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Introduction and History. Micro biology Microorganism: 主要之研究對象 Microbes: animalcules Definition: 無法以肉眼看到之微小生物 Microscope: Anton van Leeuwenhoek magnifying glasses. Anton van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723). Discovery of microbial world. Origin of microorganisms

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introduction and history
Introduction and History
  • Microbiology
  • Microorganism:主要之研究對象
  • Microbes: animalcules
  • Definition:無法以肉眼看到之微小生物
  • Microscope: Anton van Leeuwenhoek

magnifying glasses

discovery of microbial world
Discovery of microbial world
  • Origin of microorganisms
  • Spontaneous generation 自然發生說
  • organisms arise from nonliving matter----Francesco Redi
  • 腐肉生蛆
  • John Needham
  • Abbe Lazzaro Spallanzani
biogenesis
Biogenesis
  • Louis Pasteur—thefather ofMicrobiology

A French chemist

disprove the spontaneous generation

swan-necked flasks

  • John Tyndall-English physicist

hay infusion

heat-resistant forms---endospore

the golden age of microbiology
The golden age of microbiology
  • Began in 1857 to the 20th century for 60 years
  • The work of Louis Pasteur

1. Pasteurization

wine fermentation

yeast cells and bacteria

germ theory of disease

pasteur and diseases
Pasteur and diseases
  • Isolation 隔離法
  • Vaccination 預防注射vaccine 疫苗

vaccinia virus 牛痘病毒

  • Biogenesis
robert koch
Anthrax 炭疽病

Bacillus anthracis

Koch’s postulates

Cultivation techniques

Pure culture 純培養

Robert Koch
characteristics of microorganisms
Characteristics of microorganisms
  • Prokaryotes (pro= primitive) 原核生物
  • Eukaryotes (eu=true) 真核生物

1. bacteria 細菌

Rickettsiae 立次菌

Chlamydiae 披衣菌

Mycoplasmas 黴漿菌

Cyanobacteria 藍菌

scope of microorganisms
Scope of Microorganisms
  • 2. Fungi 真菌 --eukaryotes
  • 3. Protozoa 原生動物--eukaryotes
  • 4. Unicellular algae 藻類--eukaryotes
  • 5. Viruses 病毒
general properties of microorganisms
General properties of microorganisms
  • Origin of classification--- taxonomy

3 Kingdoms—Plant, Animal, Protist

  • Modern classification

Robert H. Whittaer in 1969

Five-Kingdom system—Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia

bacterial taxonomy
Bacterial Taxonomy
  • Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology
  • Nomenclature—binomial system

二名法 (bi-nomial=two names)

Escherichiacoli or Escherichia coli

E. coli 大腸桿菌

Bacillus subtilis or B. subtilis 枯草桿菌

size relationships
Size Relationships
  • The unit of length: micrometer, μm

Protozoa 100 μm

Virus 0.01 μm

Fungi 10-40 μm

Bacteria 1-5 μm

Rickettsiae 0.5 μm

Chlamydiae 0.25 μm

microscopy
Microscopy
  • Light microscope 光學顯微鏡

bright-field microscope

compound microscope

oil-immersion microscopy

  • Dark-field microscope 暗視野顯微鏡
  • Phase-constrast microscope 位像差顯微鏡
  • Fluorescent microscope 螢光顯微鏡
  • Electron microscope 電子顯微鏡
slide32

Bright-field

Dark-field

Interference contrast

Phase-contrast

electron microscope
Electron Microscope
  • TEM穿透式電子顯微鏡

Transmission Electron Microscope

  • SEM 掃描式電子顯微鏡

Scanning Electron Microscope

slide34

SEM

TEM

special fields of microbiology
Special fields of Microbiology
  • Immunology 免疫學
  • Virology 病毒學
  • Chemotherapy 化學療法
  • Genetics 遺傳學
  • Molecular Biology 分子生物學
  • Genetic Engineering 基因工程學
  • Biotechnology 生物技術學
the scope of microbiology
The scope of Microbiology
  • Basic Microbiology
  • Applied Microbiology
basic microbiology
Basic Microbiology
  • Morphology, Structure
  • Nutrition, Growth, Metabolism
  • Control
  • Genetics
  • Host-microbe interaction
applied microbiology
Applied Microbiology
  • Medical Microbiology
  • Food Microbiology
  • Industrial Microbiology
  • Environmental Microbiology

Soil Microbiology

Water Microbiology

Air Microbiology

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