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England’s Changing Social Geology. Dr Daniel Vickers RCUK Academic Fellow in Social and Spatial Inequalities Department of Geography University of Sheffield. www.sasi.group.shef.ac.uk www.areaclassification.org.uk. Introducing Social Geology. Introducing Social Geology.

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England s changing social geology

England’s Changing Social Geology

Dr Daniel Vickers

RCUK Academic Fellow in Social and Spatial Inequalities

Department of Geography

University of Sheffield

www.sasi.group.shef.ac.ukwww.areaclassification.org.uk


Introducing social geology

Introducing Social Geology


Introducing social geology1

Introducing Social Geology


What s the big idea

What’s the big idea?

  • Use area classification techniques to compare the country over time.

  • 1991 to 2001.

  • Smallest census units 91 EDs and 01 OAs.

  • Based on 2001 Geography - 1991 data to be assigned to 2001 OAs.

  • This will hopefully provide a picture of how the country is changing.


Digging at the country s social mosaic

Digging at the country’s social mosaic

  • Clustering elements (Objects to cluster, also known as “operational taxonomic units”)

  • Clustering variables (Attributes of objects to be used)

  • Variable standardisation

  • Measure of association (Proximity measure)

  • Clustering method

  • Number of clusters

  • Interpretation, testing and replication

    Milligan (1996)


Digging at the country s social mosaic1

Digging at the country’s social mosaic

V14: No central heating

V16: Rent (private)

V17: Rent (public)

V18: 2+ Car Households

V20: Flats

V21: Detached

V22: Terraced

V23: Lone parent household

V24: Single pensioner household

V25: Single person (not pensioner) household

V26: Population Density

  • V01: Age 0-4

  • V02: Age 5-14

  • V03: Age 25-44

  • V04: Age 45-64

  • V05: Age 65+

  • V06: Indian, Pakistani & Bangladeshi

  • V07: Black African, Black Caribbean & Black Other

  • V08: Born Outside the UK

  • V09: Unemployed

  • V10: Working part-time

  • V13: Economically inactive looking after family


Clustering results

Clustering results


What s in a name

What’s in a name?

  • 1: Urban Melting Pot

  • 2: Mixed Communities

  • 3: Out in the Sticks

  • 4: Asian Influence

  • 5: Middle Class Achievers

  • 6: Down and Out

  • 7: Working Class Endeavour


Changing patterns

Changing Patterns


Changing patterns1

Changing Patterns


Changing patterns2

Changing Patterns


England s changing social geology

Sheffield 1991


England s changing social geology

Sheffield 2001


England s changing social geology

London 1991


England s changing social geology

London 2001


England s changing social geology

Tyneside 1991


England s changing social geology

Tyneside 2001


Movements cause change

Movements cause change


What does all this mean

What does all this mean

  • Is the country changing?

  • How much?

  • What is happening?

  • What is causing it?

  • Is this good or bad?

  • Where to from here?


Further reading and resources

Further reading and resources

  • Vickers, D. and Rees, P. (2007). Creating the National Statistics 2001 Output Area Classification,Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series A 170(2).

  • Vickers, D. and Rees, P. (2006), Introducing the National Classification of Census Output Areas, Population Trends, 125.

  • Vickers, D. (2006), Multi-level Integrated Classifications Based on the 2001 Census, PhD Thesis, University of Leeds.

    http://www.geog.leeds.ac.uk/people/old/d.vickers/thesis.html

  • Vickers, D. Rees, P. and Birkin, M. (2005), Creating the National Classification of Output Areas, Working Paper, School of Geography, University of Leeds.

  • Williams, S and Botterill, A. (2006), Profiling Areas Using the Output Area Classification, Regional Trends 39.

  • www.sasi.group.shef.ac.uk

  • www.areaclassification.org.uk

  • Forthcoming report and papers based on these findings.

I would like to acknowledge the help and advice of John Stillwell, Phil Rees, Paul Norman, Danny Dorling, the ESRC and RCUK


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