Body composition
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Body Composition. Body Composition. There are three interrelated aspects of the human physique: Size (volume, mass, surface area, length) Structure (skeletal, muscular, fat arrangement and distribution) Composition (amount of fat, muscle, bone)

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Body Composition

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Body Composition

Sport Books Publisher


Body Composition

  • There are three interrelated aspects of the human physique:

    • Size (volume, mass, surface area, length)

    • Structure (skeletal, muscular, fat arrangement and distribution)

    • Composition (amount of fat, muscle, bone)

  • Body composition is one of the major components of physical fitness

Sport Books Publisher


Body Composition

  • Most common method used in body composition analysis is the ‘Two-Component’ model of the body

  • This model includes:

    • Lean body mass (LBM)

    • Fat body mass

    • Total body fat (TBF)

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Lean Body Mass

  • Refers to the ‘non-fat’ or ‘fat-free’ component of the body

  • Includes skeletal muscle, bone, water

  • May represent a biological lower limit beyond which health is compromised

  • Excessive leanness may increase a female’s chances of developing amenorrhea (absence of menstruation)

  • Amenorrhea includes a reduced production of estrogen, which may also increase a female’s chances of developing osteoporosis

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  • Lean body mass is calculated as follows:

    LBM = TBM -TBFLean body mass = Total body mass - Total body fat

  • TBF is calculated as follows:

    TBF = TBM x %BODY FAT 100

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Direct

Measurement

Indirect

Measurement

Measuring Body Fat

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Measuring Body Fat

  • Involves grinding tissue

  • Measures fat via chemical analysis

  • Impractical for living organisms

  • Used on cadavers

Direct

Measurement

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Measuring Body Fat

  • Skinfold calipers

  • Hydrostatic weighing

  • Bod-Pod

  • Bioelectrical impedance

  • DEXA

Indirect

Measurement

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Skinfold Calipers

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Skinfold Calipers

  • Measures skinfold thickness to predict or estimate total body fat

  • Based on the assumption that subcutaneous fat is directly related to total body fat

  • Accuracy is ± 3% when performed correctly

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YMCA Skinfold Test

  • Equipment:

    • Skinfold calipers

  • Skinfold sites:

    • Four sites: abdomen, suprailium, triceps, thigh

  • Calculation of % body fat:

    Males

    %fat = 0.29288 x (sum of 4) - 0.0005 x (sum of 4)2 + 0.15845 x (age) - 5.76377

    Females

    %fat = 0.29669 x (sum of 4) - 0.00043 x (sum of 4)2 + 0.02963 x (age) - 1.4172

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Norms for Percent Body Fat

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Circumference (Girth) Measurements

  • Equipment:

    • A flexible steel or cloth measuring tape

  • Circumference sites:

    • Neck, chest, hips, thigh, calf, biceps, abdomen

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Body Mass Index (BMI)

  • Can be used as an easy, inexpensive method for determining an individual’s healthy body weight

  • Considers weight (kg) and height (m)

    BMI = Weight (kg)

    [Height (m)]2

  • A BMI nomogram can also be used to determine BMI, it looks like this…

Sport Books Publisher


Body Mass Index (BMI)

Sport Books Publisher


Body Mass Index (BMI)

  • Three general ranges:

  • Underweight

  • Healthy or Acceptable Weight

  • Overweight

    • Severe Overweight

    • Morbid Obesity

  • BMI score > 30 is classified as obese and associated with an increased risk of developing health problems

  • Risk of developing health problems is also associated with BMI’s classified as being within the underweight range

  • Sport Books Publisher


    Body Mass Index (BMI)

    • The BMI is intended for men and women aged 20-65

    • It is not intended for:

    • Babies

    • Children

    • Teenagers

    • Pregnant women

    • Very muscular people, such as athletes

    Sport Books Publisher


    Bioelectrical Impedance (BIA)

    • Based on differences in electrical conductivity between fat-free mass and fat mass

    Sport Books Publisher


    Bioelectrical Impedance (BIA)

    • Percent body fat is calculated from measures of body density determined by passing an electrical current through the body

    Sport Books Publisher


    Bioelectrical Impedance (BIA)

    • BIA is influenced by the subject’s hydration level

    • The more hydrated one is, the leaner the BIA measurement will be

    Sport Books Publisher


    Hydrostatic Weighing

    Sport Books Publisher


    Hydrostatic Weighing

    • Bone and muscle have a greater density than water

    • Fat is less dense than water

    • Thus, a person’s relative buoyancy is positively correlated with body fat

    • That is, a person with a higher body fat percentage is less dense (weighs less in water) than a lean individual

    Sport Books Publisher


    Hydrostatic Weighing

    • To calculate body fat, the following measurements are needed:

    • Body weight on land

    • Underwater body weight

    • Water density at the performed temperature

    • Residual lung volume

    • More accurate measure

    Sport Books Publisher


    The Bod-Pod

    Sport Books Publisher


    The Bod-Pod

    • Very expensive method

    • Very accurate measure

    • May facilitate measuring large or heavy individuals because it does not involve underwater submersion

    Sport Books Publisher


    Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DEXA)

    Sport Books Publisher


    Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DEXA)

    • Can be used to determine body composition

    • Can also measure bone density (bone mineral content)

    Sport Books Publisher


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