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Radiation safety and protection. Christos Aggelopoulos, DDS. Vilhelm Konrad Roentgen. December 22, 1895. Setting the tube…. Setting the tube…. Early medical radiology…. January 14, 1896, the first dental radiograph. Dr Edmund Kells. ALARA. A s L ow A s R easonably A chievable.

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Radiation safety and protection

Radiation safety and protection

Christos Aggelopoulos, DDS









ALARA

As

Low

As

Reasonably

Achievable


Radiation protection measures
Radiation protection measures…

  • For the patient

  • For the oral health proffesional


FILTRATION

Removes unwanted, low energy X-rays

1.5 mm Al

For 50-69 KVp

2.5 mm Al

For 70 KVp and

above


COLLIMATION

Restricts the size and shape

of the X-ray beam


COLLIMATION

Field size from round cone is

3X that what is needed to

expose a #2 film

With RC the skin exposure

is reduced by about 60%

Compared to round collim.


COLLIMATION

Beam diameter no greater than 7 cm

at skin (Federal Regulation)


BEAM INDICATING DEVICES

Long (12”-16”), open-shielded, lead-lined

BIDs (cones) are recommended

Rectangular cones are recommended

over round cones


FILM HOLDING DEVICES

Accurate aiming

Eliminates patient holding film


FILM SPEED

E speed film reduces patient

exposure by 40%-50%


DIGITAL IMAGING

Further exposure

reduction

Image

enhancement


EXPOSURE CONTROL

Use electronic timers

only

Mechanical timers not

recommended



DARKROOM PROCEDURES

Adequate safelighting

and free of light leaks

Time temperature

processing


FILM MOUNTING AND VIEWING

Use opaque mounts

Mask viewbox


TAKE X-RAYS ONLY WHEN NEEDED

  • X-rays every 6 mo is not the rule

  • Apply FDA selection criteria for radiographic examinations

  • Take into account the welfare of the patient

  • Avoid routine radiographs


Radiation protection measures for the operator
Radiation protection measures for the operator

Occupational exposure: 50 mSv/yr

Public exposure: 1-5 mSv/yr

Maximum permissible dose (MPD): The maximum dose

of radiation which will not be expected to cause any

significant radiation effects in a lifetime


Radiation protection measures for the operator1
Radiation protection measures for the operator

  • Stand at least 6 feet away from the patient and 90o-130o to the primary beam

  • Stand behind a barrier

  • Never stand in the primary beam

  • Never hold films in the patient’s mouth

  • Never hold or stabilize the X-ray tubehead during the exposure


Radiation protection measures for the operator2
Radiation protection measures for the operator

Quality assurance program:

Proper staff training

Monitoring of the X-ray machines

Darkroom protocol

Film badge service

Office design:

Primary and secondary barriers


Discussion
DISCUSSION

What to keep in mind…


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