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CD-ROM Layout. PitsBlistered AreasLandsThe area between the blistered areas. DVD STANDARDS. CapacityDVD5Capacity - 4.7 GB (single sided, single layer)DVD9Capacity - 8.5 GB (single sided, dual layer)DVD10Capacity - 9.4 GB (double sided, single layer)DVD18Capacity - 17 GB (double sided, du

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1. REVIEW

2. CD-ROM Layout Pits Blistered Areas Lands The area between the blistered areas

3. DVD STANDARDS Capacity DVD5 Capacity - 4.7 GB (single sided, single layer) DVD9 Capacity - 8.5 GB (single sided, dual layer) DVD10 Capacity - 9.4 GB (double sided, single layer) DVD18 Capacity - 17 GB (double sided, dual layer)

4. What are the standard Tape Drive Connections? IDE SCSI Internal / External USB Firewire

5. OBJECTIVES

6. Flash Memory Flash memory is an all-electronic storage technology that can be written to, erased, and rewritten in the same manner as a magnetic disk drive. When power is removed from the memory module, the data stored inside remain and do not dissipate. This technology has been used to create a number of digital memory devices for use in PDAs, digital cameras, video game units, and notebook computers.

7. Original Forms of Flash There are many different types and form factors of flash memory devices currently in use. The original flash memory systems associated with personal computers involved making ROM-BIOS devices so they could be updated electronically. PCMCIA cards developed as memory adapter cards for portable computer systems.

8. New Forms of Flash Many new form factor flash memory systems have been introduced into both the personal computer and consumer electronics markets. The most notable formats include… USB flash memory drives, CompactFlash cards, Memory Sticks, and Secure Digital cards. They all provide small form factor, power free storage capacity.

9. Figure 5-25: Connecting a USB Drive

10. USB Flash Drives A USB flash drive is a flash memory unit equipped with a USB interface and connector and mounted in a high-impact plastic or metal case. This enables USB drives to plug into a standard USB port and function as an additional disk drive. They are removable and rewritable and can hold up to 128 GB of data. However, the most popular sizes for these devices range between 1GB and 8 GB.

11. USB Flash Drives

12. CMOS - Boot from USB? The appearance of “Boot from USB” options in the CMOS Setup utilities of newer system boards has made it possible to install operating systems and diagnostic utilities on USB drives so they can be used for emergency start-up purposes.

13. USB-FLASH-JUMP-KEY!? USB drives are also referred to as… Pen drives, Thumb Drives, Flash drives, or USB keys. While they are sometimes referred to as Memory Sticks, this is an improper reference, because that name is a trademark of the Sony Corporation and describes a different memory card specification. USB drives are supported directly by modern versions of Linux, Apple, and Windows operating systems.

14. Compact Flash Cards The Compact Flash (CF) card is another flash memory form factor specification. Compact flash cards are very thin flash-memory-based devices that provide battery-free, removable data storage. These units are widely used in the professional camera market.

15. Figure 5-26: CompactFlash Cards

16. CF Specs Type I CF card is (43mm× 36mm× 3.3 mm). Type II CF cards measure (43mm× 36 mm× 5.0 mm). Capacity 137 GB Transfer Rate 16 MBps for Type II Cards or 66 MBps on newer devices. Otherwise the Type I and Type II cards are the same.

17. Sony’s Memory Stick Memory Stick is a proprietary flash memory card format introduced by the Sony Corporation. These devices are available in transfer rates of 2.5 MBps and storage capacities ranging up to 128 MB. A newer version of the Memory Stick, known as Memory Stick Pro, offers higher storage capacities (theoretically ranging up to 32 GB) along with higher data transfer rates (20 MBps).

18. Figure 5-27: Memory Stick Cards

19. Secure Digital Cards Secure Digital (SD) is a flash memory card format used in a variety of different portable devices, including digital cameras, notebook computers and PDAs. SD cards are sold according to their storage capacities as well as their data transfer rates. SD cards are available in 2 GB, 4 GB and 8 GB versions. Transfer rates for SD cards are specified in terms of 150 KBps multiples (e.g., an 1x version runs at 150 KBps and an 2x device transfers data at 300 KBps).

20. Figure 5-28: Secure Digital Cards

21. First SD Flash memory card with integrated Wi-Fi Eye-Fi has received FCC approval for its wireless SD flash memory card, which will allow users to upload images from a digital camera to a PC without a cable connection.

22. DRM Most SD cards also offer security feature such as a locking write-protect switch on the side of the device to prevent accidental overwriting of the contents, and on-board digital rights management (DRM) software to prevent unauthorized copying of the contents. This feature is intended for use by the software, music, and movie industries to protect their materials from being copied)

23. Disk Drive Interfaces Modern PCs employ one of two standard system-level interface types to communicate with their internal disk drive systems through… Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE), also known as the AT attachment (ATA) interface. Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) interfaces.

24. Figure 5-29: Mixed Disk Drive Interface Connections

25. Integrated Drive Electronics Interface (IDE) Also referred to as an AT Attachment (ATA) interface, is a system-level interface designed to connect disk drives to the system. The AT attachment packet interface (ATAPI) specification provides improved IDE drivers for use with CD-ROM drives and new data transfer methods.

26. Figure 5-30: The IDE Interface Connection

27. ESDI ( Enhanced Small Device Interface ) ST-506 Interface Created by Seagate in 1980 34 line control cable and 20 pin data cable. 5 Megabytes Storage ST-506 – 7.5 MB/s ESDI – 24 MB/s

28. IDE ( ATA ) IDE can support up to 2 drives of 528 Mb each IDE uses a 40 wire ribbon cable with a 40 pin connector.

29. EIDE ( ATA - 2 ) EIDE supports 2 drives per channel. EIDE supports drives larger than 528 MB through translators. Allows DMA transfers. EIDE has defined faster PIO modes. Uses a 40 wire ribbon cable with a 40 pin connector. Maximum Data Transfer Rate of 8.3 MB/s

30. ATA/33 || ATA/66 Also known as UDMA 33, UDMA mode 2. UDMA mode 2 has a burst transfer rate of 33 MB/s for 3 milliseconds. Uses a 40 wire ribbon cable with a 40 pin connector.

31. Table 5-6: ATA PIO Modes

32. 40/40 & 40/80 IDE enhancements called Ultra ATA 66 and Ultra ATA100 provide even higher data throughput by doubling the number of conductors in the IDE signal cable. The IDE connector has remained compatible with the 40-pin IDE connection, but each pin has been provided with its own ground conductor in the cable. The Ultra ATA 66 specification provides 66 MBps, and the Ultra ATA 100 connection provides 100 MBps.

33. Serial ATA The newest ATA implementations from the IDE development community are the serial ATA (SATA) standards. The original SATA 1.5 Gbps specification supported data transfer rates at up to 150MBps An improved 3 Gbps version of the SATA standard has been introduced that boost the maximum data transfer rate for the interface to 300 MBps. At this time, SATA drives are not fast enough to keep up with this interface so the actual operating speed is determined by the capabilities of the drive.

34. Figure 5-31: SATA Adapter Card

35. Remember how the Ultra ATA 66 interface cable can be identified. TEST TIP

36. To Be Continued… http://news.zdnet.com/2422-13569_22-156220.html http://www.tomshardware.com/2007/08/13/flash_based_hard_drives_cometh/

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