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Psycholinguistics. Comprehension Phonological level sounds Lexical words Syntactic sentences Discourse discourse Production Acquisition. Psycholinguistics.

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psycholinguistics

Psycholinguistics

Comprehension

Phonological level sounds

Lexical words

Syntactic sentences

Discourse discourse

Production

Acquisition

Psycholinguistics

Carroll, David W. 1999. Psychology of Language, third edition. Pacific Grove: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company, Chapter 4.

articulatory features of phones
Articulatory Features of Phones

Place of Articulation

where constriction occurs

Manner of Articulation

how air obstructed:

Voicing

plus or minus vocal cord vibrations

speech rates
Speech Rates

125-180 words per minute

25-30 phonetic segments per second (Liberman, 1970);

Yeni-Komshian, Grace H. 1998. Speech perception. In Psycholinguistics, second edition, pp. 107-156. Jean Berko Gleason and Nan Bernstein Ratner, editors. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace College Publishers, p. 110.

vowel quadrangle as function of f1 and f2
Vowel Quadrangle as Function of F1 and F2

Language Files, seventh edition. 1998. Nick Cipollone, Steven Hartman Keiser, Shravan Vasishth, editors. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, p. 70.

consonant vowel spectrograms
Consonant-Vowel Spectrograms

Ashcraft, Mark H. 1994. Human Memory and Cognition, second edition. New York: Harper Collins College Publishers, p. 385.

coarticulation
Coarticulation

Ashcraft, Mark H. 1994. Human Memory and Cognition, second edition. New York: Harper Collins College Publishers, p. 386.

allophones of t
Allophones of /t/

Tom Burton tried to steal a butter plate.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

1 aspirated

2 glottalized

3 palatalized

4 elongated

5 unaspirated

6 flapped

7 unreleased

coarticulation study 1
Coarticulation Study 1

Stimuli:12 CV syllables

(four fricatives in three vowel contexts: i, u, a;

e.g., si, su, sa)

Computer excised the vowel portion of each

syllable.

Procedure:Remaining "consonant" portion played to subjects.

Task: Identify the missing vowel.

Results:[i], [u] reliably identified; [a] not

Conclusion:Fricative portion contains information about vowel

Yeni-Komshian, Grace H. and S.D. Soli. 1981. Recognition of vowels from information in fricatives: Perceptual evidence of fricative-vowel coarticulation. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 70: 966-975. Cited (p. 137) in Yeni-Komishian, Grace H. 1998. Speech Perception. In Psycholinguistics, Jean Berko Gleason and Nan Bernstein Ratner, editors, pp. 107-156.

coarticulation study 2 1
Coarticulation Study 2 -1

Stimuli: C1VC2 syllables with [b]: bVb

9 different vowels: beeb, bib, babe, bob

Computer divided syllables in X Y Z

X: transition from C1 to V (Y);

Z: transition from V to C2;

Y central vocalic (vowel) portion

Procedure: Subjects heard:

1. XYZ

2. X—Z (— is a silent gap)

3. Y (steady state portion)

4. Y (fixed length steady state portion)

5. XZ

Task: Identify the vowel in each test stimulus

coarticulation study 2 2
Coarticulation Study 2 - 2

Results: Types 2 (X—Z), 1 (XYZ) accurate

Types 3, 5 "significantly more errors"

Type 4 worst

Conclusion: "…formant transitions and vowel

duration are more important cues to the identity

of vowels than a fixed sample of the steady-

state information." (126 b)

Jenkins, J.J., W. Strange, T.R. Edman. 1983. Identification of vowels in "vowelless" syllables. Perception & Psychophysics, 34(5): 441-450. Cited (pp. 125-126) in Yeni-Komishian, Grace H. 1998. Speech Perception. In Psycholinguistics, Jean Berko Gleason and Nan Bernstein Ratner, editors, pp. 107-156.

fodor s criteria for modularity
Fodor\'s Criteria for Modularity

1) domain specific

2) operates on a mandatory basis

3) fast

4) unaffected by feedback (from other modules)

See Fodor, Jerry A. 1983. The Modularity of Mind: An Essay on Faculty Psychology. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Cited (p. 77) in Carroll, David W. 1999. Psychology of Language, third edition. Pacific Grove: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company, pp. 369-375, 376-381.

visual influences on speech perception
Visual Influences on Speech Perception

Procedure: Present visual picture of someone saying

[ga]

Synchronized with the sound [ba]

Task: Subject identifies the sound heard

Result: Subject "hears" and identifies it as [da]

Conclusion:Place of articulation detected by eye

Manner of articulation detected by ear

MacDonald, J. & H. McGurk. 1978. Visual influences on speech perception processes. Perception & Psychophysics, 24: 253-257. Cited (p. 83) in Carroll, David W. 1999. Psychology of Language, third edition. Pacific Grove: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company.

levels of processing for aural and visual language
Levels of Processing for Aural and Visual Language

SPEECH TRACE MODEL WRITING

Phonological Word Word

Phonetic Phone Letter

Auditory Feature Feature

Carroll, David W. 1999. Psychology of Language, third edition. Pacific Grove: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company, Chapter 4.

taylor et al study results trend from grade 1 to grade 12
Taylor et al. Study Results(Trend from Grade 1 to Grade 12)

Duration of fixations decrease

Regressions per 100 words decrease

Fixations per 100 words (-Regressions) decrease

Number of words per fixation increase

Rate (WPM) increase

Conclusions based on S.E. Taylor, H. Frackenpohl, & J.L. Pettee. 1960. Grade level norms for the components of the fundamental reading skill. Educational Development Laboratories Research and Information Bulletin No. 3, Educational Development Laboratories. Cited (p. 93) in Carroll, David W. 1999. Psychology of Language, third edition. Pacific Grove: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company.

word superiority effect 1
Word-Superiority Effect -1

Stimuli: words, non-words, letters

Procedure: Show subjects one of these using

tachistoscope briefly:

word (a word)

owrd (a non-word)

d or k (a letter)

Task: Reply to "Did you see a given letter (e.g.,

"d") in final position?"

word superiority effect 2
Word-Superiority Effect - 2

Results: More accurate if the letter appeared

in a word.

Conclusion: The word has an effect on letter

recognition. There must be some top-

down processing— though bottom-up

processing can occur

Reicher, G. M. 1969. Perceptual recognition as a function of meaningfulness of stimulus material. Journal of Experimental Psychology 81: 275-280. Cited (p. 93) in Carroll, David W. 1999. Psychology of Language, third edition. Pacific Grove: Brooks/Cole Publishing Company.

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