a new way of teaching disable people distantly
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A NEW WAY OF TEACHING DISABLE PEOPLE DISTANTLY. A. A. A. Nagi, A. Bin Mahboob, A.I.Trufanov (Irkutsk State Technical University, Irkutsk, RF) E.V. Shubnikov (Institute of Internal Medicine, Novosibirsk , RF ) A.A. Tikhomirov (International Academy of Informatization, Moscow , RF).

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a new way of teaching disable people distantly


A. A. A. Nagi,

A. Bin Mahboob,


(Irkutsk State Technical University, Irkutsk, RF)

E.V. Shubnikov

(Institute of Internal Medicine, Novosibirsk , RF)

A.A. Tikhomirov

(International Academy of Informatization, Moscow , RF)


The main aim of this lecture is to concentrate on a new way of teaching and customize some sets of rules in order to teach disables. Also to provide them comfort and get rid of suffering. With the help of the this way, they will have a chance to stand forward beside the extraordinary people.


The plan was configured to produce parallel teaching atmosphere for blind and as well as for deaf too, so that each of them may get the best mode (manner) of learning. In whole, the lecture can be considered as a kind of programs of qualification and tutorship for the disable(s).


Recently we are living in the wide and advanced world with no limits of knowledge, technology and goals. Looking after the human situations, problems occur and seem clear when disables as others want to achieve their aims using modern technologies to enlist themselves in the index of dexterous personalities.


To overcome their problems, some sets of rules should be created such as giving them variety of chances to learn something new.

The main aim is to provide the best solutions for the disable learners, who can’t use the computer systems, so it’s better to dissolve the cluster of problems, providing them standards for disables.


An application programming interface (API) is a protocol intended to be used as an interface by software components to communicate with each other. An API is a library that may include specification for routines, data structures, object classes, and variables.

The library’s specification can take many forms, including an International Standard such as POSIX, vendor documentation such as the Microsoft Windows API, the libraries of a programming language, e.g. Standard Template Library  in C++ or Java API [1].

The library’s specification can take many forms, including an international standard such as POSIX, vendor documentation as like the Microsoft Windows API, the libraries of a programming language, e.g. Standard Template Library  in C++ or Java API [1].

The upper two figures show the different API


Meanings of disabled, disabling, disables

“Disabilities” is an umbrella term, covering impairments, activity limitations, and participation restrictions. Impairment is a problem in body function or structure; an activity limitation is a difficulty encountered by an individual in executing a task or action; while participation restriction is a problem experienced by an individual in involvement in life situations. “Thus disability is a complex phenomenon, reflecting an interaction between features of a person’s body and features of the society in which he or she lives” [2].

1. To deprive of capability or effectiveness, especially to impair the physical abilities off.

2. Law to render legally disqualified [3].

Deaf is that person who can’t listen. Other words: Deaf means deficient, lacking or in short supply in the sense of hearing or unwilling to hear or listen [4].



In field of distance education, as for extraordinary people also disable learners must have such the same ability to use and vast range of different PCs with the same standards, which contain their defined systems such as beep codes and BIOS.

Beep codes within the BIOS are the benchmarks to warn users for certain errors. Through these details disabled may also identify the nature of error.

Typical startup screen


General IBM BIOS Beep codes are listed in the table no.1, which can occur. However, the beep codes may slightly differ because of the wide variety of models shipping with this BIOS [5].

General IBM BIOS Beep codes that can occur:

Table 1


Principal Ideas

After the basics, let’s move further into the new horizon. As we know that keyboard is the foremost component of a computer to enter the values. Problem arises when matters fall in the hands of long sighted or bleary. To blow away this hurdle, it’s better to use “Braille computer keyboards”. These are the simple QWERTY keyboards but have some special Braille characters embedded on it beside the normal characters for normal people. As an alternative way, speech recognizers are the best solution for blinds, which can process the voice commands given by the user. A keyboard beside the speech recognizer is the best combination for disables ( blind and deaf).

layout of Braille keyboards


To use speech recognizing technology, user must be so efficient in the accent and pronouncing words, which are understandable for Braille computer. Thus speech recognizers are not so effective method to input data, unless and until speaker’s speech is easy to encode into machine language.

Beside to that, the addition of Sip-and-Puff technology will be one of the best solutionsfor this problem. It is the input device which is controlled by the rhythmic flow of breath.The touch screen display with highly contrasted and inverted colour scheme is another derived solution.


This drawback can be removed by introducing the combination of Speech synthesis (Text-to-Speech (TTS)) and speech recognition (SR) hardware into our system, where Speech synthesis produces computer generated voice which is acceptable and easy to recognize by speech recognizer to pass on the commands into the computer.

Pic.1. Suggested solution diagram for the input

This method can be useful if voice command consist of only single word or single alphabet, which need to be spoken in order to continue the process. Otherwise there is no difference between entering data through simple keyboard or using this method.


After all it’s necessary to know the results which computer produces on our commands, and to know them the output units play special role to facilitate. Data input is not a big deal but to view the results it’s necessary to use some advance devices which contribute the main role in distance education. They may be Hi-Fi sound system, LCD monitors or some other kind of device which shows the output result. As for the deaf person, the ideal solution is to have a full size LCD monitor with very low resolution (for bigger image). A blind may use the same configured LCD monitor, if he/she has the ability to recognize the characters in their maximum size.

Modes of output


The Braille terminal or refreshable Braille display is another bounty which recognizes the output characters by touching the risen dots on the displaying surface.The risen dots are created using the screen readers (the software which controls this type of display such as AT-SPI for GNOME, UI Automation (UIA) for Microsoft Windows, Voice Over for OS X and iOS).

JAWS (Job Access With Speech) is one of the software which can also control the SR to send sound signals as an output beside controlling the Braille display.


The previous mentioned programs are compiled according to the need and requirement of the users. Recently computers became rich with abilities to manage the multiple display devices for more enhance results, so at the same time the use of numerous displays can provide the user more comfortable environment. Add to that, sound unit guides user for the certain operations using sound signals. It will be fruitful component for the blinds, but for people with the hearing impairment problem may have a question mark! To filter this problem some new features within the computer to the hearing impairment, victim should be introduced. The use of same SR software with the capability of converting speech to text and the high contrast theme for operating system to differentiate the input and output commands within the system is the best combination to advise the user.

In this way a person who is blind too must use the Braille display also for his/her convenience, for the further accuracy. It will be preferable for deaf also to utilize the cheap hearing aids like ear trumpets or some advance Body worn aids for precise results.



Creating such a kind of atmosphere for handicaps ought to provide them privileges. These steps seem to be impossible to implement, but initial foundation is enough to start a journey and create a new vision of progress.

As a result on compromising on the technology might not only descend the quality of education, but will also chock the lines of success for the disables. To control this set up, some system software must be also compiled, in order to lead the set up and make an interface between users and the hardware. That interface will have an ability to perform those tasks that are beyond the range of ordinary software. The new setup is to be built in such manner that single interface could perform multi task in a single shift of time.

  • URL: http://www.drdobbs.com/jvm/oracle-and-the-end-of-programming-as-we/232901227
  • URL: www.who.int/topics/disabilities/en/
  • URL: www.thefreedictionary.com/disables
  • URL: www.computerhope.com/beep.htm
  • URL: http://www.computer.org/csdl/mags/ds/index.html
  • URL: http://martinfowler.com/bliki/InversionOfControl.html