Psycholinguistics. What is psycholinguistics ? Psycholinguistics is the study of the cognitive processes that support the acquisition and use of language . . The scope of psycholinguistics :. 1- Historically = First language (L1)
What is psycholinguistics ?
Psycholinguistics is the study of the cognitive processes that support the acquisition and use of language .
1- Historically = First language (L1)
1-What is the nature of the input that is critical for language to develop?
2-To what extent is this developmental process biologically constrained ?
3- How are words recognized when listening to speech or reading text ?
The questions that have been the focus of investigation :
4- How do we understand sentences and texts ?
5- By what means are lexical and syntactic ambiguities resolved?
6- How are abstract thoughts mapped onto utterances prior to speaking?
(Individuals who are acquiring or actively using more than one language)
Specific questions with respect to bilinguals are :
1- Is L2 acquisition different from L1 acquisition ?
2- To what extent does the L1 play a role in using the L2 ?
3- Are there roles governing code- switching (the use of more than one language in an utterance )?
4- How do speakers of more than one language keep the two languages apart?
5- How are languages acquired at some point in time lost or maintained over time ?
- L2 learners and proficient bilinguals rely on similar cognitive mechanisms .
- Those mechanisms are generally universal across languages .
- The same cognitive resources are universally available to all learners. .
Modelling language production of the competent bilingual
Levelt’s “Speaking” model (1989 , 1999) - Aim
* What happens in the production of these
* To turn a monolingual model into a bilingual model :
- L2 knowledge is typically incomplete
How bilingual speakers keep their languages apart ??
1- Earlier proposals suggested that there were ‘switches’.
2- Paradis has proposed the ‘sub-set hypothesis:
words from a given lang. form a
sub-set of the total inventory. Each sub-set can be activated independently.
How language choice is implemented ?
.3-A pointer to a particular lexeme
**Lemma consists of three parts
A word ,sentence or text can be presented and we can examine the way in which processing reflects its structure and meaning .
Investigate the planning of utterances in real time.
1- Picture-naming task.
2- Picture-word interference
Illustrative Research on Second Language Acquisition and Bilingualism
The Non-selective Nature of Lexical Access
Gerard & Scarborough(1989) study
Subsequent research has supported the claim that lexical access is language non- selective in comprehension
Developing Lexical Proficiency in a Second Language
How does the nature of activated lexical information change with increasing proficiency in L2 ??
The focus= the availability of the L1 translation equivalent
during L2 processing.
Study by :Feldman (1984)
-comparison between picture naming
and single word translation.Aim
Conclusion:bilinguals conceptually mediate L2 without L1 influencedepending on the level of L2 proficiency.
* In earlier stages of L2 development there was indeed lexical mediation whereby L1 translation equivalents were activated to facilitate access to concepts
other studies suggest that conceptual processing is directly available for L2 for both proficient bilinguals and learners.
Forgetting and Relearning
A growing field of research now deals with the opposite of language acquisition: language attrition and language loss.
Through non-use of a language ,the level of activation of knowledge decreases and eventually lost.
The results showed significant savings effects for the old words.
Relearning the old words was easier than learning completely new words
Accessibility of linguistics element
must have been
acquired and stored
must be accessible in time
Heba Al- Ansari
Aisha Al Khuza’I
‘Alyaa Al Garni