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Mood Disorders. Extreme depression- mania. Objectives. Analyze major depression Compare and contrast M.D. and Bipolar disorder Explain depression and the evidence for each contributing factor (4).

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Mood disorders

Mood Disorders

Extreme depression- mania


Objectives
Objectives

  • Analyze major depression

  • Compare and contrast M.D. and Bipolar disorder

  • Explain depression and the evidence for each contributing factor (4)


  • Major depression is a mood disorder involving disturbances in emotion (excessive sadness), behavior (loss of interest in ones usual activities), cognition (thoughts of hopelessness), and body function (fatigue and loss of appetite)

  • Most common of all major mental distrubances


Depression

chapter 11

Depression

Major depression

A mood disorder involving disturbances in emotion (excessive sadness), behavior (loss of interest in one’s usual activities), cognition (thoughts of hopelessness), and body function (fatigue and loss of appetite)


Symptoms of depression

chapter 11

Symptoms of depression

Depressed mood

Reduced interest in almost all activities

Significant weight gain or loss

Sleeping too much or too little

Fatigue

Feelings of worthlessness or guilt

Reduced ability to think, concentrate

Recurrent thoughts of death

DSM IV requires 5 of these within the past 2 weeks


Psychologists factors in major depression
Psychologists -Factors in major depression

  • Genetic factors or predisposition

  • Life experiences/ viral infection

  • Brain neurotransmitters dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin

  • Problems with close attachments

  • Cognitive habits

  • Low brain activity in left frontal cortex


How it feels
How it feels

  • Despairing and hopeless

  • Death and suicide

  • Loose pleasure in usual activities

  • Exaggerate minor failings

  • Physical changes- overeat, stop eating, sleeping problems

  • Twice as common among women but could be because women talk about it and men do not


Objective 2
Objective #2

  • Bipolar disorder is a mood disorder in which episodes of both depression and mania (excessive euphoria) occur.

  • Mania- abnormally high state of exhilaration “wired” hyperactive, euphoria thus manic episode

  • Bipolar is one episode of mania + episodes of depression

  • Mark Twain had it

  • Once known as Manic-depressive disorder


Bipolar disorder

chapter 11

Bipolar disorder

A mood disorder in which episodes of depression and mania (excessive euphoria) occur.


Biological theories of depression

chapter 11

Biological theories of depression

Studies of adopted children support genetic explanations of depression

5-HTT is a gene that is present in either a long or short form.

17% of individuals with the long form become severely depressed.

43% of individuals with 2 copies of the short form become depressed.

Genetics may also influence levels of serotonin and other neurotransmitters.


Theories of depression
Theories of depression

  • Interactions between- individual vulnerabilities + stressful experiences


  • Vulnerability-stress model approaches that emphasize how individual vulnerabilities (e.g., in genes or personality traits) interact with external stresses or circumstances to produce mental disorders


Factor 1
Factor 1

  • Genetic factors

  • Studies of twins, adopted children= moderately heritable

  • Identifyed one gene (called 5-HTT) 2 forms

  • Long one protects against depression

  • Short one makes more vulnerable


Factor 2
Factor 2

  • Life experiences and circumstances

  • Violence-

  • Studies say- Inner city adolescents, of both sexes, who are exposed to high rates of violence

  • more suicide attempts, higher levels of depression

  • Married and working full time= mental health low rates of depression

  • Poverty, sexually abused, discrimination all increase likely hood of depression


Factor 3
Factor 3

  • Losses of important relationships

  • Separation and loss

  • Past and present

  • Insecure attachments

  • Rejection by parents, peers


Factor 4
factor 4

  • Cognitive habits

  • Negative ways of THINKING about your situation

  • Permanent “ nothing good will ever happen to me”

  • Uncontrollable “I’m depressed because I am ugly and can’t do anything about it”

  • Expect nothing to get better SO they don’t do anything to get better


Life experiences and circumstances

chapter 11

Life experiences and circumstances

Social explanations emphasize the stressful circumstances in people’s lives.

Loss of or problems with important relationships

Psychologists investigating sex differences in depression have ruled out hormones and genetics and are now investigating life circumstances. Women are less satisfied with work and family and more likely to live in poverty.


Cognitive habit associated with depression
Cognitive habit associated with depression

  • Sitting alone thinking about how unmotivated you feel

  • Persuading yourself nobody loves you or ever will

  • Don’t’ look outward, seek solutions, distract themselves

  • Rumination-Brooding about everything that is wrong in your life

  • Women do it more than men thus accounts for more depression in women


Cognitive habits

chapter 11

Cognitive habits

Cognitive explanations emphasize habits of thinking and ways of interpreting events.

Depressed people believe their situation is permanent, uncontrollable.

Rumination

Brooding about negative aspects of one’s life


Summary
Summary

  • Major depression

  • Bipolar

  • Rumination


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