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Introduction and History. Micro biology Microorganism: 主要之研究對象 Microbes: animalcules Definition: 無法以肉眼看到之微小生物 Microscope: Anton van Leeuwenhoek magnifying glasses. Anton van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723). Discovery of microbial world. Origin of microorganisms

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Introduction and History

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Introduction and history

Introduction and History

  • Microbiology

  • Microorganism:主要之研究對象

  • Microbes: animalcules

  • Definition:無法以肉眼看到之微小生物

  • Microscope: Anton van Leeuwenhoek

    magnifying glasses

Introduction and history

Anton van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723)

Discovery of microbial world

Discovery of microbial world

  • Origin of microorganisms

  • Spontaneous generation 自然發生說

  • organisms arise from nonliving matter----Francesco Redi

  • 腐肉生蛆

  • John Needham

  • Abbe Lazzaro Spallanzani

Introduction and history

Francesco Redi



  • Louis Pasteur—thefather ofMicrobiology

    A French chemist

    disprove the spontaneous generation

    swan-necked flasks

  • John Tyndall-English physicist

    hay infusion

    heat-resistant forms---endospore

Swan necked flasks

Swan-necked flasks

The golden age of microbiology

The golden age of microbiology

  • Began in 1857 to the 20th century for 60 years

  • The work of Louis Pasteur

    1. Pasteurization

    wine fermentation

    yeast cells and bacteria

    germ theory of disease

Introduction and history

Louis Pasteur (1822-1895)

Pasteur and diseases

Pasteur and diseases

  • Isolation 隔離法

  • Vaccination 預防注射vaccine 疫苗

    vaccinia virus 牛痘病毒

  • Biogenesis

Robert koch

Anthrax 炭疽病

Bacillus anthracis

Koch’s postulates

Cultivation techniques

Pure culture 純培養

Robert Koch

Introduction and history

Koch’s postulates

Introduction and history

Joseph Lister

Characteristics of microorganisms

Characteristics of microorganisms

  • Prokaryotes (pro= primitive) 原核生物

  • Eukaryotes (eu=true) 真核生物

    1. bacteria 細菌

    Rickettsiae 立次菌

    Chlamydiae 披衣菌

    Mycoplasmas 黴漿菌

    Cyanobacteria 藍菌

Introduction and history

Micrococcus luteus and Bacillus cereus

Introduction and history

Bacillus subtilis

Scope of microorganisms

Scope of Microorganisms

  • 2. Fungi 真菌 --eukaryotes

  • 3. Protozoa 原生動物--eukaryotes

  • 4. Unicellular algae 藻類--eukaryotes

  • 5. Viruses 病毒

Introduction and history

Cyclotella meneghiniana – an algae

Introduction and history

Tetrahymena pyriformis– a protozoa

Introduction and history

Crithidia luciliae-flagellate protozoan

General properties of microorganisms

General properties of microorganisms

  • Origin of classification--- taxonomy

    3 Kingdoms—Plant, Animal, Protist

  • Modern classification

    Robert H. Whittaer in 1969

    Five-Kingdom system—Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia

Bacterial taxonomy

Bacterial Taxonomy

  • Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology

  • Nomenclature—binomial system

    二名法 (bi-nomial=two names)

    Escherichiacoli or Escherichia coli

    E. coli 大腸桿菌

    Bacillus subtilis or B. subtilis 枯草桿菌

Introduction and history

Five-Kingdom system

Size relationships

Size Relationships

  • The unit of length: micrometer, μm

    Protozoa 100 μm

    Virus 0.01 μm

    Fungi 10-40 μm

    Bacteria 1-5 μm

    Rickettsiae 0.5 μm

    Chlamydiae 0.25 μm

Size comparison

Size comparison



  • Light microscope 光學顯微鏡

    bright-field microscope

    compound microscope

    oil-immersion microscopy

  • Dark-field microscope 暗視野顯微鏡

  • Phase-constrast microscope 位像差顯微鏡

  • Fluorescent microscope 螢光顯微鏡

  • Electron microscope 電子顯微鏡

Introduction and history



Interference contrast


Electron microscope

Electron Microscope

  • TEM穿透式電子顯微鏡

    Transmission Electron Microscope

  • SEM 掃描式電子顯微鏡

    Scanning Electron Microscope

Introduction and history



Introduction and history

E. coli

Introduction and history

Staphylococcus aureus金黃色葡萄狀球菌

Introduction and history

Streptococcus pyrogenes化膿性練球菌

Introduction and history

Poliovirus– a virus

Introduction and history

Aspergillus flavus – a fungus

Special fields of microbiology

Special fields of Microbiology

  • Immunology 免疫學

  • Virology 病毒學

  • Chemotherapy 化學療法

  • Genetics 遺傳學

  • Molecular Biology 分子生物學

  • Genetic Engineering 基因工程學

  • Biotechnology 生物技術學

Introduction and history

DNA double helix

The scope of microbiology

The scope of Microbiology

  • Basic Microbiology

  • Applied Microbiology

Basic microbiology

Basic Microbiology

  • Morphology, Structure

  • Nutrition, Growth, Metabolism

  • Control

  • Genetics

  • Host-microbe interaction

Applied microbiology

Applied Microbiology

  • Medical Microbiology

  • Food Microbiology

  • Industrial Microbiology

  • Environmental Microbiology

    Soil Microbiology

    Water Microbiology

    Air Microbiology

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