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History and Uses of Music Education for Children Who Are Hearing Impaired. Theresa L. Kestner Central Institute for the Deaf 2001 Advisor: Pam Zacher. Introduction.

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history and uses of music education for children who are hearing impaired

History and Uses of Music Education for Children Who Are Hearing Impaired

Theresa L. Kestner

Central Institute for the Deaf

2001

Advisor: Pam Zacher

introduction
Introduction

Music is “many-sided in its effect on the human body. It is a medium of outward activity and inward experience; it relates directly to speech and language, to communication and thought, to bodily expression and dance, to a range of emotions, and to the perception and recognition of sound patterns and forms” (Robbins & Robbins, 1980).

history
History

1837, Lowell Mason

1848, William Wolcott Turner & David Ely Bartlett

1877, NY School for the Deaf

1802, Jean-Marc-Gaspard Itard

1923-1942, IL School for the Deaf

1988, Gaulladet University

speech skills rhythm
Speech Skills (Rhythm)

Research studies have focused on rhythm activities and perception

Gives them an idea of rhythm, accent, and fluency; also helps coordination, poise and balance

Listening helps to stimulate and strengthen ability to utilize residual hearing; lays foundation for rhythm of language

teaching rhythm
Teaching Rhythm

Nursery rhymes or dancing

Percussion instruments based on the Orff Method

Use entire bodies in many rhythmic experiences

speech skills singing pitch
Speech Skills(Singing & Pitch)

Used primarily for group recreation purposes

Means for self-expression or as a means of improving speech & language development

Provides personal satisfaction and a source of shared social pleasure

improving vocal accuracy
Improving Vocal Accuracy

Early vocal training

Appropriate models and feedback

Structured practice

Additional time with daily vocal exercises and vocal ensembles

Instrumental accompaniment

Kodály hand signals

speech skills breath
Speech Skills (Breath)

Ability to copy breathing patterns easily when singing in a group under no pressure

auditory skills
Auditory Skills

Auditory training: to teach the complex task of listening

Can become rigid and highly structured, therefore, music is highly motivating

Melodic aspects of language contain a great deal of information

Natural motivation to use residual hearing

social skills
Social Skills

Group music making promotes “sharing, mutual attentiveness, responsibility to the group, and an enjoyable sense of partnership in activities that demand a cooperative effort for successful accomplishment” (Robbins & Robbins, 1980).

participants procedures
Participants/Procedures

30 oral and state schools for the hearing impaired around the U.S.

Given approximately 3 weeks, after 2 weeks phone calls were made

24 were completed (80% return rate) - 12 oral & 12 state

categories
Categories

Music programs offered

Nature of instructor

Length of program

Age of students

Methodologies used

Noted improvements

Other programs offered

Additional comments

1 do you provide a music program for your students
1. Do you provide a music program for your students?

• 67% oral schools

• 42% state schools

2 what is offered under your music program
2. What is offered under your music program?

• 69% dance or movement instruction

• 54% instrumental instruction

• 54% vocal instruction

• 31% music theory classes

• 38% other

3 who provides the instruction for the music program
3. Who provides the instruction for the music program?

• 54% teachers of the hearing impaired

• 23% regular education teachers

• Music therapist

• Dance instructor

• Volunteer

4 how long have you offered your music program
4. How long have you offered your music program?

• 4 months to 165 years

• Typical length: 2 to 20 years

5. What age of students participate in the music program?

• 2 to 21 years

6 do hearing children participate in the music program
6. Do hearing children participate in the music program?

• 63% oral schools

• 20% state schools

7 what are the primary objectives of the music program
7. What are the primary objectives of the music program?

• 77% curriculum enrichment

• 69% musical skills

  • 69% speech & auditory skills
  • 62% music appreciation
  • 54% music performance
  • 8% music composition
  • 23% other
8 which teaching materials or methodologies have been most helpful
8. Which teaching materials &/or methodologies have been most helpful?
  • Dalcroze eurhythmics
  • Orff Method
  • General education music curricula
  • Folk dance materials
  • Nursery rhymes
  • C.D.’s of various music types
  • SMILE program
  • Raffi’s music
  • Keyboard lessons
  • Various instruments
9 have you noticed a change in your students since starting your music program
9. Have you noticed a change in your students since starting your music program?
  • 64% auditory skills
  • 64% social/emotional skills
  • 55% speech skills
  • 27% academic performance
  • 23% other
10 what other programs do you offer
10. What other programs do you offer?
  • 57% art
  • 53% physical education
  • 50% computers
  • 20% other
11 other comments
11. Other comments
  • Hearing impaired children should have opportunities to enjoy and appreciate music just as their hearing age mates do.
  • I find our deaf children (like most people) respond to music through hearing, yes, but mostly they respond to something that happens inside, in their hearts and feelings.
  • Music is an integral part of our curriculum and is used in daily classroom instruction as an important vehicle for language development.
conclusions
Conclusions

Most effective way: have more successful music programs

Parents: enthusiastically support music

Educators: mixed attitudes

Professionals: already made changes, now need to include children who are hearing impaired

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