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Introduction to Animal Diversity. Packet #76 Chapter #32. Animal Diversity. Biologists have identified 1.3 million living species if animals. Estimates put the range much higher 10 – 200 million

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Introduction to Animal Diversity

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Introduction to animal diversity l.jpg

Introduction to Animal Diversity

Packet #76

Chapter #32


Animal diversity l.jpg

Animal Diversity

  • Biologists have identified 1.3 million living species if animals.

  • Estimates put the range much higher

    • 10 – 200 million

  • Evolutionists believe that the chanoflagellates, a colonial flagellated protist, was the start of Kingdom Animalia.


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Characteristics Most Common to Animals

  • Eukaryotic

  • Multicellular

  • Heterotrophic

  • Animals use enzymes to digest their food after they have ingested it.

  • Stores energy as fat (long term) or as glycogen (short term)


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Reproduction in Animals


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Reproduction—The Obvious

  • Most animals reproduce sexually and have a diploid stage that is dominant in the life cycle.

  • Sperm and egg unite to form a zygote

    • Zygote undergoes cleavage

    • Multiple cell divisions result in the development of a hollow ball of cells

      • Blastula

    • Blastula undergoes gastrulation.

      • Embryonic tissues are formed

      • Developmental stage is called the gastrula.


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Reproduction—The Sometimes Not So Obvious

  • Some animals develop directly into adults

    • After transient stages of maturation

  • However, life cycle of many animals include larval stages.

    • Larva

      • Sexually immature form of an adult

      • Morphologically distinct

      • Usually eats different food

      • Inhabits different areas than the adult

      • Must undergo metamorphosis to become an adult


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Developmental Genes Across Kingdom Animalia

  • Animals share a unique homeobox

    • Family of genes

      • Hox genes

        • The number of hox genes is correlated with the complexity of the animal’s anatomy.


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Categorizing Kingdom Animalia

  • Animals are classified on major features of animal body plans.

    • Symmetry

    • Tissue Complexity

    • Cephalization

    • Body Cavities


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Body Plans

Symmetry


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Introduction

  • There are two types of symmetry

    • Radial Symmetry

    • Bilateral Symmetry


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Symmetry

  • Radial Symmetry

    • Describes how the parts of an animal radiate from the center.

      • Any imaginary slice through the central axis divides the animal into mirror images.

    • Sea anemones have a top (oral, mouth) side and a bottom (aboral) side.


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Symmetry II

  • Bilateral Symmetry

    • Describes a two sided body plan.

      • Animal has a left side and right side

    • Imaginary slice can only be placed in one location in order to divide the animal mirror images.

    • Lobster has a dorsal (top) side, a ventral (bottom) side, a left and right side, an anterior (head) with a mouth and a posterior (tail) end.


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Symmetry III

  • Animals can be categorized according to the symmetry of their bodies or lack of it.

  • Symmetry Reflects Lifestyle

    • Radial animals are sessile or planktonic

    • Bilaterial animals more actively from one place to another

      • The nervous system enables these organisms to move.


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Tissue


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Tissue I

  • As a young embryo develops, embryonic tissue, called germ layers, are produced via gastrulation.

  • There are three germ layers

    • Ectoderm

    • Endoderm

    • Mesoderm


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Tissue II

  • Ectoderm

    • Outer layer

    • Gives rise to the body covering and the nervous system

  • Endoderm

    • Inner layer

    • Gives rise to the lining of the gut (archenteron) and other digestive organs

  • Mesoderm

    • Middle layer

    • Gives rise to most other body structures.

      • Including muscle


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Diploblastic vs. Triploblastic

  • Diploblastic

    • Animals with only two layers

      • Ectoderm and Endoderm

        • Jellies

        • Corals

        • Comb jellies

  • Triploblastic

    • Animals with all three layers

    • Include all bilaterally symmetric animals.


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Triploblastic Animals & Body Cavities


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Functions of Body Cavities

  • Provides protection to internal organs

  • Allow organs to grow and move independently of the outer body wall.


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Body Cavity I

  • Triploblastic animals have traditionally been classified as

    • Acoelomates [ey-see-luh-meyt]

      • No body cavity

      • Lack a coelom. [see-luhm]

    • Pseudocoelomate [soo-doh-see-luh-meyt, -si-loh-mit]

      • Body cavity not completely lined with mesoderm

      • Body cavity formed from the blastocoel.

    • Coelomate

      • True coelom

      • Body cavity completely lined with mesoderm.

      • Cushions the internal organs and protects them.


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Formation of the Coelom [see-luhm]

  • Coeloms can be divided into two categories based on how it is developed.

  • During gastrulation, developing digestive tube forms the archenteron.

  • Protostomes

    • Development of the coelom forms from splits in the mesoderm

      • Schizocoelous Development

  • Deuterostomes

    • Development of the coelom forms from outpocketing of the mesodermal tissue of the archenteron.

      • Enterocoelous Development


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The Coelomates


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Introduction I

  • Protostomia

    • Mollusks

    • Annelids

    • Arthropods

  • Deuterostomia

    • Enchinoderms

    • Chordates


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Protostomes

  • Blastopore develops into the mouth

  • Undergo spiral and determinate cleavage

    • Spiral cleavage

      • Describes how the planes of cell division are diagonal to the vertical axis of the embryo.

        • Smaller cells lie in the grooves between larger, underlying cells

    • Determinate cleavage

      • Indicates that the developmental fate of each embryonic cell is determined at fertilization.

        • If cell is isolated it will form an inviable embryo.


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Deuterostomes

  • Blastopore typically becomes the anus.

  • Undergo radial and indeterminate cleavage.

    • Radial cleavage

      • Cleavage planes are either parallel or perpendicular to the vertical axis of the egg

    • Indeterminate cleavage

      • Each cell produced by early cleavage divisions has the capacity to develop into a complete embryo.


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Protostomes vs. Deuterostomes


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Review


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Symmetry


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Tissue


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Germ Layers  Body Cavity


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Body Cavity


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