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Bart complied with his friends' request to join them in smashing decorative pumpkins early one Halloween evening. Later that night he was surprised by his own failure to resist their pressures to throw eggs at passing police cars. Bart's experience best illustrates the: . A. bystander effect.B. foot-in-the-door phenomenon.C. fundamental attribution error.D. frustration-aggression principle. .

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1. iClicker Questions for Chapter 16: Social Psychology

2. Bart complied with his friends’ request to join them in smashing decorative pumpkins early one Halloween evening. Later that night he was surprised by his own failure to resist their pressures to throw eggs at passing police cars. Bart’s experience best illustrates the: A. bystander effect. B. foot-in-the-door phenomenon. C. fundamental attribution error. D. frustration-aggression principle. Answer: BAnswer: B

3. Professor Stewart wrote a very positive letter of recommendation for a student despite his having doubts about her competence. Which theory best explains why he subsequently began to develop more favorable attitudes about the student’s abilities? A. Cognitive dissonance theory B. Social exchange theory C. Two-factor theory D. Scapegoat theory Answer: AAnswer: A

4. Since everyone in her dorm watched American Idol and The Apprentice, Tyra decided she better do the same. She didn’t particularly like those shows, but she wanted everyone to accept her. This example best illustrates: A. informational social influence. B. social facilitation. C. groupthink. D. normative social influence. Answer: DAnswer: D

5. In Stanley Milgram’s experiements, obedience was lowest when: A. the person giving the orders was perceived to have legitimate authority. B. the “victim” was at a distance. C. other participants were seen disobeying the experimenter. D. the participants were women. Answer: CAnswer: C

6. Although Frieda is typically very reserved, as part of a huge rock concert crowd she lost her inhibitions and behaved in a very sexually provocative way. Frieda’s unusual behavior is best understood in terms of: A. the bystander effect. B. social facilitation. C. deindividuation. D. the mere exposure effect. Answer: CAnswer: C

7. Justin and Shane believe their team is better than the other teams in town. This illustrates: A. social loafing. B. the in-group bias. C. the just-world phenomenon. D. scapegoat theory. Answer: BAnswer: B

8. Aggression and violence have been linked to all of the following, EXCEPT: A. hot climates. B. families that have a father present. C. societies with greater disparity between the rich and the poor. D. social rejection. Answer: BAnswer: B

9. In a social trap, individuals are most interested in: A. their own welfare, leading to mutually harmful behavior. B. their own welfare, leading to mutually beneficial behavior. C. the welfare of the other person, leading to mutual harm. D. the welfare of the other person, leading to self-harm. Answer: AAnswer: A

10. When buying groceries, many shoppers prefer certain products simply because they have a familiar brand name. This preference best illustrates the importance of: A. social traps. B. the mere exposure effect. C. mirror-image perceptions. D. the reciprocity norm. Answer: BAnswer: B

11. Which theory best explains why the excitement that lingers after a frightening event can facilitate passionate love? A. social exchange theory B. cognitive dissonance theory C. the two-factor theory D. the scapegoat theory Answer: CAnswer: C

12. After Mrs. Chanski and her children had helped themselves to free samples of the cookies being promoted in the grocery store, she felt obligated to buy some, even though they seemed unreasonably expensive. Her reaction best illustrates the significance of: A. social facilitation. B. the reciprocity norm. C. the bystander effect. D. the just-world phenomenon. Answer: BAnswer: B

13. Critical Thinking Questions

14. Early in the day, you see a fellow student in the cafeteria spill a whole tray of food as she trips over something on the floor. You think to yourself, “Wow, she sure is clumsy!” Later on in the day, you also trip in the cafeteria and spill your tray.

15. You think to yourself, “Wow, this floor is uneven and dangerous, someone should fix it!” This illustrates the psychological concept called: A. foot-in-the-door. B. bystander apathy. C. fundamental attribution error. D. out-group bias. Answer: CAnswer: C

16. Which of the following is an example of social facilitation? A. A funny movie seems even more amusing when you watch it with a group of friends. B. Solving difficult math problems is easier when you are in a quiet room with only one other person. C. People may be more likely to help if there is a large crowd watching. D. People are more likely to work much harder in a group than when they are alone. Answer: AAnswer: A

17. Conformity is when we adjust our thinking and behavior to go along with a group standard. Which of the following is NOT likely to influence whether or not we conform? A. your level of intelligence B. the size of the group that you are with C. whether or not the group is observing you D. whether or not the group has status Answer: AAnswer: A

18. Linda, a third grade teacher, has been observing that hostility is growing between some of the children in her class. The best way for her to decrease the conflict between the children would be to: A. have the children identify what they like most about each other. B. have the children cooperate to reach a shared goal. C. divide the children into teams and have them play against each other in sports. D. make the children look each other in the eyes, shake hands, and apologize. Answer: B Answer: B

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