Blood & air mixPneuma Consciousness

Belief that disease is purely a matter of internal balance of humors, not any external factors Purging, esp. bloodletting, will restore balance of humors & patient’s health

Ren. Find anc. Grks opposing Galen (FC. 76)

Ren. art Stress realistic anatomy (FC. 77A)

Church & tradition back Galen (FC. 66)

New findings contradicting Galen

Explanations in context of Galen

Vesalius (1514-1564):

Paracelsus (1493-1541):

Taught in vernacular

Said factors outside the body caused disease

Taught fr. experience

Did his own dissections

Anatomy book set standard of accuracy

Made own instruments

Mounting evidence contradicting Galen:

Blood flows fr. arteries to veins & back toward heart

Valves that prevent flow of blood out of the heart

Air doesn’t flow naturally from the lungs to the heart

William Harvey’s synthesis & book (1628) show blood constantly recirculates Further research on human anatomy


  • Paracelsus (1493-1541) operations, a popular form of entertainment before medical advances made it likely patients would survive such operations.

  • Taught in vernacular

  •  vs Hippocr. oath Dr's mad

  •  Most books not printed

  • - Outside causes Disease:

  • poisons, minerals, stars

  • Vesalius (1514-64)

  • - Saw lots of executions

  • - Introduced practice of

  • displaying organ in auditor.

  • 1543- De Humani Corporis

  • Fabrica Libri Septem

  • - Illustr. by Titian's student,

  • Stephen van Calcar

  •  Very detailed & accurate

  • William Harvey (1578-1657)

  • - Theories forming by 1616

  •  Delayed printing De Motu

  • Cordis (1628) from fear

  •  People still called him mad

  •  Lost business

  • - Very modern methods of

  • intense observ's & exper's

Galen’s medical theories

Few willing to undergo surgery

Limited research & knowledge

Galen’s medical theories

FC.98 THE DISCOVERY OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM & BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSIOLOGY

Taboos vs. surgery & dissection

Nothing to kill pain in surgery

Forced to rely on research on animals bled to death

Aristotle’s theory of 4 elements (FC. 22)

Incorrect analogies to human body

Empty veins Idea air flows in them

Various misconceptions synthesized into Galen’s theories:

Theory of 4 humors Must be in balance to stay healthy

Air goes from lungs to heart in order to cool it

Blood goes from heart to body & is absorbed by it

Blood & air mixPneuma Consciousness

Belief that disease is purely a matter of internal balance of humors, not any external factors Purging, esp. bloodletting, will restore balance of humors & patient’s health

Ren. Find anc. Grks opposing Galen (FC. 76)

Ren. art Stress realistic anatomy (FC. 77A)

Church & tradition back Galen (FC. 66)

New findings contradicting Galen

Explanations in context of Galen

Vesalius (1514-1564):

Paracelsus (1493-1541):

Taught in vernacular

Said factors outside the body caused disease

Taught fr. experience

Did his own dissections

Anatomy book set standard of accuracy

Made own instruments

Mounting evidence contradicting Galen:

Blood flows fr. arteries to veins & back toward heart

Valves that prevent flow of blood out of the heart

Air doesn’t flow naturally from the lungs to the heart

William Harvey’s synthesis & book (1628) show blood constantly recirculates Further research on human anatomy


  • Paracelsus (1493-1541) operations, a popular form of entertainment before medical advances made it likely patients would survive such operations.

  • Taught in vernacular

  •  vs Hippocr. oath Dr's mad

  •  Most books not printed

  • - Outside causes Disease:

  • poisons, minerals, stars

  • Vesalius (1514-64)

  • - Saw lots of executions

  • - Introduced practice of

  • displaying organ in auditor.

  • 1543- De Humani Corporis

  • Fabrica Libri Septem

  • - Illustr. by Titian's student,

  • Stephen van Calcar

  •  Very detailed & accurate

  • William Harvey (1578-1657)

  • - Theories forming by 1616

  •  Delayed printing De Motu

  • Cordis (1628) from fear

  •  People still called him mad

  •  Lost business

  • - Very modern methods of

  • intense observ's & exper's

  • -Experiments: tie armarteries

  • above & veins below swell

Limited research & knowledge

Galen’s medical theories

Few willing to undergo surgery

Galen’s medical theories

FC.98 THE DISCOVERY OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM & BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSIOLOGY

Taboos vs. surgery & dissection

Nothing to kill pain in surgery

Forced to rely on research on animals bled to death

Aristotle’s theory of 4 elements (FC. 22)

Incorrect analogies to human body

Empty veins Idea air flows in them

Various misconceptions synthesized into Galen’s theories:

Theory of 4 humors Must be in balance to stay healthy

Air goes from lungs to heart in order to cool it

Blood goes from heart to body & is absorbed by it

Blood & air mixPneuma Consciousness

Belief that disease is purely a matter of internal balance of humors, not any external factors Purging, esp. bloodletting, will restore balance of humors & patient’s health

Ren. Find anc. Grks opposing Galen (FC. 76)

Ren. art Stress realistic anatomy (FC. 77A)

Church & tradition back Galen (FC. 66)

New findings contradicting Galen

Explanations in context of Galen

Vesalius (1514-1564):

Paracelsus (1493-1541):

Taught in vernacular

Said factors outside the body caused disease

Taught fr. experience

Did his own dissections

Anatomy book set standard of accuracy

Made own instruments

Mounting evidence contradicting Galen:

Blood flows fr. arteries to veins & back toward heart

Valves that prevent flow of blood out of the heart

Air doesn’t flow naturally from the lungs to the heart

William Harvey’s synthesis & book (1628) show blood constantly recirculates Further research on human anatomy


  • Paracelsus (1493-1541) operations, a popular form of entertainment before medical advances made it likely patients would survive such operations.

  • Taught in vernacular

  •  vs Hippocr. oath Dr's mad

  •  Most books not printed

  • - Outside causes Disease:

  • poisons, minerals, stars

  • Vesalius (1514-64)

  • - Saw lots of executions

  • - Introduced practice of

  • displaying organ in auditor.

  • 1543- De Humani Corporis

  • Fabrica Libri Septem

  • - Illustr. by Titian's student,

  • Stephen van Calcar

  •  Very detailed & accurate

  • William Harvey (1578-1657)

  • - Theories forming by 1616

  •  Delayed printing De Motu

  • Cordis (1628) from fear

  •  People still called him mad

  •  Lost business

  • - Very modern methods of

  • intense observ's & exper's

  • -Experiments: tie armarteries

  • above & veins below swell

  • - Man grasps cylinder  see

  • blood in veins flow to heart

Galen’s medical theories

Few willing to undergo surgery

Limited research & knowledge

Galen’s medical theories

FC.98 THE DISCOVERY OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM & BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSIOLOGY

Taboos vs. surgery & dissection

Nothing to kill pain in surgery

Forced to rely on research on animals bled to death

Aristotle’s theory of 4 elements (FC. 22)

Incorrect analogies to human body

Empty veins Idea air flows in them

Various misconceptions synthesized into Galen’s theories:

Theory of 4 humors Must be in balance to stay healthy

Air goes from lungs to heart in order to cool it

Blood goes from heart to body & is absorbed by it

Blood & air mixPneuma Consciousness

Belief that disease is purely a matter of internal balance of humors, not any external factors Purging, esp. bloodletting, will restore balance of humors & patient’s health

Ren. Find anc. Grks opposing Galen (FC. 76)

Ren. art Stress realistic anatomy (FC. 77A)

Church & tradition back Galen (FC. 66)

New findings contradicting Galen

Explanations in context of Galen

Vesalius (1514-1564):

Paracelsus (1493-1541):

Taught in vernacular

Said factors outside the body caused disease

Taught fr. experience

Did his own dissections

Anatomy book set standard of accuracy

Made own instruments

Mounting evidence contradicting Galen:

Blood flows fr. arteries to veins & back toward heart

Valves that prevent flow of blood out of the heart

Air doesn’t flow naturally from the lungs to the heart

William Harvey’s synthesis & book (1628) show blood constantly recirculates Further research on human anatomy


Invisible Worlds Below operations, a popular form of entertainment before medical advances made it likely patients would survive such operations.

"We can easily conceive that in all rainwater which is collected from gutters and in all waters exposed to the air, animals may be found, for they may be carried thither by the particles of dust blown about by the winds.”

--Antoine van Leeuwenhoek´s first description of microbes


The invention of the microscope in the early 1600s revealed a world as startling as the moons of Jupiter that Galileo had discovered, the major difference being that this was a world that surrounded and even existed within us.

Hooke’s microscope (above) & other early microscopes (right)


The invention of the microscope in the early 1600s revealed a world as startling as the moons of Jupiter that Galileo had discovered, the major difference being that this was a world that surrounded and even existed within us.

One of the great pioneers was Antoine van Leeuwenhoek, who built over 400 microscopes, the most powerful of which could magnify an object 275 times. His descriptions of this new world capture the sense of wonder it inspired at the time.

Hooke’s microscope (above) & other early microscopes (right)


Leeuwenhoek described a world as startling as the moons of Jupiter that Galileo had discovered, the major difference being that this was a world that surrounded and even existed within us“an unbelievably great company of living animalcules, a-swimming more nimbly than any I had ever seen up to this time. The biggest sort...bent their body into curves in going forwards.... Moreover, the other animalcules were in such enormous numbers, that all the water...seemed to be alive....”

"And this being so, we must say that according to the rules of geometry a barley-corn or mustard seed is a thousand-million times larger"..."thus we have reason to state that those very little animals are equipped with tails as well as limbs, mouth-parts and muscles, as the tails of Rats and Mouses .”

First image of bacteria


Antonie van Leeuwenhoek’s drawings of bloodcells (1695). a world as startling as the moons of Jupiter that Galileo had discovered, the major difference being that this was a world that surrounded and even existed within us


Hooke’s diagrams of a flea (left) and a louse, showing they were complete animals “animacules”) with heads, legs, bodies, and even hair.


Antonie van Leeuwenhoek’s drawing of spermatozoa. From left to right, he named them Roscoe, Shorty, Bubbles, Flatso, Ramses, Sparkey, Noodles, and Smokey.


  • Paracelsus (1493-1541) left to right, he named them Roscoe, Shorty, Bubbles, Flatso, Ramses, Sparkey, Noodles, and Smokey.

  • Taught in vernacular

  •  vs Hippocr. oath Dr's mad

  •  Most books not printed

  • - Outside causes Disease:

  • poisons, minerals, stars

  • Vesalius (1514-64)

  • - Saw lots of executions

  • - Introduced practice of

  • displaying organ in auditor.

  • 1543- De Humani Corporis

  • Fabrica Libri Septem

  • - Illustr. by Titian's student,

  • Stephen van Calcar

  •  Very detailed & accurate

  • William Harvey (1578-1657)

  • - Theories forming by 1616

  •  Delayed printing De Motu

  • Cordis (1628) from fear

  •  People still called him mad

  •  Lost business

  • - Very modern methods of

  • intense observ's & exper's

  • -Experiments: tie armarteries

  • above & veins below swell

  • - Man grasps cylinder  see

  • blood in veins flow to heart

  • 1661- Malpighi w/microscope

  • disc. Capillaries in frogs

Galen’s medical theories

Few willing to undergo surgery

Limited research & knowledge

Galen’s medical theories

FC.98 THE DISCOVERY OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM & BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSIOLOGY

Taboos vs. surgery & dissection

Nothing to kill pain in surgery

Forced to rely on research on animals bled to death

Aristotle’s theory of 4 elements (FC. 22)

Incorrect analogies to human body

Empty veins Idea air flows in them

Various misconceptions synthesized into Galen’s theories:

Theory of 4 humors Must be in balance to stay healthy

Air goes from lungs to heart in order to cool it

Blood goes from heart to body & is absorbed by it

Blood & air mixPneuma Consciousness

Belief that disease is purely a matter of internal balance of humors, not any external factors Purging, esp. bloodletting, will restore balance of humors & patient’s health

Ren. Find anc. Grks opposing Galen (FC. 76)

Ren. art Stress realistic anatomy (FC. 77A)

Church & tradition back Galen (FC. 66)

New findings contradicting Galen

Explanations in context of Galen

Vesalius (1514-1564):

Paracelsus (1493-1541):

Taught in vernacular

Said factors outside the body caused disease

Taught fr. experience

Did his own dissections

Anatomy book set standard of accuracy

Made own instruments

Mounting evidence contradicting Galen:

Blood flows fr. arteries to veins & back toward heart

Valves that prevent flow of blood out of the heart

Air doesn’t flow naturally from the lungs to the heart

William Harvey’s synthesis & book (1628) show blood constantly recirculates Further research on human anatomy


Galen’s medical theories left to right, he named them Roscoe, Shorty, Bubbles, Flatso, Ramses, Sparkey, Noodles, and Smokey.

Few willing to undergo surgery

Limited research & knowledge

Galen’s medical theories

FC.98 THE DISCOVERY OF THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM & BIRTH OF MODERN PHYSIOLOGY

***

Taboos vs. surgery & dissection

Nothing to kill pain in surgery

Forced to rely on research on animals bled to death

Aristotle’s theory of 4 elements (FC. 22)

Incorrect analogies to human body

Empty veins Idea air flows in them

Various misconceptions synthesized into Galen’s theories:

Theory of 4 humors Must be in balance to stay healthy

Air goes from lungs to heart in order to cool it

Blood goes from heart to body & is absorbed by it

Blood & air mixPneuma Consciousness

Belief that disease is purely a matter of internal balance of humors, not any external factors Purging, esp. bloodletting, will restore balance of humors & patient’s health

Ren. Find anc. Grks opposing Galen (FC. 76)

Ren. art Stress realistic anatomy (FC. 77A)

Church & tradition back Galen (FC. 66)

New findings contradicting Galen

Explanations in context of Galen

Vesalius (1514-1564):

Paracelsus (1493-1541):

Taught in vernacular

Said factors outside the body caused disease

Taught fr. experience

Did his own dissections

Anatomy book set standard of accuracy

Made own instruments

Mounting evidence contradicting Galen:

Blood flows fr. arteries to veins & back toward heart

Valves that prevent flow of blood out of the heart

Air doesn’t flow naturally from the lungs to the heart

William Harvey’s synthesis & book (1628) show blood constantly recirculates Further research on human anatomy


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