Introduction and history
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Introduction and History. Micro biology Microorganism: 主要之研究對象 Microbes: animalcules Definition: 無法以肉眼看到之微小生物 Microscope: Anton van Leeuwenhoek magnifying glasses. Anton van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723). Discovery of microbial world. Origin of microorganisms

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Introduction and History

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Introduction and History

  • Microbiology

  • Microorganism:主要之研究對象

  • Microbes: animalcules

  • Definition:無法以肉眼看到之微小生物

  • Microscope: Anton van Leeuwenhoek

    magnifying glasses


Anton van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723)


Discovery of microbial world

  • Origin of microorganisms

  • Spontaneous generation 自然發生說

  • organisms arise from nonliving matter----Francesco Redi

  • 腐肉生蛆

  • John Needham

  • Abbe Lazzaro Spallanzani


Francesco Redi


Biogenesis

  • Louis Pasteur—thefather ofMicrobiology

    A French chemist

    disprove the spontaneous generation

    swan-necked flasks

  • John Tyndall-English physicist

    hay infusion

    heat-resistant forms---endospore


Swan-necked flasks


The golden age of microbiology

  • Began in 1857 to the 20th century for 60 years

  • The work of Louis Pasteur

    1. Pasteurization

    wine fermentation

    yeast cells and bacteria

    germ theory of disease


Louis Pasteur (1822-1895)


Pasteur and diseases

  • Isolation 隔離法

  • Vaccination 預防注射vaccine 疫苗

    vaccinia virus 牛痘病毒

  • Biogenesis


Anthrax 炭疽病

Bacillus anthracis

Koch’s postulates

Cultivation techniques

Pure culture 純培養

Robert Koch


Koch’s postulates


Joseph Lister


Characteristics of microorganisms

  • Prokaryotes (pro= primitive) 原核生物

  • Eukaryotes (eu=true) 真核生物

    1. bacteria 細菌

    Rickettsiae 立次菌

    Chlamydiae 披衣菌

    Mycoplasmas 黴漿菌

    Cyanobacteria 藍菌


Micrococcus luteus and Bacillus cereus


Bacillus subtilis


Scope of Microorganisms

  • 2. Fungi 真菌 --eukaryotes

  • 3. Protozoa 原生動物--eukaryotes

  • 4. Unicellular algae 藻類--eukaryotes

  • 5. Viruses 病毒


Cyclotella meneghiniana – an algae


Tetrahymena pyriformis– a protozoa


Crithidia luciliae-flagellate protozoan


General properties of microorganisms

  • Origin of classification--- taxonomy

    3 Kingdoms—Plant, Animal, Protist

  • Modern classification

    Robert H. Whittaer in 1969

    Five-Kingdom system—Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia


Bacterial Taxonomy

  • Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology

  • Nomenclature—binomial system

    二名法 (bi-nomial=two names)

    Escherichiacoli or Escherichia coli

    E. coli 大腸桿菌

    Bacillus subtilis or B. subtilis 枯草桿菌


Five-Kingdom system


Size Relationships

  • The unit of length: micrometer, μm

    Protozoa 100 μm

    Virus 0.01 μm

    Fungi 10-40 μm

    Bacteria 1-5 μm

    Rickettsiae 0.5 μm

    Chlamydiae 0.25 μm


Size comparison


Microscopy

  • Light microscope 光學顯微鏡

    bright-field microscope

    compound microscope

    oil-immersion microscopy

  • Dark-field microscope 暗視野顯微鏡

  • Phase-constrast microscope 位像差顯微鏡

  • Fluorescent microscope 螢光顯微鏡

  • Electron microscope 電子顯微鏡


Bright-field

Dark-field

Interference contrast

Phase-contrast


Electron Microscope

  • TEM穿透式電子顯微鏡

    Transmission Electron Microscope

  • SEM 掃描式電子顯微鏡

    Scanning Electron Microscope


SEM

TEM


E. coli


Staphylococcus aureus金黃色葡萄狀球菌


Streptococcus pyrogenes化膿性練球菌


Poliovirus– a virus


Aspergillus flavus – a fungus


Special fields of Microbiology

  • Immunology 免疫學

  • Virology 病毒學

  • Chemotherapy 化學療法

  • Genetics 遺傳學

  • Molecular Biology 分子生物學

  • Genetic Engineering 基因工程學

  • Biotechnology 生物技術學


DNA double helix


The scope of Microbiology

  • Basic Microbiology

  • Applied Microbiology


Basic Microbiology

  • Morphology, Structure

  • Nutrition, Growth, Metabolism

  • Control

  • Genetics

  • Host-microbe interaction


Applied Microbiology

  • Medical Microbiology

  • Food Microbiology

  • Industrial Microbiology

  • Environmental Microbiology

    Soil Microbiology

    Water Microbiology

    Air Microbiology


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