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Financial Statement Analysis. K R Subramanyam John J Wild. Equity Analysis and Valuation. 11. CHAPTER. Analyze. Earnings Persistence. Earnings persistence is a key to effective equity analysis and valuation Analyzing earnings persistence is a main analysis objective

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Financial statement analysis

Financial Statement Analysis

K R Subramanyam

John J Wild

Financial statement analysis

Equity Analysis and Valuation



Earnings persistence


Earnings Persistence

  • Earnings persistence is a key to effective equity analysis and valuation

  • Analyzing earnings persistence is a main analysis objective

  • Attributes of earnings persistence include:

    • Stability

    • Predictability

    • Variability

    • Trend

    • Earnings management

    • Accounting methods

Earnings persistence1

Earnings Persistence

  • Two common methods to help assess earnings persistence:

    • Recasting of income statement

    • Adjusting of income statement

  • Recasting and adjusting earnings

  • aids in determining the earning power.

Recasting and Adjusting

Earnings persistence2

Earnings Persistence

  • Information for Recasting and Adjusting

    • Income statement, including its subdivisions:

      • Income from continuing operations

      • Income from discontinued operations

      • Extraordinary gains and losses

      • Cumulative effect of changes in accounting principles

    • Other financial statements and notes

    • Management’s Discussion and Analysis

    • Others: product-mix changes, technological innovations, work stoppages, and raw material constraints

Recasting and Adjusting

Earnings persistence3

Earnings Persistence

  • Aims at rearranging earnings components to provide a meaningful classification and relevant format for analysis.

    • Components can be rearranged, subdivided, or tax effected, but the total must reconcile to net income of each period.

    • Discretionary expenses, components like equity in income (loss) of unconsolidated subsidiaries or affiliates should be segregated.

    • Components reported pretax must be removed along with their tax effects if reclassified apart from income from continuing operations.

Recasting Earnings and Earnings Components

Earnings persistence4

Earnings Persistence

  • Income tax disclosures enable one to separate factors that either reduce or increase taxes such as:

    • Deductions—tax credits, capital gains rates, tax-free income, lower foreign tax rates

    • Additions—additional foreign taxes, nontax-deductible expenses, and state and local taxes (net of federal tax benefit)

  • Immaterial items can be considered in a lump sum labeled other.

Recasting Earnings and Earnings Components

Earnings persistence5

Earnings Persistence

Recasting Earnings and Earnings Components

Campbell Soup Company

Recast Income Statements ($ mil.)

ItemYear 11Year 10Year 9Year 8Year 7Year 6

13Net sales$6,204.1$6,205.8$5,672.1$4,868.9$4,490.4$4,286.8

19Interest income 26.017.638.333.229.527.4

Total revenue$6,230.1$6,223.4$5,710.4$4,902.1$4,519.9$4,314.2

Costs and expenses:

Cost of products sold (see Note 1 below)$3,727.1$3,893.5$3,651.8$3,077.8$2,897.8$2,820.5

Marketing and selling expenses (see Note 2 below)760.8760.1605.9514.2422.7363.0

145 Advertising (see Note 2 below)195.4220.4212.9219.1203.5181.4

144 Repairs and maintenance (see Note 1 below)173.9180.6173.9155.6148.8144.0

16 Administrative expenses306.7290.7252.1232.6213.9195.9

17 Research and development expenses56.353.747.746.944.842.2

102 Stock pricerelated incentive programs (see Note 3 below)


20 Foreign exchange adjustment0.83.319.316.64.80.7

104 Other, net (see Note 3 below)(3.3)(2.0)(1.4)(4.7)(0.4)(9.0)

162A Depreciation (see Note 1 below)194.5184.1175.9162.0139.0120.8

103 Amortization of intangible and other assets (see Note 3 below)


18 Interest expense116.2111.694.153.951.756.0

Total costs and expenses$5,557.9$5,712.7$5,266.0$4,480.2$4,132.2$3,930.0

23Earnings before equity in earnings of affiliates & min. interests


24Equity in earnings of affiliates2.413.510.46.315.14.3

25Minority interests(7.2)(5.7)(5.3)(6.3)(4.7)(3.9)

26Income before taxes$667.4$518.5$449.5$421.9$398.1$384.6

Income taxes at statutory rate*(226.9)(176.3)(152.8)(143.5)(179.1)(176.9)

Income from continuing operations$440.5$342.2$296.7$278.4$219.0$207.7

135State taxes (net of federal tax benefit)(20.0)(6.6)(3.8)(11.8)(8.6)(8.0)

Investment tax credit————4.411.6

137Nondeductible amortization of intangibles(4.0)(1.6)(1.2)(2.6)(1.4)—

138Foreign earnings not taxed or taxed at other than statutory rate


139Other: Tax effects(17.0)(2.2)(0.1)(3.7)7.5(4.7)

Alaska Native Corporation transaction————4.5—

22Divestitures, restructuring and unusual charges—(339.1)(343.0)(40.6)——

Tax effect of divest., restructuring & unusual charges (Note 4)


(Continued on next slide)

Earnings persistence6

Earnings Persistence

Recasting Earnings and Earnings Components

Campbell Soup Company

Recast Income Statements ($ mil.)

ItemYear 11Year 10Year 9Year 8Year 7Year 6

Gain on sale of businesses in (Yr 8) and sub. in Yr 7———3.19.7—

Loss on sale of exercise equipment subsidiary, net of tax————(1.7)—

LIFO liquidation gain (see Note 1 below)———

Income before cumulative effect of accounting change$401.5$4.4$13.1$241.6$247.3$223.2

153ACumulative effect of accounting change for income taxes———32.5——

28Net income as reported$ 401.5$ 4.4$ 13.1$ 274.1$ 247.3$223.2

14(Note 1) Cost of products sold$4,095.5$4,258.2$4,001.6$3,392.8$3,180.5$3,082.8

144Less: Repair and maintenance expenses(173.9)(180.6)(173.9)(155.6)(148.8)(144.0)

162ALess: Depreciation(a)(194.5)(184.1)(175.9)(162.0)(139.0)(120.0)

153APlus: LIFO liquidation gain(b)———


15(Note 2) Marketing and selling expenses$956.2$980.5$818.8$733.3$626.2$544.4

145Less: Advertising (195.4)(20.4)(212.9)(219.1)(203.5)(181.4)

$ 760.8$ 960.1$ 605.9$ 514.2$ 422.7$ 363.0

21(Note 3) Other expenses (income)$26.2$14.7$32.4$(3.2)$(9.5)$5.5

102Less: Stock price–related incentive programs(15.4)0.1(17.4)2.7—(8.5)

103Less: Amortization of intangible and other assets(14.1)(16.8)(16.4)(8.9)(5.6)(6.0)

Less: Gain on sale of businesses (Yr 8) and sub. (Yr 7)— — — 4.714.7—104Other, net$ (3.3)$ (2.0)$ (1.4) $ (4.7)$ (0.4)$ (9.0)

(Note 4) Tax effect of divest, restruc., & unusual charges— $115.3(c)$116.6(d)$13.9——

136Nondeductible divestitures, restructuring, and unusual charges

—(101.4)(e)(51.9)(f)— — —

—$ 13.9$ 64.7$ 13.9— —

*Statutory federal tax rate is 34% in Year 8 through Year 11, 45% in Year 7, and 46% in Year 6.

†This amount is not disclosed for Year 6.

(a)We assume most depreciation is included in cost of products sold.

(b)LIFO liquidation gain before tax. For example, for Year 8 this is $2.58 million, computed as $1.7/(1 - 0.34).

(c)$339.1 (22) x 0.34 = $115.3.

(d)$343.0 (22) x 0.34 = $116.6

(e)$179.4 (26) x 0.565 (136) = $101.4.

(f)$106.5 (26) x 0.487 (136) = $51.9.

Earnings persistence7

Earnings Persistence

  • “Adjusting” aims to assign earnings components to the periods in which they best belong.

  • Uses data from recast income statements and other available information.

Adjusting Earnings and Earnings Components

Earnings persistence8

Earnings Persistence

  • Specific (Typical) Adjusting Procedures

    • Assign extraordinary and unusual items (net of tax) to applicable years

    • Tax benefit of operating loss carryforwards normally moved to the loss year

    • Costs or benefits from lawsuit settlements moved to relevant prior years

    • Gains and losses from disposals of discontinued operations can relate to one or more prior years.

    • Changes in accounting principles or estimates yield adjustments to all years under analysis to a comparable basis—redistribute “cumulative effect” to the relevant prior years

    • Normally include items that increase or decrease equity

Adjusting Earnings and Earnings Components

Earnings persistence9

Earnings Persistence

  • Specific (Typical) Adjusting Procedures

    • If a component should be excluded from the period it is reported:

      • Shift it (net of tax) to the operating results of one or more prior periods or

      • Spread (average) it over earnings for the period under analysis.

    • Spread the component over prior periods’ earnings only when it cannot be identified with a specific period.

    • While spreading helps in determining earning power, it is not helpful in determining earnings trends.

    • Moving gains/ losses to other periods does not remedy the misstatements of prior years’ results.

Adjusting Earnings and Earnings Components

Earnings persistence10

Earnings Persistence

Earnings persistence11

Earnings Persistence

  • Earnings persistence determined by many factors including:

    • Earnings trends

    • Variability

    • Earnings Management

    • Management Incentives

  • Note: assess earnings persistence

  • over both the business cycle and the long run.

Determinants of Earnings Persistence

Earnings persistence12

Earnings Persistence

  • Earnings trends can be assessed by:

    • Statistical methods

    • Trend statements

      • Uses earnings numbers taken from the recasting and adjusting procedures

Determinants of Earnings Persistence

Earnings persistence13

Earnings Persistence

  • Earnings management

    • Changes in accounting methods or assumptions

    • Offsetting extraordinary or unusual gains and losses

    • Big baths

    • Write-downs

    • Timing revenue and

    • expense recognition

Determinants of Earnings Persistence

Earnings persistence14

Earnings Persistence

  • Management incentives affecting persistence include:

    • Personal objectives and interests

    • Companies in distress

    • Prosperous companies—preserving hard-earned reputations

    • Compensation plans

    • Accounting-based incentives and constraints

    • Analysts’ targets

Determinants of Earnings Persistence

Earnings persistence15

Earnings Persistence

  • Recasting and adjusting earnings for equity valuation rely on separating stable, persistent earnings components from random, transitory components.

    • Assessing persistence is important in determining earning power.

    • Earnings forecasting also relies on persistence.

  • A crucial part is to assess the persistence of the gain and loss components of earnings.

Persistent and Transitory Items in Earnings

Earnings persistence16

Earnings Persistence

  • Purpose of analyzing and interpreting extraordinary items:

    • Determine whether an item is transitory.

      • Assessing whether an item is unusual, nonoperating, or nonrecurring.

    • Determine adjustments that are necessary given assessment of persistence.

Analyzing and Interpreting Transitory Items

Earnings persistence17

Earnings Persistence

  • Determining persistence

  • (transitory nature) of items:

    • Nonrecurring operating gains and losses

      • Usually included in current operating income

    • Nonrecurring non-operating gains and losses

      • Omitted from operating earnings of a single year

      • Part of the long-term performance of a company

Analyzing and Interpreting Transitory Items

Earnings persistence18

Earnings Persistence

  • Adjustments to Extraordinary Items Reflecting Persistence:

    • Effects of transitory items on company resources.

      • Effects of recorded transitory items and the likelihood of future events causing transitory items.

    • Effect of transitory items on evaluation of management.

Analyzing and Interpreting Transitory Items

Earnings based equity valuation

Earnings Based Equity Valuation

  • Equity value (Vt)

  • Book value (BVt)

  • Residual Income, RIt = (NIt– k * BVt-1)

  • Cost of equity capital (k)

Relation between Stock Prices and Accounting Data

Key Question: Does the potential manipulation of accounting data influence the accuracy of accounting-based estimates, or forecasts, of company value?

Earnings based equity valuation1

Market Value of Equity

Book Value of Equity

Earnings Based Equity Valuation

  • Price-to-Book (PB) Ratio

Fundamental Valuation Multiples

Earnings based equity valuation2

Earnings Based Equity Valuation

  • Price-to-Book (PB) expressed in accounting data

Fundamental Valuation Multiples

  • Note:

  • ROCE and growth in book value increase  PB increases

  • Cost (risk) of equity capital increases  PB decreases

  • Present value of future abnormal earnings is positive (negative)  PB is greater (less) than 1.0

Earnings based equity valuation3

Market Value of Equity

Net Income

Earnings Based Equity Valuation

  • Price-to-Earnings (PE) Ratio

Fundamental Valuation Multiples

Earnings based equity valuation4

Earnings Based Equity Valuation

  • PE ratio can be written as a function of short-term (STG) and long-term growth (LTG) of earning per share (eps) as follows:

Fundamental Valuation Multiples

  • Where k is the cost of equity capital, STG (LTG) is the expected short-term (long-term) % change in eps relative to expected “normal” growth (STG>LTG and LTG>k)

  • Note:

  • The PE ratio is inversely related to k

  • The PE ratio is positively related to the expected growth in eps relative to normal growth.

Earnings based equity valuation5

Earnings Based Equity Valuation

  • PEG ratio

  • If LTG=0 (long-term growth in eps relative to “normal” growth is expected to remain constant)

    • This yields the popular PEG ratio.

Fundamental Valuation Multiples

Example: If PE=20 and k=10%, proponents of this screening device recommend stock purchase (sale) if the expected eps growth is greater (less) than 20%.

Earnings based equity valuation6

Earnings Based Equity Valuation

Illustration of Earnings-Based Valuation

Christy Co. book value of equity at January 1, Year 1, is $50,000

Christy has a 15% cost of equity capital (k)

Forecasts of Christy’s accounting data follow:

Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5


Operating expenses77,50090,000103,500118,000119,040


Net income$12,500$11,700$11,420$11,860$10,820


Year 6 and beyond = Both accounting data and dividends approximate Year 5 levels

Earnings based equity valuation7

Earnings Based Equity Valuation

Illustration of Earnings-Based Valuation

Christy’s forecasted book value at January 1, Year 1 is $58,594—computed as:

This implies Christy stock should sell at a PB ratio of 1.17 ($58,594/$50,000) at January 1, Year 1

Earnings based equity valuation8

Earnings Based Equity Valuation

  • Three additional observations:

    • Expected ROCE = 15% (Christy’s cost of capital) for Year 5 and beyond. Since ROCE equals the cost of capital for Year 5 and beyond, these years’ results do not change the value of Christy (i.e. abnormal earnings equal zero for those years). Anticipated effects of competition are implicit in future profitability estimates.

    • Since PE ratios are based on both current and future earnings, a PE ratio for Christy as of January 1, Year 1, cannot be calculated since prior years’ data are unavailable. PE ratio at January 1, Year 2 is computed as:

Illustration of Earnings-Based Valuation

Earnings based equity valuation9

Earnings Based Equity Valuation

  • Valuation estimates assume dividend payments occur at the end of each year. A more realistic assumption is that, on average, these cash outflows occur midway through the year. To adjust valuation estimates for mid-year discounting, multiply the PV of future abnormal earnings by (1 + k/2). For Christy Company the adjusted valuation estimate equals $59,239. This is computed as $50,000 + (1 + [.15/2]) x $8,594.

Illustration of Earnings-Based Valuation

Earning power and forecasting for valuation

Earning Power and Forecasting for Valuation

  • Earning power is the earnings level expected to persist into the foreseeable future

    • Accounting-based valuation models capitalize earning power

    • Many financial analyses directed at determining earning power

  • Measurement of Earning Power reflects:

    • Earnings and all its components

    • Stability and persistence of earnings

    • and its components

    • Sustainable trends in earnings and its

    • components

Earning Power

Earning power and forecasting for valuation1

Earning Power and Forecasting for Valuation

  • Factors in selecting a time horizon for measuring earning power:

    • One-year is often too short to reliably measure earning power

    • Many investing and financing activities are long term

    • Better to measure earning power by using average (or cumulative) earnings over several years

    • An extended period is less subject to distortions, irregularities, and other transitory effects

    • Preferred time horizon in measuring earning

    • power is typically 4 to 7 years

Earning Power

Earning power and forecasting for valuation2

Earning Power and Forecasting for Valuation

  • Adjusting Earnings per Share

    • Earning power is measured using all earnings components.

    • The issue is to what year we assign these items when computing earning power.

Earning Power

Our earnings analysis might be limited to a short time horizon. We adjust short time series of earnings for items that better relate to other periods. If this is done on a per share basis, every item must be adjusted for its tax effect using the company’s effective tax rate unless the applicable tax rate is specified. All items must also be divided by the number of shares used in computing EPS.

Earning power and forecasting for valuation3

Earning Power and Forecasting for Valuation

Earning power and forecasting for valuation4

Earning Power and Forecasting for Valuation

  • Done by analyzing earnings components and considering all available information, both quantitative and qualitative.

    • Forecasting benefits from disaggregation.

    • Disaggregation involves using data by product lines or segments

      • Especially useful when segments differ by risk, profitability, or growth.

    • Difference between forecasting and extrapolation.

Earnings Forecasting

Divisional earnings for TechCom, Inc., reveal how different divisional performance can be masked by aggregate results:

Earning power and forecasting for valuation5

Earning Power and Forecasting for Valuation

  • Elements Impacting Earnings Forecasts

    • Current and past evidence

    • Forecast’s reasonableness.

    • Continuity and momentum of company performance

    • Industry prospects

    • Company's financial condition

    • Management

      • Management quality—resourcefulness

      • Asset management—operating skills

    • Economic and competitive factors

    • Key Indicators such as capital expenditures, order backlogs, and demand trends

Earnings Forecasting

Earning power and forecasting for valuation6

Earning Power and Forecasting for Valuation

  • Limitations in interim reporting related to difficulties in assigning earnings components to periods of under one year in length:

    • Period-end accounting adjustments

    • Seasonality in business activities

    • Integral reporting method

    • SEC interim reporting requirements

    • Analysis implications of interim Reports

Interim Reports for Monitoring and Revising Earnings Estimates

Earning power and forecasting for valuation7

Earning Power and Forecasting for Valuation

  • Available Interim Reports

    • Quarterly reports (Form 10-Q)

    • Reports on current developments (Form 8-K)

    • Disclosure of separate fourth-quarter results

    • Details of year-end adjustments

  • Interim reports filed with the SEC such as:

    • Comparative interim and year-to-date income statement

    • Comparative balance sheets

    • Year‑to‑date statement of cash flows

    • Pro forma information on business combinations

    • Disclosure of accounting changes

    • Management’s narrative analysis of operating results

    • Reports of a change in auditor

Interim Reports for Monitoring and Revising Earnings Estimates

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