Mood Disorders. Extreme depression- mania. Objectives. Analyze major depression Compare and contrast M.D. and Bipolar disorder Explain depression and the evidence for each contributing factor (4).
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Extreme depression- mania
Major depression is a mood disorder involving disturbances in emotion (excessive sadness), behavior (loss of interest in ones usual activities), cognition (thoughts of hopelessness), and body function (fatigue and loss of appetite)
Reduced interest in almost all activities
Significant weight gain or loss
Sleeping too much or too little
Feelings of worthlessness or guilt
Reduced ability to think, concentrate
Recurrent thoughts of death
DSM IV requires 5 of these within the past 2 weeks
Studies of adopted children support genetic explanations of depression
5-HTT is a gene that is present in either a long or short form.
17% of individuals with the long form become severely depressed.
43% of individuals with 2 copies of the short form become depressed.
Genetics may also influence levels of serotonin and other neurotransmitters.
Vulnerability-stress model approaches that emphasize how individual vulnerabilities (e.g., in genes or personality traits) interact with external stresses or circumstances to produce mental disorders
Social explanations emphasize the stressful circumstances in people’s lives.
Loss of or problems with important relationships
Psychologists investigating sex differences in depression have ruled out hormones and genetics and are now investigating life circumstances. Women are less satisfied with work and family and more likely to live in poverty.