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Time study procedure - overview. Perform methods analysis. Identify elements. Observe one or more operators to find observed time. Give a rating to adjust observed time and find normal time. Add allowances to normal time to find standard time.

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time study procedure overview
Time study procedure - overview
  • Perform methods analysis.
  • Identify elements.
  • Observe one or more operators to find observed time.
  • Give a rating to adjust observed time and find normal time.
  • Add allowances to normal time to find standard time.
  • Procedures attempt to reduce inaccuracies of going from the sample to the population and from the present world to the future world.
step 1 methods analysis
Step 1: Methods analysis
  • Purposes:
    • Establish a safe, productive job.
    • Leave a permanent record of method for future use.
  • Most of effort should be in job design and productivity rather than time standards.
  • Once the best method is established, break the job into elements.
  • Use the following forms as needed …
  • Flow chart
    • product / people flow
    • motion patterns
  • Process chart
  • Right and left hand chart
  • Multi-activity chart
  • Operator / Machine chart
in class exercise
In-class exercise
  • Time to fill peg board – old method
    • Follow the method given in the handout
    • Determine the time to completely fill one board
    • Repeat 5 times and calculate the average …
  • Redesign workspace and work method … (5 minutes)
step 2 break the job into elements
Step 2: Break the job into elements
  • Why …
    • Makes it possible to reuse the data.
    • Permits different ratings for different elements.
    • Permits consistency checks.
    • Improves methods descriptions.
    • Makes incomplete data useful.
step 2 break the job into elements1
Step 2: Break the job into elements
  • How …
    • Identify complete actions, e.g.
      • Get a part
      • Assemble two pieces together
    • Define action endpoints (EP) or terminal points (TP)
      • Easily recognizable
      • Logical in context
      • Example: Get part A, TP is part A at center

Assemble two parts, TP is release of assembly in bin

    • Endpoint of one action is beginning of the next
    • Always keep manual and machine time separate
operator selection
Operator selection
  • Treat the operator with dignity and respect.
  • Try to make the sample representative of the population.
  • Select experienced rather than inexperienced workers.
  • Select average or typical workers.
  • Vary the times and days of studies.
timing techniques
Timing techniques
  • Stopwatch
    • Use snapback mode.
    • Use electronic watches.
    • Avoid using continuous mode.
  • Videotape
    • Provides a permanent record of the method.
    • Analysis can be done by person other than camera operator.
    • Elements can be performance rated.
statistical approach pg 492
Statistical approach – pg. 492
  • Number of observations depends on:
    • Accuracy desired
    • Confidence desired
    • Data variability
  • Example: A time study is being planned. A preliminary sample of 20 times is shown to have a mean of 16 seconds and a standard deviation of 0.4 seconds. If a relative accuracy of 10% and a 95% (round to 2) confidence interval are desired, how many observations are required?
statistical approach example cont
Statistical approach – example (cont.)
  • Standard deviation method:
  • Alternatively, use range method (see box 25.1)
importance of decision approach
Importance-of-decision approach
  • Number of observations depends on:
    • Importance of accuracy of the time standard
    • Cycle time
    • Activity/year
    • Cost of an inaccurate standard
  • See table 25.2, pg. 493
irregular and foreign observations
Irregular and foreign observations
  • Irregular elements: operator activity that the observer did not anticipate
    • include like other elements
    • determine how often per unit produced
    • example: clear hopper, change blade, etc.
  • Foreign elements: operator activity that is outside normal work
  • Avoidable delays will not be included in standard.
    • Drinking coffee
    • Chatting with coworker
  • Unavoidable delays will be included in standard.
    • Talking to supervisor about work
    • Waiting for supplies
    • Breaking a tool
recording technique for unusual events
Recording technique for unusual events
  • Missed readings
    • ‘M’ in time slot
  • Omitted elements
    • ‘-’ in time slot
  • Elements out of order
    • see columns 6-8, next page
  • Unexpected elements
    • code events (A, B, C, etc.)
    • explain code elsewhere in short (1-3 word) note
  • Ensures that the standard is based on the method, not the operator.
  • To improve rating accuracy, study an average operator.
  • Studying average operators also improves worker acceptance of the standard.
normal pace
Normal pace
  • Normal pace must be defined prior to observation.
  • Define motivated productivity level (MPL) first.
  • Acceptable productivity level is within expectancy of MPL.
  • MPL is the work pace of a motivated, skilled, physically fit worker.
rating techniques problems
Rating techniques - problems
  • Micromotions change their proportions of the total task as the pace changes.
    • Low-skill micromotions change less than the overall task.
    • High-skill micromotions change more than the overall task.
  • Levels of methods detail

Level 1: Management-controlled

Level 2: Management attempts to control

Level 3: Operator-controlled

rating techniques solutions
Rating techniques: solutions
  • Pace rating: Observer estimates the pace.
  • Objective rating:
    • Observer rates the speed.
    • Observer estimates task difficulty.
    • Observer multiplies speed factor by difficulty factor to get pace.
  • Improve accuracy
    • number of observations
    • skilled operator
    • observer skilled at job
  • Train raters
setting allowances
Setting allowances
  • Personal and fatigue allowances are set from tables.
  • Delay allowances are set from delays actually occurring on the job.
  • Delays during a time study may provide estimate for the delays to allow for the standard.