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CRJS 4466 PROGRAM & POLICY EVALUATION Qualitative Methods in Evaluation

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CRJS 4466 PROGRAM & POLICY EVALUATION Qualitative Methods in Evaluation. 1. Test on Wednesday 2. Evaluation Project – Questions?. 4. Qualitative Methods – strengths Carol Weiss (1998) – the coming of age of qualitative methods note the Campbell versus Cronbach controversy here

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slide1

CRJS 4466

PROGRAM & POLICY EVALUATION

Qualitative Methods in Evaluation

1. Test on Wednesday

2. Evaluation Project – Questions?

slide2

4. Qualitative Methods – strengths

  • Carol Weiss (1998) – the coming of age of qualitative methods
  • note the Campbell versus Cronbach controversy here
  • qualitative methods are an important technique for under-
  • standing the ‘context’ of success or failure of programs
  • qualitative methods most commonly used in process evaluation
  • or the ‘how’ and ‘why’ of a program and its workings
  • also common in formative evaluations
  • ability to represent subtleties and complexities of program
  • functioning and dynamics
slide3

4. Qualitative Methods - strengths

  • many evaluators like the interpersonal nature of qualitative
  • methodologies
  • qualitative approaches are often ‘action oriented’
  • a choice of ‘depth’ over ‘breadth’
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4. Qualitative Methods - limitations

  • reliability and validity of measures
  • interviewer bias
  • anecdotal
  • labour-intensive
  • costly
  • less useful for reporting on program outcomes
slide5

4. Qualitative Methods – Single System (SS) Evaluations

  • evaluating an intervention with a single client system, usually
  • quantitatively during the course of treatment
  • limited or questionable usefulness of qualitative methodology
  • qualitative methods and SS designs best matched at
  • community or system level, where emphasis is on
  • understanding the context (policy space) rather than on a
  • single program/intervention
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4. Qualitative Methods – Focused Qualitative Evaluation (FQE)

  • reflects the immediacy of much evaluation – not time for
  • extended research, ethnomethodological development – instead,
  • ‘the best answer you can give me, under the circumstances’
  • use of FG and rapid ethnographic assessment
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4. Qualitative Methods – Mixed Methods

  • ‘triangulation’, combining both quantitative and qualitative
  • methods
  • ‘temporal sequencing’ and qualitative subsamples
  • benefit of both breadth and depth
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4. Qualitative Methods – Action (Participatory) Research

  • overtly ‘action-oriented’ approach primarily among
  • those conducting qualitative evaluations
  • participatory, collaborative, empowering – now an expectation
  • in some evaluation projects
  • ‘praxis’ orientation
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5. Qualitative Methods – Research Design

  • units of analysis and comparative designs
  • gaining access, key informants, and sponsorship
  • reciprocity, payback and feedback – and the methodological,
  • ethical concerns here (‘false hope’)
  • sampling considerations
      • deviant case sampling (outliers) /typical case sampling
      • maximum variation sampling
      • snowball sampling
      • purposive sampling
      • convenience sampling
      • random sampling
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5. Qualitative Methods – Research Design

  • data collection strategies
        • on-site observation
        • participant observation
        • reflexivity
        • use of interview guide
        • use of focus groups
        • cross-validation among interviewers
        • use of documents
  • when to stop data collection – the issue of saturation
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5. Qualitative Methods – Data Management and Analysis

  • use of qualitative data analysis programs: Ethnograph, AskSam
  • QSR (Nudist)
  • coding data
  • emic (indigenous) and etic (researcher-created) coding
  • quality control mechanisms
  • reporting – issues related to qualitative methodologies
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