Biology 188 General Biology II
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Biology 188 General Biology II March 31, 2003 Obtaining & Processing Nutrients & Relation of Animal Body Evolution to Digestion Kenneth L. Campbell PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Biology 188 General Biology II March 31, 2003 Obtaining & Processing Nutrients & Relation of Animal Body Evolution to Digestion Kenneth L. Campbell Professor of Biology University of Massachusetts at Boston.

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Biology 188 General Biology II March 31, 2003 Obtaining & Processing Nutrients & Relation of Animal Body Evolution to Digestion Kenneth L. Campbell

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Biology 188 general biology ii march 31 2003 obtaining processing nutrients relation of animal body evolution to dig

Biology 188 General Biology II

March 31, 2003

Obtaining & Processing Nutrients

&

Relation of Animal Body Evolution to Digestion

Kenneth L. Campbell

Professor of Biology

University of Massachusetts at Boston


Biology 188 general biology ii march 31 2003 obtaining processing nutrients relation of animal body evolution to dig

This presentation is made possible by a grant entitled“Shortcourses in Endocrinology at Minority Undergraduate Institutions”from the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS) to The Minority Affairs Committee of the Endocrine Society


Obtaining processing nutrients

Obtaining & Processing Nutrients


Biology 188 general biology ii march 31 2003 obtaining processing nutrients relation of animal body evolution to dig

What are nutrients? Why are they being extracted?Nutrients are those parts of food that provide sources of energy, molecular building blocks, or ions and small molecules needed to support biochemical functions.

  • Amino acids

  • Fats

  • Sugars

  • Nucleic Acid Components

  • Minerals

  • Vitamins


Biology 188 general biology ii march 31 2003 obtaining processing nutrients relation of animal body evolution to dig

Teeth: break food into smaller particles & mix in salivaSaliva: adds water, buffer salts & often enzymes that begin sugar digestion Stomach: adds HCl & pepsin, a proteolytic enzymeApocrine pancreas & bile: add enzymes & detergents for degrading protein, fats, sugars, & nucleic acidsSmall intestine: absorbs simple sugars, amino acids, fats, nucleosides, vitamins, & ions Cecum: often acts as a fermenter allowing bacteria to break down complex sugarsLarge intestine: absorbs water, ions, & small moleculesColon: absorbs water, stores feces

Where does this occur?


Biology 188 general biology ii march 31 2003 obtaining processing nutrients relation of animal body evolution to dig

Teeth

Saliva

Pancreas

& Bile

Stomach

Small

Intestine

Large

Intestine

Cecum

Colon

Review:

What do each of

these organs do?


Biology 188 general biology ii march 31 2003 obtaining processing nutrients relation of animal body evolution to dig

Small Intestine

Histology

Mucosa:

HCl & pepsin

www.iun.edu/~biologyn/

P262%20Web%20Pages/

EX-14%20Digestive%

20Histology/aa.GIF

Smooth

muscle

layers

www.le.ac.uk/pathology/teach

/ va/anatomy/case6/gi4.gif

Stomach

Histology

www.uoguelph.ca/zoology/devobio/ miller/013634fig8-24.gif


Biology 188 general biology ii march 31 2003 obtaining processing nutrients relation of animal body evolution to dig

Fats are often broken down after being absorbed by the small intestine. They are moved as complexes wrapped in specific proteins. The earliest complexes have the most fat relative to protein and are the least dense.

hsc.usf.edu/2005/ lipoprotmet.jpg


The liver is central to processing of sugars

The Liver is Central to Processing of Sugars.

Converts many simple sugars, several amino acids, acetate & glycerol to glucose ( =gluconeogenesis) then secretes it into blood.

Stores glucose as a macromolecule, glycogen, & hydrolyzes glycogen to glucose.

Makes fat from fatty acids & glycerol, & breaks fat down to acetate & glycerol.

Stores amino acids as protein, & can break proteins down to amino acids.


Glucose homeostasis

Glucose Homeostasis

The body must control glucose levels because all cells use glucose to make ATP, the energy currency of cells. Some tissues like brain almost never burn any other fuel molecule. But too much glucose damages cells by getting attached to certain proteins and changing their function. Key tissues in this balancing act are:

Liver

Fat

Muscle

Brain

Pancreas (endocrine cells)


Biology 188 general biology ii march 31 2003 obtaining processing nutrients relation of animal body evolution to dig

After meals glucose from liver is mainly stored as glycogen in liver & muscle & as fat in fat cells. When more energy is needed between meals, glycogen, fat & protein (last) are broken down & liver uses the parts to make glucose.

Hormones (insulin, glucagon, adrenalin, cortisol) signal the change from storage to synthesis.


Biology 188 general biology ii march 31 2003 obtaining processing nutrients relation of animal body evolution to dig

Islets of Langerhans

http://medlib.med.utah.edu/WebPath/jpeg4/ENDO039.jpg

Pancreas

Glucagon

Insulin

Hormones Control the

Glucose Balance

Insulinacts on body cells to allow them to take in circulating glucose. Insulin levels rise when glucose rises.

Adrenaline, cortisol, & growth hormone also make blood glucose rise. But insulin-like-growth factor I acts like insulin.

Glucagonacts on liver to stimulate glucose production & release, & on fat to cause fat breakdown.Glucagon rises when glucose falls.


Biology 188 general biology ii march 31 2003 obtaining processing nutrients relation of animal body evolution to dig

Relation of Animal Body Evolution to Digestion


Evolutionary adaptations for digestion

Evolutionary Adaptations for Digestion

Shape & arrangement of teeth:

From Wessells & Hopson, Biology, (Random House:1988), 817, 822, 819.

Carnivore Omnivore Herbivore

Contents of saliva:

Contains amylases in cloven hoofed animals, rodents, rabbits, dogs, & primates.

High content of HCO3 -2& PO4 -3 in herbivores.

Venoms & proteases in some reptiles & invertebrates.

Form & function of the gut.


Digestive tracts of carnivores

Digestive Tracts of Carnivores:

Simple stomach, short small intestine, simple, short large intestine for extraction of high quality foods.


Digestive tracts of herbivores

Digestive Tracts of Herbivores:

Ruminants, efficiently extract nutrients from low quality foods by symbiosis with bacteria in complex stomach.

On similar feed, equids extract easily digested materials in foregut, & get more calories by fermentation in complex hindgut.


Digestive tracts of omnivores

Digestive Tracts of Omnivores:

These are hybrid, systems: simple stomachs, moderately long small intestines, & well-developed, but simple, large intestines.


Biology 188 general biology ii march 31 2003 obtaining processing nutrients relation of animal body evolution to dig

Digestion is an extraction & breakdown process optimized to provide metabolic building blocks & energy source molecules.

Summary:

Evolutionary adaptations match each animal’s anatomy & physiology to it’s food sources & quality.


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