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Introduction and History of Psychology. Chapter 1. History of Psychology. What Is Psychology – and What Is It Not? Psychology is a broad field, with many specialties, but fundamentally, psychology is the science of behavior and mental processes . http ://

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History of psychology
History of Psychology

  • What Is Psychology – and What Is It Not?

    • Psychology is a broad field, with many specialties, but fundamentally, psychology is the science of behavior and mental processes.


History of psychology1
History of Psychology

  • What Is Psychology – and What Is It Not?

    • Psychology :

      • The scientific study of behavior and mental processes

    • Psychology is not:

      • Mere speculation about human nature

      • A body of folk wisdom about people that “everybody knows” to be true

What is psychology and what is it not
What Is Psychology – and What Is It Not?

  • Psychology disputes unfounded claims from pseudo psychology.

    • Horoscopes, “false” rediscovered memories.

  • Pseudo psychology –

    Erroneous assertions of practices set forth as being scientific psychology.

Historical roots
Historical Roots

  • What are Psychology’s historical roots?

Historical approaches
Historical Approaches

  • Structuralism: focused on revealing the most basic “structures” of the mind.

    • Mid 1800’s: Charles Darwin

      • He suggested a biological kinship btw humans and animals.

    • Chemistry: Whilem Wundt

      • Scientist had noticed patterns in properties of the chemical elements that led them to develop the periodic table

      • Wundt wondered could a similar process be applied to simplify our understanding of the mid?

Wilhem wundt
Wilhem Wundt

  • 1879 Wundt established the first institute for psychological research at the University of Leipzig.

  • Wundt and his students began to conduct studies on what they supposed to be the “elements” of consciousness.

    • Sensation and perception, memory, emotion, etc.

  • Introspection: process of reporting on one’s own conscious mental experience.

Historical approaches1
Historical Approaches

  • Functionalism: Focus on Function

  • William James:

    • Critic of Wundt

    • Argued that Psychology should include the function of Consciousness, not just the structure.

    • “Stream of Consciousness” as a mental process that had no static structure, but was continually flowing, changing, and interacting with the environment.

      • Adapting

Historical approaches2
Historical Approaches

  • Gestalt Psychology: Focus on the WHOLE instead of the parts.

    • Opposite of structuralism.

    • Gestalt Psychologists were interested in how we construct “perceptual wholes”.

      • Such as our perception of a face.

    • Relied on introspection.

Historical approaches3
Historical Approaches

  • Behaviorism: Eliminate the mind and focus on BEHAVIOR

    • John B. Watson*:

      • Argued that a true and objective science of psychology should deal solely with observable events:

      • Stimuli from the environment and the organism’s response.

      • Behaviorism should be the science of BEHAVIOR not the mind.

      • Cared nothing about what people were thinking, instead they wanted to know how people would act.

Historical approaches4
Historical Approaches

  • Psychoanalysis: Focus on the UNCONSCIOUS mind.

    • Sigmund Freud *

      • Asserted that mental disorders arise from conflicts in the unconscious mind.

      • Psychoanalytic: method of treating mental disorders.

      • *Still a force today

Modern approaches
Modern Approaches

  • Nine main perspectives characterize modern psychology:

    • Biological

    • Developmental

    • Cognitive

    • Psychodynamic

    • Humanistic

    • Behavioral

    • Socio-cultural

    • Evolutionary

    • Trait

Biological perspective
Biological Perspective

  • View of Human Nature:

    • We are complex systems that respond to hereditary and environmental influences.

  • What Determines Behavior:

    • Neural structures, biochemistry, and inborn responses to external cues.

      • Our physical makeup and the operation of our brain influences our personality and behavior.

  • What does this mean? Use your own words.

Developmental perspective
Developmental Perspective

  • View of Human Nature:

    • We undergo predictable patterns of change throughout our lives.

      • Ex: Childhood, adolescence, adulthood.

  • What Determines Behavior:

    • Interaction between heredity and environment.

      • Ex: Nature v. Nurture

  • Describe this perspective in your own words.

Cognitive perspective
Cognitive Perspective

  • View of Human Nature:

    • People are information-processing systems.

      • mental processes like sensation, perception, learning, memory, and language, all influence behavior.

  • What Determines Behavior:

    • Mental interpretation of our experience.

  • Describe this perspective in your own words.

Psychodynamic perspective
Psychodynamic Perspective

  • View of Human Nature:

    • We are driven by dark forces of the unconscious.

      • FREUD! (unconscious, sexual, desires influence behavior)

  • What Determines Behavior:

    • Unconscious needs, conflicts, repressed memories, and childhood experiences.

      • Emphasizes the treatment of mental disorders over scientific research.

  • Describe this approach in your OWN words.

Humanistic perspective
Humanistic Perspective

  • View of Human Nature:

    • Emphasizes human growth and potential.

      • Abraham Maslow, Carl Rogers

      • Perfect Flower

  • What Determines Behavior:

    • The influence of self-concept, perceptions, and interpersonal relationships, and on need for personal growth.

  • Describe this perspective in your OWN words.

Behavioral perspective
Behavioral Perspective

  • View of Human Nature:

    • Behavior is primarily shaped by learning. We should look for the causes of behavior in our environment rather than in the biology of our mind.

      • John B. Watson, B.F. Skinner

  • What Determines Behavior:

    • Stimulus cues and our history of rewards and punishments.

      • Study the person from the outside only, focusing only on what they can directly observe.

    • Describe this perspective in your OWN words.

Sociocultural perspective
Sociocultural Perspective

  • View of Human Nature:

    • People are social animals, so human behavior must be interpreted in social context.

  • What Determines Behavior:

    • Cultures, social norms and expectations, social learning.

    • How are social influences different across cultures? Give examples!

  • Describe in your OWN words!

Evolutionary sociobiological perspective
Evolutionary/Sociobiological Perspective

  • View of Human Nature:

    • Behavior is developed and adapted over time.

      • Charles Darwin

  • What Determines Behavior:

    • Natural selection, survival of the fittest.

      • What does this mean?

  • Describe in your OWN words!

Trait perspective
Trait Perspective

  • View of Human Nature:

    • Individual differences result from differences in our underlying patterns of stable characteristics.

      • Examples: Laid back, moody, what else?

  • What Determines Behavior:

    • Each person’s unique combination of traits.

  • Describe in YOUR own words.

Think pair and share
Think, Pair, and Share

  • Which approach do you like or agree with most, why?

  • Which approach do you dislike the most? Why?