Lithium nitrate
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lithium nitrate. lead (II) sulfide. barium sulfide. lithium nitride. Chemistry. sulfur dioxide. lithium nitrite. Bonding and Inorganic Nomenclature. NO 2. NaClO 3. N 2 O 4. Fe(ClO 3 ) 2. N 2 O 5. Fe(ClO 3 ) 3. potassium nitrate. copper (II) sulfate. sodium hydroxide. KNO 3.

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Bonding and Inorganic Nomenclature

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Bonding and inorganic nomenclature

lithium nitrate

lead (II) sulfide

barium sulfide

lithium nitride

Chemistry

sulfur dioxide

lithium nitrite

Bonding and

Inorganic Nomenclature

NO2

NaClO3

N2O4

Fe(ClO3)2

N2O5

Fe(ClO3)3


Bonding and inorganic nomenclature

potassium

nitrate

copper (II)

sulfate

sodium

hydroxide

KNO3

NaOH

Cu2SO4

dinitrogen monoxide

N2O

Inorganic Nomenclature


Vocabulary

Vocabulary

Chemical Bond

attractive force between atoms or ions that binds them together as a unit

bonds form in order to…

decrease potential energy (PE)

increase stability

Courtesy Christy Johannesson www.nisd.net/communicationsarts/pages/chem


Types of bonds

Types of Bonds

Covalent Bonding - True Molecules

Nitrogen

Water

Ammonia

Diatomic Molecule


Bonding and inorganic nomenclature

Metallic Bonds

In metals, valence shells of atoms overlap, so v.e–

are free to travel between atoms through material.

Not so in metals.

In insulators (like wood),

the v.e– are attached

to particular atoms.


Bonding and inorganic nomenclature

ductile

conduct heat and electricity

malleable

Properties of Metals

All due to free-moving v.e–.


Types of bonds1

Types of Bonds

Table salt

Ionic Bonding - Crystal Lattice


Bonding and inorganic nomenclature

calcite

Properties of Salts

1. very hard –

each ion is bonded

to several oppositely

-charged ions

2. high melting points –

many bonds must be

broken

with sufficient force,

like atoms are

brought next to

each other and repel

3. brittle –


Bonding and inorganic nomenclature

loses e–

gains e–

Na1+ + Cl1–

K1+ + NO31–

Chemical Bonding

Ionic Bonds: atoms give up or gain e– and

are attracted to each other by

coulombic (electrical) attraction

Na1+

Cl

Cl1–

Na

NaCl

ionic compounds = salts

KNO3

where NO31– is a polyatomic ion:

a charged group of

atoms that stay together


Bonding and inorganic nomenclature

has neutral charge;

Writing Formulas of Ionic Compounds

chemical formula:

shows types of atoms

and how many of each

To write an ionic compound’s formula, we need:

1. the two types of ions

(i.e., “pink” and “blue”)

2. the charge on each ion

NaF

Na1+andF1–

BaO

Ba2+andO2–

Na2O

Na1+andO2–

BaF2

Ba2+andF1–


Bonding and inorganic nomenclature

2

2

2

1

3

3

charge on cation / anion

“becomes” subscript of anion / cation

criss-cross rule:

** Warning:

Reduce to lowest terms.

Al3+andO2–

Ba2+andS2–

In3+andBr1–

AlO

InBr

BaS

InBr3

Al2O3

BaS


Bonding and inorganic nomenclature

  • Writing Formulas w/Polyatomic Ions

Parentheses are required only when you need more

than one “bunch” of a particular polyatomic ion.

Ba2+andSO42–

BaSO4

Mg2+andNO21–

Mg(NO2)2

NH41+andClO31–

NH4ClO3

Sn4+andSO42–

Sn(SO4)2

Fe3+andCr2O72–

Fe2(Cr2O7)3

NH41+andN3–

(NH4)3N


Bonding and inorganic nomenclature

Na

Ba

A. To name, given

the formula:

1. Use name of cation.

2. Use name of anion (it has the ending “ide”).

sodium fluoride

NaF

barium oxide

BaO

sodium oxide

Na2O

barium fluoride

BaF2


Bonding and inorganic nomenclature

Zn

Ca

B. To write formula,

Ag

given the name:

1. Write symbols for the two types of ions.

2. Balance charges to write formula.

Ag1+

Ag2S

S2–

silversulfide

Zn2+

P3–

Zn3P2

zincphosphide

Ca2+

I1–

CaI2

calciumiodide


Bonding and inorganic nomenclature

  • Ionic Compounds (cation/anion combos)

The Unique-Charge Cations (Always have the same charge when ionized)

The unique-charge cations are:

groups 1, 2, 13, and Ag1+, Cd2+, and Zn2+

1

2

13


Bonding and inorganic nomenclature

Zn

Cd

Ag

Variable-Charge CationswithElemental Anions

The Variable (multiple)-charge cations are:

Pb, Sn, and the transition elements

(but – not Ag+1, Cd+2, or Zn+2)


Bonding and inorganic nomenclature

Cu

Fe

A. To name variable charge elements, given the formula:

  • Figure out charge on

  • cation.

2. Write name of cation.

3. Write Roman numerals

in ( ) to show cation’s charge.

Stock System

of nomenclature

4. Write name of anion.

iron oxide

Fe2+

Fe?

iron (II)oxide

FeO

O2–

iron oxide

Fe?

O2–

Fe2O3

Fe?

Fe3+

O2–

O2–

Fe3+

iron (III)oxide

CuBr

copper bromide

Cu?

Br1–

copper (I)bromide

Cu1+

CuBr2

copper bromide

Br1–

copper (II)bromide

Cu2+

Cu?

Br1–


Bonding and inorganic nomenclature

Co

Sn

B. To find the formula, given the name:

1. Write symbols for the two types of ions.

2. Balance charges to write formula.

cobalt (III) chloride

Co3+

Cl1–

CoCl3

Sn4+

O2–

SnO2

tin (IV) oxide

Sn2+

tin (II) oxide

O2–

SnO


Bonding and inorganic nomenclature

Compounds Containing Polyatomic Ions

Insert name of ion

where it should go

in the compound’s

name.

Write formulas:

iron (III) nitrite

Fe3+

NO31–

Fe(NO3)3

iron (III)nitrite

ammonium phosphide

(NH4)3P

ammoniumphosphide

NH41+

P3–

ammonium chlorate

NH4ClO3

ClO31–

NH41+

ammonium chlorate

zinc phosphate

Zn3(PO4)2

PO43–

Zn2+

zincphosphate

lead (II)permanganate

lead (II) permanganate

MnO41–

Pb2+

Pb(MnO4)2


Bonding and inorganic nomenclature

Write names:

(NH4)2S2O3

(NH4)2S2O3

ammonium thiosulfate

AgBrO3

silverbromate

AgBrO3

(NH4)3N

(NH4)3N

ammoniumnitride

CrO42–

uranium (VI)chromate

U6+

U?

U(CrO4)3

CrO42–

U(CrO4)3

CrO42–

Cr2(SO3)3

Cr2(SO3)3

Cr?

chromium (III)sulfite

Cr3+

SO32–

Cr3+

Cr?

SO32–

SO32–


Binary molecular compounds covalent compounds

Binary Molecular Compounds(Covalent Compounds)

Nonmetal + Nonmetal


Bonding and inorganic nomenclature

Covalent Bonds

…atoms share e– to get a full valence shell

C

Group 14

(4 v.e–)

Group 17

(7 v.e–)

F

both need 8 v.e– for a full outer shell (octet rule)

Lewis structure:

a model of a covalent molecule that

shows all of the valence e–

1. Two shared e– make a single covalent bond,

four make a double bond, etc.

2. unshared pairs: pairs of unbonded valence e–

3. Each atom needs a full outer shell, i.e., 8 e–.

Exception: H needs 2 e–


Bonding and inorganic nomenclature

x

x

x

x

o

o

x

x

F

H

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

o

o

x

F

H

o

o

C

C

x

x

x

x

F

F

H

F

H

H

H

F

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

o

o

C

C

x

x

x

o

o

x

x

x

x

x

x

o

o

x

x

o

o

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

o

o

x

x

x

H

F

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

H

F

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

carbon tetrafluoride (CF4)

methane (CH4)


Bonding and inorganic nomenclature

x

x

x

x

x x

x x

O

x

x

x

O

x

O = C = O

x

x

x

x

x x

x x

x

x

x

x

x

x

O

O

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

I

x

x

x

o

o

x

o

x

o

x

x

o

o

x

I

x

o

x

x

o

No

I

I

I

No

x

x

x

x

o

o

C

C

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

o

o

x

x

o

x

o

x

x

x

x

x

o

o

x

x

I

x

x

x

x

x

nitrogen triiodide (NI3)

carbon dioxide (CO2)


Bonding and inorganic nomenclature

covalent compounds = molecular compounds

-- have lower melting points

than do ionic compounds

(consist of two

nonmetal elements)

butter


Bonding and inorganic nomenclature

What to do:

1 –

6 –

2 –

7 –

3 –

8 –

4 –

9 –

5 –

10 –

Covalent Compounds

-- contain two types of

nonmetals

nonmetals

** Key:

FORGET CHARGES!

Use Greek prefixes to indicate how

many atoms of each element, but

don’t use “mono” on first element.

hexa

mono

di

hepta

tri

octa

tetra

nona

penta

dec


Bonding and inorganic nomenclature

EXAMPLES:

CO2

carbon dioxide

carbon monoxide

CO

N2O3

dinitrogen trioxide

dinitrogen pentoxide

N2O5

CCl4

carbon tetrachloride

nitrogen triiodide

NI3


Binary compounds containing two nonmetals

Binary Compounds Containing Two Nonmetals

To name these compounds, give the name of the less electronegative

element first with the Greek prefix indicating the number of atoms of that

element present, followed by the name of the more electronegative non-

metal with the Greek prefix indicating the number of atoms of that element

present and with its ending replaced by the suffix –ide.

Prefixes you should know:

Mono Di Tri Tetra Penta Hexa Hepta Octa Nona Deca

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10


Bonding and inorganic nomenclature

Dihydrogen Monoxide:

A Tale of Danger and Irresponsibility

-- major component of acid rain

-- found in all cancer cells

-- inhalation can be deadly

-- excessive ingestion results in acute physical symptoms:

e.g., frequent urination,

bloated sensation,

profuse sweating

-- often an industrial byproduct of chemical

reactions; dumped wholesale into rivers and lakes


Binary compounds containing two nonmetals type iii compounds

Binary CompoundsContaining Two Nonmetals (Type III Compounds)

As2S3

  • ________________ diarsenic trisulfide

  • ________________sulfur dioxide

  • P2O5____________________

  • ________________ carbon dioxide

  • N2O5____________________

  • H2O____________________

SO2

diphosphorus pentoxide

CO2

dinitrogen pentoxide

dihydrogen monoxide


Binary molecular compounds

Binary Molecular Compounds

N2O dinitrogen monoxide

N2O3dinitrogen trioxide

N2O5dinitrogen pentoxide

ICl iodine monochloride

ICl3 iodine trichloride

SO2 sulfur dioxide

SO3 sulfur trioxide


Naming binary compounds

Naming Binary Compounds

Binary Compound?

Yes

Metal Present?

No

Yes

Type III

Use Greek

Prefixes

Does the metal form

more than one cation?

No

Yes

Type II

Determine the charge

of the cation; use a Roman

numeral after the cation

name.

Type I

Use the element

name for the cation.

Zumdahl, Zumdahl, DeCoste, World of Chemistry2002, page 98


Naming simple chemical compounds

Naming Simple Chemical Compounds

Ionic (metal and nonmetal)

Covalent (2 nonmetals)

Metal

Nonmetal

First

nonmetal

Second

nonmetal

Forms

only one

positive

ion

Forms

more than

one positive

ion

Single

Negative

Ion

Polyatomic

Ion

Use the

name of

element

Use element

name followed

by a Roman

numeral to

show the charge

Use the name

of the

element, but

end with ide

Use the

name of

polyatomic

ion (ate or

Ite)

Before

element name

use a prefix

to match

subscript

Use a prefix

before

element name

and end

with ide


Prefixes binary molecular compounds

Prefixes – Binary Molecular Compounds

Page 131 in text

Greek Prefixes for Two Nonmetals

Number Indicated Prefixes

1mono-

2di-

3tri-

4tetra-

5penta-

6hexa-

7hepta-

8octa-

9nona-

10deca-


Polyatomic ions memorize

NH41+ ……………

OH1- ……………

CN1- …………..

ammonium

hydroxide

cyanide

Polyatomic Ions - Memorize

Eight “-ATE’s”

PO43- ……………

SO42- ……………

CO32- …………..

ClO31- …………..

NO31- ………..….

phosphate

sulfate

carbonate

chlorate

nitrate

phosphATE

sulfATE

carbonATE

chlorATE

nitrATE

Exceptions:


Pattern to memorizing nomenclature

Pattern to Memorizing Nomenclature

XY

“-ide”

XYO4

XYO3

XYO2

XYO

“per___-ate”

“-ate”

“-ite”

“hypo___-ite”

1 more oxygen

normal

1 less oxygen

2 less oxygen


Bonding and inorganic nomenclature

Polyatomic Ion:

a group of atoms that stay together and have a single, overall charge.


Common polyatomic ions pg 123 in text

Common Polyatomic Ions(pg 123 in text)

Names of Common Polyatomic Ions

Ion Name Ion Name

NH41+ ammoniumCO3 2- carbonate

NO21- nitriteHCO31- hydrogen carbonate

NO31- nitrate (“bicarbonate” is a widely

SO32- sulfite used common name)

SO42- sulfateClO 1- hypochlorite

HSO41- hydrogen sulfateClO21- chlorite

(“bisulfate” is a widelyClO31- chlorate

used common name)ClO41- perchlorate

OH 1- hydroxideC2H3O22- acetate

CN 1- cyanideMnO41- permanganate

PO43- phosphateCr2O72- dichromate

HPO42- hydrogen phosphateCrO42- chromate

H2PO41- dihydrogen phosphateO22- peroxide

Print Version

Zumdahl, Zumdahl, DeCoste, World of Chemistry2002, page 100


Binary hydrogen compounds of nonmetals when dissolved in water

Binary Hydrogen Compoundsof Nonmetals When Dissolved in Water

(These compounds are commonly called acids.)

The prefix hydro- is used to represent hydrogen, followed by the name

of the nonmetal with its ending replaced by the suffix –ic and the word

acid added. (See page 133 in text for common acids)

Examples:

*HCl

HBr

Hydrochloricacid

Hydrobromicacid

*The name of this compound would be hydrogen chloride if it was NOT dissolved in water.


Common acids pg 133 in text

Common Acids (pg 133 in text)

  • Hydrochloric HCL

  • SulfuricH2SO4

  • NitricHNO3

  • AceticHC2H3O2

  • PhosphoricH3PO4

  • CarbonicH2CO3

  • HydrofluoricHF


Bonding and inorganic nomenclature

shows the true number

and type of atoms in a m’cule

lowest-terms

formula

Empirical Formula and Molecular Formula

CH2O

C3H8

C2H5

C5H4

C12H22O11

C4H9


Bonding and inorganic nomenclature

Traditional System of Nomenclature

…used historically (and still some today) to name

compounds w/multiple-charge cations

1. Use Latin root of cation.

To use:

2. Use -ic ending for higher charge;

-ous ending for lower charge.

3. Then say name of anion, as usual.


Bonding and inorganic nomenclature

ElementLatin root-ic-ous

gold, Auaur-Au3+Au1+

lead, Pbplumb-Pb4+Pb2+

tin, Snstann-Sn4+Sn2+

copper, Cucupr-Cu2+Cu1+

iron, Feferr-Fe3+Fe2+

Write formulas:

Write names:

P3–

P3–

Pb3P4

Pb3P4

cuproussulfide

cuprous sulfide

Pb4+

Pb?

Pb?

Pb4+

Pb4+

Pb?

P3–

P3–

plumbicphosphide

S2–

Cu1+

Cu2S

Pb3P2

Pb3P2

auricnitrite

auric nitrite

Pb?

Pb2+

Pb?

P3–

Pb2+

Pb?

P3–

Pb2+

plumbousphosphide

Au3+

NO21–

Au(NO2)3

OH1–

Sn(OH)4

Sn(OH)4

ferrousfluoride

ferrous fluoride

OH1–

Sn?

OH1–

Sn4+

OH1–

stannichydroxide

F1–

FeF2

Fe2+


Bonding and inorganic nomenclature

Metallic Bonds

In metals, valence shells of atoms overlap, so v.e–

are free to travel between atoms through material.

Not so in metals.

In insulators (like wood),

the v.e– are attached

to particular atoms.


Bonding and inorganic nomenclature

ductile

conduct heat and electricity

malleable

Properties of Metals

All due to free-moving v.e–.


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