Biological beginnings
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Biological Beginnings. The Evolutionary Perspective Genetic Foundations of Development Heredity and Environment interaction: The Nature-Nurture Debate Prenatal Development Birth. The Evolutionary Perspective. The Evolutionary Perspective.

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Biological beginnings

Biological Beginnings

The Evolutionary Perspective

Genetic Foundations of Development

Heredity and Environment interaction:

The Nature-Nurture Debate

Prenatal Development

Birth


The evolutionary perspective

The Evolutionary Perspective

The Evolutionary Perspective

  • Natural selection and adaptive behavior

    • Darwin and his observations

    • All organisms must adapt in life

  • Evolutionary psychology

    • Emphasizes adaptation, reproduction,

      and survival of the fittest in shaping behavior

    • Evolution explains human physical features

      and behaviors


The evolutionary perspective1

The Evolutionary Perspective

The Evolutionary Perspective

  • Natural selection and adaptive behavior

    • Darwin and his observations

    • All organisms must adapt in life

  • Evolutionary psychology

    • Emphasizes adaptation, reproduction,

      and survival of the fittest in shaping behavior

    • Evolution explains human physical features and behaviors


Evolutionary developmental psychology

The Evolutionary Perspective

Evolutionary Developmental Psychology

  • Explaining humans and their behavior

    • Larger brains and more complex societies

    • Takes longest of all mammals to mature

    • Some evolved mechanisms of adaptation not compatible with modern society


Evolution and life span development

The Evolutionary Perspective

Evolution and Life-Span Development

  • Benefits of evolutionary selection decrease with age

  • Natural selection failures: harmful conditions and non-adaptivecharacteristics

  • As adults weaken biologically, culture-based needs increase

  • Alternative: ‘bi-directional view’


Biological beginnings

The Evolutionary Perspective

Baltes’ view of evolution and culture across the life span


Evaluating evolutionary psychology

The Evolutionary Perspective

Evaluating Evolutionary Psychology

  • Remains just one theoretical approach.

  • Evolution does not dictate behavior.

  • Biology allows broad range of cultural possibilities.


Genetic foundations of development

Genetic Foundations

Genetic Foundations of Development

  • DNA and the collaborative gene

    • DNA — deoxyribonucleic acid

    • Chromosomes — thread-like structures

    • Genes — units of hereditary information

  • Human Genome Project

    • 30,000 genes in humans


Cells chromosomes genes and dna

Genetic Foundations

Cells, Chromosomes, Genes, and DNA

Nucleus (center of cell) contains chromosomes and genes

Gene: a segment of DNA (spiraled double chain) containing the hereditary code

Chromosomes are threadlike structures composed of DNA molecules


The collaborative gene

Genetic Foundations

The Collaborative Gene

  • Genes and chromosomes

    • Mitosis — cell nucleus duplicates

    • Meiosis — cell division forms gametes

    • Fertilization — egg and sperm form zygote

    • Genetic variability in the population

    • X and Y chromosomes determine sex


The collaborative gene1

Genetic Foundations

The Collaborative Gene

  • Genes and chromosomes

    • Identical and fraternal twins

    • Mutated gene

    • Genotype — all of one’s genetic makeup

    • Phenotype — observable characteristics


Genetic principles

Genetic Foundations

Genetic Principles

  • Dominant and recessive genes

  • Sex-linked genes

    • X-linked inheritance for males and females

  • Genetic imprinting

    • Imprinted gene dominates

  • Poly-genetically determined characteristics

    • Many genes interact to influence a trait


Biological beginnings

Genetic Foundations

Brown hair

B

How brown-haired parents can have a blond-haired child: the gene for blond hair is recessive

Blond hair

b

Father

B b

Mother

B b

B B

B b

B b

b b


Genetic principles1

Genetic Foundations

Genetic Principles

  • Chromosome abnormalities

    • Down syndrome

  • Sex-linked chromosome abnormalities

    • Klinefelter syndrome

    • Fragile X syndrome

    • Turner syndrome

    • XYY syndrome


Sex linked chromosome abnormalities

KlinefelterSyndrome

Males have an extra X chromosome

Fragile X syndrome

Abnormality in the X chromosome

Turner syndrome

Females missing an X chromosome

XYY syndrome

Males have an extra Y chromosome

Genetic Foundations

Sex-Linked Chromosome Abnormalities


Gene linked abnormalities

Genetic Foundations

Gene-Linked Abnormalities

  • PKU: phenylketonuria

  • Sickle-cell anemia

  • Cystic fibrosis

  • Diabetes

  • Hemophilia

  • Genetic disorders can sometimes be compensated for by other genes or events


Nature nurture debate

Heredity, Environment, and Individual Differences

Nature-Nurture Debate

  • Behavior Genetics

    • Studies influence of heredity and environment on individual differences

  • Studies use twins or adoptees

    • Monozygotic and dizygotic twins

    • Adoption study: examine behavior and psychological characteristics


Heredity environment correlations

Heredity, Environment, and Individual Differences

Heredity-Environment Correlations

  • In infancy, environment mostly controlled by parents

  • As children age, their experiences extend more beyond the family’s influence

  • Shared environments are analyzed

    • Commonalities between children attributed to heredity-environment interaction


Heredity environment correlations1

Heredity, Environment, and Individual Differences

Heredity-Environment Correlations

  • Passive genotype-environment correlations

  • Evocative genotype-environment correlations

  • Active (niche-picking) genotype-environment correlations


Heredity environment correlations2

Heredity, Environment, and Individual Differences

Heredity-Environment Correlations

  • In infancy, environment mostly controlled by parents

  • As children age, their experiences extend more beyond the family’s influence

  • Shared environments are analyzed

    • Commonalities between children attributed to

      heredity-environment interaction


The heredity environment and epigenetic views

Heredity, Environment, and Individual Differences

The Heredity-Environment and Epigenetic Views


The course of prenatal development

Prenatal Development

The Course of Prenatal Development

  • Germinal period: 2 weeks after conception

  • Embryonic period: 2 to 8 weeks after conception

    • Three layers: endodem, mesoderm, ectoderm

    • Umbilical cord connect to placenta

    • Organogenesis

  • Fetal period

    • From 2 months after conception to birth

    • Trimesters of pregnancy


Biological beginnings

Prenatal Development

0 - 4 weeks

Less than 1/10th of inch long

First trimester

8 weeks

Less than 1 inch long

12 weeks

3 inches long, wt: 1 ounce

16 weeks

5.5 inches long, wt: 4 ounces

Second trimester

20 weeks

10-12 inches, wt: ½ -1 lbs

24 weeks

11-14 inches, wt: 1-1½ lbs

28 weeks

14-17 inches, wt: 2½ -3 lbs

Third trimester

32 weeks

16½ -18 inches, wt: 4-5 lbs

36-38 weeks

19 inches, wt: 6 lbs

The three trimesters of prenatal development


Prenatal diagnostic tests

Prenatal Development

Prenatal Diagnostic Tests

  • Ultrasound sonography

  • Chorionic villi sampling: small sample of placenta taken

  • Amniocentesis: samples amniotic fluid

  • Maternal blood test


The brain

Prenatal Development

The Brain

  • Neurons – 100 billion

  • Birth defects and neural tube

  • Neuronal migration occurs


Hazards to prenatal development

Prenatal Development

Hazards to Prenatal Development

  • Teratogen: agent causing birth defects

  • Severity of damage affected by

    • Dose

    • Genetic susceptibility

    • Time of exposure

  • Effects of prescription and

    nonprescription drugs


Biological beginnings

Prenatal Development

Teratogens and Timing of Their Effects on Prenatal Development


Hazards to prenatal development1

Prenatal Development

Hazards to Prenatal Development

  • Psychoactive drugs

    • Caffeine

    • Alcohol and fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)

    • Nicotine’s link to SIDS, ADHD, low birth weight

    • Effect of father’s smoking

    • Cocaine, marijuana, and heroin

    • Methamphetamine

  • Environmental hazards and pollutants


Hazards to prenatal development2

Prenatal Development

Hazards to Prenatal Development

  • Incompatible blood types of parents

    • Rh-positive and Rh-negative

    • Maternal diseases like German measles, syphilis, HIV and AIDS

  • Other prenatal factors

    • Nutrition, prenatal education and care

    • Maternal age and risks

    • Maternal emotional states and stress

    • Paternal factors

    • Environmental factors


Prenatal care

Birth

Prenatal Care

  • Prenatal programs

    • Education

    • Medical care

    • Social and nutritional services

    • Low birth weight and infant mortality rates

    • View of pregancy vary among cultures

      and ethnic groups


The birth process

Birth

The Birth Process

  • Stages of birth: occurs in three stages

    • Uterine contractions

    • Baby’s head moves through birth canal

    • Afterbirth when placenta, umbilical cord,

      and other membranes are detached

      and expelled

  • Baby must withstand stress of birth


Strategies for childbirth

Birth

Strategies for Childbirth

  • Deciding what setting, who attends, and what technique will be used

  • Home delivery, birthing center, or hospital?

  • 99% of all U.S. births occur in hospitals

  • Home births more common outside U.S.

    • Doula as caregiver

  • Role of midwife, nurse, and physician


Methods of delivery

Birth

Methods of Delivery

  • Medication with analgesics (epidural block, oxytocics, etc.)

  • Possible effects of drugs on fetus

  • Natural childbirth

  • Prepared childbirth and the Lamaze method

  • Cesarean sections for breech babies,

    other risks and benefits


Methods of delivery1

Birth

Methods of Delivery

  • Nonmedicated techniques

    • Waterbirth more in European countries

    • Massage reduces pain and anxiety

    • Acupuncture is standard in China

    • Hypnosis has some positive effects

    • Music therapy reduces stress, manages pain


Assessing the newborn

Birth

Assessing the Newborn

  • Apgar Scale: heart, reflexes, and color

  • Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (BNBAS)

    • A sensitive index of neurological competence

    • Four categories in global terms

  • Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS)

    • Analysis of behavior, neurological and stress responses, and regulatory capacities


Biological beginnings

Birth

The Apgar Scale


Low birth weight and preterm

Birth

Low Birth Weight and Preterm

  • Low birth weight infants in U.S. and world

    • Weigh less than 5.5 lbs

    • Very low birth weight: less than 3 lbs

    • Preterm infants: 35 or fewer weeks after conception (about 12% of U.S. births)

    • Small-for-date infants: weigh less than they should

    • Ethnic variations characterize preterm birth

  • Causes and consequences


Low birth weight and preterm1

Birth

Low Birth Weight and Preterm

  • Low birth weight infants in U.S. and world

    • Weigh less than 5.5 lbs

    • Very low birth weight: less than 3 lbs

    • Preterm infants: 35 or fewer weeks after conception (about 12% of U.S. births)

    • Small-for-date infants: weigh less than they should

    • Ethnic variations characterize preterm birth

  • Causes and consequences


Kangaroo care and massage therapy

Birth

Kangaroo Care and Massage Therapy

  • Kangaroo care

    • Holds infant to promote skin-to-skin contact between infant and caregiver

    • Can promote

      • Better breathing

      • Longer sleep periods

      • Weight gain

      • Less crying

      • Longer periods of alertness


Tiffany field s research on massage therapy

Birth

Tiffany Field’s Research on Massage Therapy

  • Massage therapy led to 47% greater weight gain for preterm infants

  • Also demonstrated benefits of massage for

    • Labor pain

    • Asthma

    • ADHD

    • Arthritis

    • Autistic children


Biological beginnings

Birth

Weight Gain Comparison of Premature Infants Who Were Massaged and Not Massaged


Bonding

Birth

Bonding

  • Needs to occur shortly after birth

  • Early emotional attachments may create healthy interactions after leaving hospital

  • Rooming-in arrangements offered

  • Massages and tactile stimulation for premature infants affect development


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