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Body Composition. Body Composition. There are three interrelated aspects of the human physique: Size (volume, mass, surface area, length) Structure (skeletal, muscular, fat arrangement and distribution) Composition (amount of fat, muscle, bone)

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body composition

Body Composition

Sport Books Publisher

body composition1
Body Composition
  • There are three interrelated aspects of the human physique:
    • Size (volume, mass, surface area, length)
    • Structure (skeletal, muscular, fat arrangement and distribution)
    • Composition (amount of fat, muscle, bone)
  • Body composition is one of the major components of physical fitness

Sport Books Publisher

body composition2
Body Composition
  • Most common method used in body composition analysis is the ‘Two-Component’ model of the body
  • This model includes:
    • Lean body mass (LBM)
    • Fat body mass
    • Total body fat (TBF)

Sport Books Publisher

lean body mass
Lean Body Mass
  • Refers to the ‘non-fat’ or ‘fat-free’ component of the body
  • Includes skeletal muscle, bone, water
  • May represent a biological lower limit beyond which health is compromised
  • Excessive leanness may increase a female’s chances of developing amenorrhea (absence of menstruation)
  • Amenorrhea includes a reduced production of estrogen, which may also increase a female’s chances of developing osteoporosis

Sport Books Publisher

slide5
Lean body mass is calculated as follows:

LBM = TBM -TBFLean body mass = Total body mass - Total body fat

  • TBF is calculated as follows:

TBF = TBM x %BODY FAT 100

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measuring body fat

Direct

Measurement

Indirect

Measurement

Measuring Body Fat

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measuring body fat1
Measuring Body Fat
  • Involves grinding tissue
  • Measures fat via chemical analysis
  • Impractical for living organisms
  • Used on cadavers

Direct

Measurement

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measuring body fat2
Measuring Body Fat
  • Skinfold calipers
  • Hydrostatic weighing
  • Bod-Pod
  • Bioelectrical impedance
  • DEXA

Indirect

Measurement

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skinfold calipers
Skinfold Calipers

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skinfold calipers1
Skinfold Calipers
  • Measures skinfold thickness to predict or estimate total body fat
  • Based on the assumption that subcutaneous fat is directly related to total body fat
  • Accuracy is ± 3% when performed correctly

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ymca skinfold test
YMCA Skinfold Test
  • Equipment:
    • Skinfold calipers
  • Skinfold sites:
    • Four sites: abdomen, suprailium, triceps, thigh
  • Calculation of % body fat:

Males

%fat = 0.29288 x (sum of 4) - 0.0005 x (sum of 4)2 + 0.15845 x (age) - 5.76377

Females

%fat = 0.29669 x (sum of 4) - 0.00043 x (sum of 4)2 + 0.02963 x (age) - 1.4172

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norms for percent body fat
Norms for Percent Body Fat

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circumference girth measurements
Circumference (Girth) Measurements
  • Equipment:
    • A flexible steel or cloth measuring tape
  • Circumference sites:
    • Neck, chest, hips, thigh, calf, biceps, abdomen

Sport Books Publisher

body mass index bmi
Body Mass Index (BMI)
  • Can be used as an easy, inexpensive method for determining an individual’s healthy body weight
  • Considers weight (kg) and height (m)

BMI = Weight (kg)

[Height (m)]2

  • A BMI nomogram can also be used to determine BMI, it looks like this…

Sport Books Publisher

slide15

Body Mass Index (BMI)

Sport Books Publisher

body mass index bmi1
Body Mass Index (BMI)
  • Three general ranges:
  • Underweight
  • Healthy or Acceptable Weight
  • Overweight
      • Severe Overweight
      • Morbid Obesity
  • BMI score > 30 is classified as obese and associated with an increased risk of developing health problems
  • Risk of developing health problems is also associated with BMI’s classified as being within the underweight range

Sport Books Publisher

body mass index bmi2
Body Mass Index (BMI)
  • The BMI is intended for men and women aged 20-65
  • It is not intended for:
  • Babies
  • Children
  • Teenagers
  • Pregnant women
  • Very muscular people, such as athletes

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bioelectrical impedance bia
Bioelectrical Impedance (BIA)
  • Based on differences in electrical conductivity between fat-free mass and fat mass

Sport Books Publisher

bioelectrical impedance bia1
Bioelectrical Impedance (BIA)
  • Percent body fat is calculated from measures of body density determined by passing an electrical current through the body

Sport Books Publisher

bioelectrical impedance bia2
Bioelectrical Impedance (BIA)
  • BIA is influenced by the subject’s hydration level
  • The more hydrated one is, the leaner the BIA measurement will be

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hydrostatic weighing
Hydrostatic Weighing

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hydrostatic weighing1
Hydrostatic Weighing
  • Bone and muscle have a greater density than water
  • Fat is less dense than water
  • Thus, a person’s relative buoyancy is positively correlated with body fat
  • That is, a person with a higher body fat percentage is less dense (weighs less in water) than a lean individual

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hydrostatic weighing2
Hydrostatic Weighing
  • To calculate body fat, the following measurements are needed:
  • Body weight on land
  • Underwater body weight
  • Water density at the performed temperature
  • Residual lung volume
  • More accurate measure

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the bod pod
The Bod-Pod

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the bod pod1
The Bod-Pod
  • Very expensive method
  • Very accurate measure
  • May facilitate measuring large or heavy individuals because it does not involve underwater submersion

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dual energy x ray absorptiometry dexa1
Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DEXA)
  • Can be used to determine body composition
  • Can also measure bone density (bone mineral content)

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