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History and Uses of Music Education for Children Who Are Hearing Impaired. Theresa L. Kestner Central Institute for the Deaf 2001 Advisor: Pam Zacher. Introduction.
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Theresa L. Kestner
Central Institute for the Deaf
Advisor: Pam Zacher
Music is “many-sided in its effect on the human body. It is a medium of outward activity and inward experience; it relates directly to speech and language, to communication and thought, to bodily expression and dance, to a range of emotions, and to the perception and recognition of sound patterns and forms” (Robbins & Robbins, 1980).
1837, Lowell Mason
1848, William Wolcott Turner & David Ely Bartlett
1877, NY School for the Deaf
1802, Jean-Marc-Gaspard Itard
1923-1942, IL School for the Deaf
1988, Gaulladet University
Research studies have focused on rhythm activities and perception
Gives them an idea of rhythm, accent, and fluency; also helps coordination, poise and balance
Listening helps to stimulate and strengthen ability to utilize residual hearing; lays foundation for rhythm of language
Nursery rhymes or dancing
Percussion instruments based on the Orff Method
Use entire bodies in many rhythmic experiences
Used primarily for group recreation purposes
Means for self-expression or as a means of improving speech & language development
Provides personal satisfaction and a source of shared social pleasure
Early vocal training
Appropriate models and feedback
Additional time with daily vocal exercises and vocal ensembles
Kodály hand signals
Ability to copy breathing patterns easily when singing in a group under no pressure
Auditory training: to teach the complex task of listening
Can become rigid and highly structured, therefore, music is highly motivating
Melodic aspects of language contain a great deal of information
Natural motivation to use residual hearing
Group music making promotes “sharing, mutual attentiveness, responsibility to the group, and an enjoyable sense of partnership in activities that demand a cooperative effort for successful accomplishment” (Robbins & Robbins, 1980).
30 oral and state schools for the hearing impaired around the U.S.
Given approximately 3 weeks, after 2 weeks phone calls were made
24 were completed (80% return rate) - 12 oral & 12 state
Music programs offered
Nature of instructor
Length of program
Age of students
Other programs offered
• 67% oral schools
• 42% state schools
• 69% dance or movement instruction
• 54% instrumental instruction
• 54% vocal instruction
• 31% music theory classes
• 38% other
• 54% teachers of the hearing impaired
• 23% regular education teachers
• Music therapist
• Dance instructor
• 4 months to 165 years
• Typical length: 2 to 20 years
5. What age of students participate in the music program?
• 2 to 21 years
• 63% oral schools
• 20% state schools
• 77% curriculum enrichment
• 69% musical skills
Most effective way: have more successful music programs
Parents: enthusiastically support music
Educators: mixed attitudes
Professionals: already made changes, now need to include children who are hearing impaired