Geology of plutonic rocks
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Geology of Plutonic Rocks. Igneous plutonic rocks. Formed – 900 degree C 50 km depth Uplift to earth surface Enormous decrease in confining pressure . Extrusive. Intrusive or plutonic. Shield regions. Sweden is an example roots of former mountain ranges, stable interior,

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Igneous plutonic rocks
Igneous plutonic rocks

  • Formed –

    • 900 degree C

    • 50 km depth

  • Uplift to earth surface

  • Enormous decrease in confining pressure


Extrusive

Intrusive or

plutonic


Shield regions
Shield regions

  • Sweden is an example

  • roots of former mountain ranges,

  • stable interior,

  • resembles granite but

  • complex history

  • often formed by extreme metamorphism rather than by solidification from a melt. Fig 6.1



Mountains worn to flat land
Mountains worn to flat land

  • By the Precambrian –


Magma molten rock within the earth lava on the earth
Magma molten rockwithin the earth Lava on the earth


Geothermal gradient
Geothermal gradient

  • varies

  • crust thicker in continental areas

    • normal rise in temperature with depth of between 10 to 50 C per km

  • crust thinner in oceanic areas


increased tempurature due

to igneous intrusion



Question
Question per km

  • Where does magma form?

  • In the crust and upper mantle NOT in the center of the earth


Magma
Magma per km


Subduction relation
subduction relation per km

  • crustal rocks subducted melt at a lower temperature than do oceanic rocks

    • two magma producing events


1 subduction water rich ocean plate
1. subduction - water rich ocean plate per km

  • the rise of the moisture through the overlying rocks lowers their melting point and initiates melting


2 subduction heat increases with depth
2. subduction - heat increases with depth per km

  • the crustal rocks begin to melt and mixes with the magma derived from the mantle


Forms of igneous intrusions

sheets – per kmlayer of intrusion

pluton – irregular body

dikes – vertical sheet intrusions

sills – horizontal sheet intrusion

laccoliths – lens shaped

ring dikes, cone sheets – a cone shaped intrusion

dike swarm – several

pipe of neck – source of nourishment of a volcano

batholiths – largest body of an intrusion

stocks – smaller intrusive body

xenoliths – country rock mass surrounded by intrusive rocks

roof pendants – inliers of metamorphic rocks

pegmatites – coarse grained intrusions

aplites – fine grained intrusions

stratiform complexes – layered

flow bedding – segregation of layers

lopolith and cone sill – mineral deposits

Forms of igneous intrusions


Forms of igneous intrusions1

pluton per km – irregular body

dikes – vertical sheet intrusions

sills – horizontal sheet intrusion

laccoliths – lens shaped

ring dikes, cone sheets – a cone shaped intrusion

dike swarm – several

pipe of neck – source of nourishment of a volcano

batholiths – largest body of an intrusion

Forms of igneous intrusions


Forms of igneous intrusions2

pluton per km – irregular body

dikes – vertical sheet intrusions

sills – horizontal sheet intrusion

ring dikes, cone sheets – a cone shaped intrusion

dike swarm – several

pipe of neck – source of nourishment of a volcano

batholiths – largest body of an intrusion

Forms of igneous intrusions


Forms of igneous intrusions3

xenoliths per km – country rock mass surrounded by intrusive rocks

Forms of igneous intrusions


Forms of igneous intrusions4

pegmatites per km– coarse grained intrusions

aplites – fine grained intrusions

Forms of igneous intrusions


Forms of igneous intrusions5

stratiform complexes – per km layered

flow bedding – segregation of layersid

lopolith and cone sill – mineral deposits

Forms of igneous intrusions


Classification of plutonic rocks fig 6 6
Classification of plutonic rocks Fig 6.6 per km

  • Few common minerals – their abundance is the basis for classification

  • Basic or Mafic rocks – contain minerals with a high melting point and silica content of ca 43 – 50%

  • Acidic or Felsic rocks – contain minerals with low melting point and silica content of 65 – 72%

  • Intermediate – have silica contents of 50 to 65%


Texture
Texture per km

Textures – normal slow cooling produces sand size interlocking crystalline grains

  • Phenocrysts – coarser grains

  • Porphyry – contains numerous coarse grains in an otherwise fine grained mass

  • Coarse crystalline – grains > 2mm

  • Medium crystalline – grains 0.06-2mm

  • Fine crystalline – grains < 0.06 mm

  • Aphanitic – crystals not visible

  • Phaneritic –visible grains


Texture1
Texture per km

  • Phenocrysts – coarser grains

  • Porphyry – contains numerous coarse grains (phenocrysts) in an otherwise fine grained mass


Rock names fig 6 6

Granite per km

Diorite

Gabbro

Peridotite (ultra basic)

Dunite (untra basic)

Rock names Fig 6.6!!!

intrusive

extrusive

  • Rhyolite

  • Andesite

  • Basalt

  • Granodiorite

  • Syenite

OTHERS?

  • Diabas or dolerite

  • Monzonite

  • Porfyr

  • Anorthosite

  • Tonolite


The three components, per km

Q (quartz) +

A (alkali (Na-K) feldspar) +

P (plagioclase)

Phaneritic – visible grains


Serpentinite
Serpentinite per km

  • an altered ultra basic, peridotite (olivine) has been replaced by the mineral serpentine

  • this is a chemical weathering process which is associated with a 70% volume increase

  • this increase in volume results often in the internal deformation of the rock; fracturing and shearing


Jointing in granitic rocks
jointing in granitic rocks per km

  • arise from general crustal strain, cooling, and unloading


Sheet joints
Sheet joints per km

  • typical for igneous rocks, called also exfoliation joints or lift joint

  • no sheet joints below 60 m

  • Sheet joints conform to the topography, fig 6.12a, 6.10a

  • slopes steeper than the angle of friction, ca 35 degrees, tensile fractures develop and wall arch, an overhang

  • sheet jointing is well developed in igneous rocks, but not exclusive, it also occurs in soils and other rocks to some extent


Sheet weathering due to unconfinement
Sheet weathering due to unconfinement per km

  • Formed –

    • 900 degree C

    • 50 km depth

  • Uplift to earth surface

  • Enormous decrease in confining pressure


Joints due to relaxation
Joints due to relaxation per km

two to thee preferred directions of joints is common, joint set


Question1
Question per km

  • ??Why is sheet jointing more prominent in igneous rocks than other rocks?

  • Unloading is one of the main reasons.

  • Igneous rocks are formed at up to 50 km depth. With 27Mpa/Km times 50 km = 1350 MPa pressure at the time of formation; uni directional!! Upon uplift this pressure is reduced and the rocks relax, with a vertical unload stress of 27 MPa.


Unloading
unloading per km

unloading in tunnels – different names for different rocks – for igneous rocks it is called:

  • Popping rock - is a term used in underground operations where the rock pops off the rock face. This can be very violent and is due to the unloading due to the underground excavation


Weathering in plutonic rocks
weathering in plutonic rocks per km

  • physical weathering – mechanical breakdown of earth material at the earth surface. Ex. Heating/cooling, wetting/drying, plants and animals including man.

  • chemical weathering – chemical decomposition due to a chemical reaction changing the composition of the earth material, ex carbonic acid replacing silicate minerals, feldspar changing to kaolin, mica changing to limonite and kaolin.


Chemical weathering
chemical weathering – per km

  • acts on igneous minerals in the order of solidification

  • Bowen’s reaction series (fig 6.6)

  • high temperature minerals are more rapidly affected

  • low temperature minerals more stable


Chemical weathering1
chemical weathering – per km

  • Basic and ultrabasic – form montmorillonite clays

  • Grainitic rocks – form kaolinites


Weathering profiles
Weathering profiles per km

  • form relative rapidly in granitic rocks

  • a layer of clay minerals forms at the surface

  • by the continuous downward percolation of water and carbon dioxide

  • in the vadose zone above the water table


Spheroidal weathering
Spheroidal weathering per km

  • common in jointed igneous rocks where the

  • percolation of water is concentrated to the joints

  • the fresh rock delineated by the fractures is slowly effected but

  • the corners are more rapidly effected thus spherical shapes are formed


Spheroidal weathering1
Spheroidal weathering per km

  • common in jointed igneous rocks where the

  • percolation of water is concentrated to the joints

  • the fresh rock delineated by the fractures is slowly effected but

  • the corners are more rapidly effected thus spherical shapes are formed


Joints enhance weathering
Joints enhance weathering per km

Paleozoic – Sweden was near the equator

  • Rounded rock mass due to weathering

Exfoliation – is formed in the spheres by chemical expansion in the weathering granite


  • Rounded per kmblocks due to chemical weathering

  • Open joints

It is clear that this is “granite” by the way it weathers


Saprolite
Saprolite per km

  • decomposed granite, residual material formed from weathering resulting in a residual soil


Description of a residual soil is fuzzy
Description of a residual soil is “fuzzy” per km

two variables

  • I.the degree of weathering of the rock

  • II. the abundance of altered minerals


Classes of weathering of igneous rocks
Classes of weathering of igneous rocks per km

  • Several different classification systems

  • Different authors


All contain several classes
All contain several classes per km

in this case 6 classes

I – fresh (f)

II – slightly weathered (sw)

III – moderately weathered (mw)

IV – highly weathered (hw)

V – completely weathered (cw)

VI – residual soil (rs)

Hong Kong – zones of weathering p. 225, zones A (residual soil), B, C, D and Fresh rock

Profile development in Hong Kong – figures 6.18 1-4, 6.19 a-f!


All contain several classes1
All contain several classes per km

in this case 6 classes

I – fresh (f)

II – slightly weathered (sw)

III – moderately weathered (mw)

IV – highly weathered (hw)

V – completely weathered (cw)

VI – residual soil (rs)


All contain several classes2
All contain several classes per km

in this case 6 classes

I – fresh (f)

II – slightly weathered (sw)

III – moderately weathered (mw)

IV – highly weathered (hw)

V – completely weathered (cw)

VI – residual soil (rs)



All contain several classes3
All contain several classes per km

Granite weathers to a sandy soil


Rock quality some tests
Rock Quality – some tests per km

Index tests – give information about the rock– fresh or weathered and to what degree

  • Porosity

  • Bulk density

  • Compressibility

  • Tensile strength

  • Elastic constants

  • Point load test


Rock quality some tests1
Rock Quality – some tests per km

Fluid adsorption, classes 1-4

Almost impermeable

Slightly permeable

Moderately permeable

Highly permeable


Rock quality some tests2
Rock Quality – some tests per km

Slake behavior - degree of disintegration of 40 to 50 grams of specimen after 5-min immersion in water

Class 1 – no change

Class 2 – less than half

Class 3 – more than half

Class 4 – total disintegration


Effect of climate and rock type on weathering
Effect of climate and rock type per kmon weathering

Precipitation/evaporation ratio is important

  • Weinert - N value is a weathering index

    N<5, chemical weathering is favored over mechanical – decomposition is the predominate process

    N>5, mechanical weathering is favored over chemical – decomposition is predominate


Effect of climate and rock type on weathering1
Effect of climate and rock type per kmon weathering

Weathering of basic and ultrabasic rocks

  • N > 2, montmorillonite

  • N between 1-2, kaolinite


Effect of climate and rock type on weathering2
Effect of climate and rock type per kmon weathering

  • Extreme – tropical climates laterite soils are produced

  • where all silica is removed and

  • some clay minerals replaced by iron, aluminum, and magnesioum oxided and hydroxides


Engineering properties

Engineering properties per km

plutonic rocks


Exploration
exploration per km

  • weather profile nature: extent of rock and soil cover

  • hazards of boulders

  • hazard of soil flow

  • slides of serpentine

  • sheet slides

  • rock falls


Excavation
excavation per km

  • core stones

    • size

  • drilling can divert along joints


Foundations
foundations per km

  • hardness and soundness

  • core stones – differential support

  • driving piles difficult in weathered material

  • collapsing residual soil

  • disposal of water in weathered terrain, erosion susceptible


dams per km

  • earth fill dams can be placed on soil profiles of I-IV possible V

  • concrete dams can be placed on sound rock and possible zones I and II

  • Permeability a problem in weathered zones

  • Permeability between sheets common

  • Serpentine is not suitable for any dam construction


Underground works
underground works per km

  • weathering down to 60 m (500 m)

  • variable hardness difficult

  • popping rock danger

  • diabase dikes act often as subsurface dams – water can be a problem upon penetration

  • serpentine dangerous


Ground water
ground water per km

  • fault zones

  • weathered granite



Mammoth pool dam sheeted granodiorite
mammoth pool dam – sheeted granodiorite per km

San Joaquin River, California


Mammoth pool dam sheeted granodiorite1
mammoth pool dam – sheeted granodiorite per km

San Joaquin River, California

biotite granodiorite

weathering depth – 30 m

saprolite used as aggregate for a 100 m high dam – without clay core


Mammoth pool dam sheeted granodiorite2
mammoth pool dam – sheeted granodiorite per km

  • surface covered with core stones

  • largest was a sheet of granite, 5000 m3,

  • valley filled with alluvial sediments with maximum depth of 30 m



Mammoth pool dam sheeted granodiorite4
mammoth pool dam – sheeted granodiorite per km

  • bedrock contained numerous joints

  • open or partly filled with alluvial sand and weathered debris

  • bedrock grouted downward 5 m – to reduce compressibility of the open fissures and joints

  • grout curtain down to 15 m below the foundation and 12 m into the abutments


Mammoth pool dam sheeted granodiorite5
mammoth pool dam – sheeted granodiorite per km

  • grouting

    • must go slow

    • at low pressures

    • some sheets are bolted prior to grouting

    • otherwise uplift of sheet joints


Mammoth pool dam sheeted granodiorite6
mammoth pool dam – sheeted granodiorite per km

  • grouting

  • estimated 5 000 sacks

  • required 42 000 sacks

  • why – aperture of joints very large – one as wide as 40 cm!

  • NOTE: apertures of 100 cm not uncommon in Sweden


Mammoth pool dam sheeted granodiorite7
mammoth pool dam – sheeted granodiorite per km

  • rock bolts installed to stabilize sheets

  • drainage holes were made to insure that low water pressures would be maintained between sheets after the dam was filled

    • 15 m, 5º from horizontal, into the sheets to intercept all possible open sheet joints


Malaysian granite hydroelectric project
Malaysian granite hydroelectric project per km

  • Porphyritic granite with 35% quartz and 5% biotite

  • hairline fractures

  • occasional shear zone healed with calcite, chlorite or quartz


Malaysian granite hydroelectric project1
Malaysian granite hydroelectric project per km

  • Shear zones and mylonite and brecciated granite


Malaysian granite hydroelectric project2
Malaysian granite hydroelectric project per km

  • surface outcrops minimal due to jungle vegetation

  • Lineaments visible on aerial photographs suggested faults and shear zones

  • 67 drill holes


Malaysian granite hydroelectric project3
Malaysian granite hydroelectric project per km

  • Tunneling was the biggest problem with weathered zones and faults

  • weathering average 30 m

  • but also in the tunnel at 300 m

  • residual soil was up to 6 m thick


Malaysian granite hydroelectric project4
Malaysian granite hydroelectric project per km

  • grade VI material in weathered profile had a clay content of 20%

  • grade V was sand with less than 10% clay

  • Grade V1 material used to form a core

  • Grade V formed the shells


Malaysian granite hydroelectric project5
Malaysian granite hydroelectric project per km

  • shear zones at 250 m depth contained 7 to 22 cm thick layers of grade IV and V weathered grainite

  • at 450 m depth in the tunnel slabbing occurred in the walls

  • erosion was a problem in weathered granite

  • divert the tunnel to a different direction to avid problem zones and faults zones


Question2
Question per km

  • Can decomposed granite furnish satisfactory materials for concrete aggregate?


Question3
Question per km

  • How can it be determined that a borehole through soil and saprolite extending into unweathered rock has not actually bottomed in a core stone?


Question4
Question per km

  • A granitic pluton is not bedded in the sense that a sedimentary rock is bedded. How then could a conspicuous fracture be identified definitively as a fault?


Question5
Question per km

  • Granitic core stones are well developed in Hong Kong whereas granitic rocks of Korea generally lack then. How is this possible?


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