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SOL BIOLOGY REVIEW. Everything you wanted to know and then some…. GENERAL INFORMATION. 60 Questions 10 are research questions. You must answer 34 correctly to pass. You must answer 45 correctly to achieve an advance pass. THE BREAKDOWN. Scientific Investigation- 11

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Sol biology review

SOL BIOLOGY REVIEW

Everything you wanted to know and then some…..


General information

GENERAL INFORMATION

  • 60 Questions

  • 10 are research questions.

  • You must answer 34 correctly to pass.

  • You must answer 45 correctly to achieve an advance pass


The breakdown

THE BREAKDOWN

  • Scientific Investigation- 11

  • Life at Molecular and Cellular Level- 14

  • Life at Systems and Organism Level- 14

  • Research questions-10


Some strategies

SOME STRATEGIES

  • Four responses: The right one, the two really wrong ones and the distractor.

  • The distractor is almost right. It is basically a trick.


More strategies

More Strategies

  • The incredible POE : PROCESS OF ELIMINATION


Bottom line

BOTTOM LINE

  • ANSWER ALL THE QUESTIONS

  • GO AHEAD AND GUESS!


Scientific investigations

SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATIONS

UNIT ONE


Scientific investigations1

SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATIONS

  • Observations- gathering data using your senses.

  • Quantitativeobservations: Use numbers

  • Qualitative Observations: Describe things


Scientific investigations2

SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATIONS

  • INFERENCES: gathering data based on previous knowledge


Scientific investigations3

SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATIONS

  • USING APPROPRIATESOURCES


Scientific investigations4

SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATIONS

  • HYPOTHESIS – an educated guess Must be in IF,Then format

  • INDEPENDENT VARIABLE- the thing that changes in an experiment


Scientific investigations5

SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATIONS

  • DEPENDENT VARIABLE- The thing that is changed by the experiment- what will you measure?


Scientific investigations6

SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATIONS

  • CONTROL- The variables are compared to the control. For example, the sugar pill given to a group of people


Scientific investigations7

SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATIONS

  • SCIENTIFIC METHOD- a way to standardize the science- 5 steps

  • 1. Ask a question

  • 2. Develop a hypothesis

  • 3. Do the experiment

  • 4. Gather data

  • 5. Draw Conclusions


Scientific investigation

SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION

  • GRAPHING- the independent variable goes on the X axis

  • The dependent variable goes on the Y axis


Unit two biochemistry

UNIT TWO: BIOCHEMISTRY

“I thought this was Biology?”


Molecules of life

MOLECULES OF LIFE

  • ORGANIC COMPOUNDS:

  • MUST HAVE CARBON IN THEM

  • Exception is CO (carbon monoxide)


Molecules of life1

MOLECULES OF LIFE

  • Four Types:

  • PROTEINS-

  • Made from amino acids

  • Used for repair, building and structure

  • Test: Biuret’s Solution

  • Made by the Ribosome

  • Examples: any meat, hair nails


Molecules of life2

MOLECULES OF LIFE

  • PROTEINS-

  • ENZYMES- special type of protein

  • Speed up reactions

  • Affected by temp. and pH

  • Have an active site.

  • Lock and Key theory


Molecules of life3

MOLECULES OF LIFE

  • Carbohydrates:

  • Two types:

  • Simple- sugars like those in juice or candy

  • Complex: like pasta or bagels

  • 2:1 ratio of C to H

  • Test with Benedicts

  • Used for energy


Molecules of life4

MOLECULES OF LIFE

  • LIPIDS:

  • Fats, Waxes and Oils

  • Saturated- are solid at room temp. Like butter

  • Unsaturated- liquid at room temp.- olive oil

  • Test: brown paper

  • Used for long term storage of energy


Molecules of life5

MOLECULES OF LIFE

  • NUCLEIC ACIDS-

  • Hereditary material

  • Examples: DNA, RNA

  • Made up of nucleotides


The cell

THE CELL!!!

Unit 3


Cells

CELLS

  • HISTORY:

  • Hooke- named Cells, Cells. Observed cork.

  • Leewenhook- developed the microscope


Cells1

CELLS

  • SCHLEIDEN- says all plants are made of cells

  • SCHWANN-all animals are made of cells.

  • VIRCHOW-Cells come from other cells.


Cells2

CELLS

  • CELL THEORY-

  • 1. Cells are the basic unit of life.

  • 2. Cells come from pre-existing cells

  • 3.All organisms are made from one or more cells


Cells3

CELLS

  • TWO BASIC TYPES

  • 1. Prokaryotes

  • Simple

  • No nucleus or organelles

  • Example Bacteria :Kingdom Monera

  • PRO THINK NO!!


Cells4

Cells

  • 2. Eukaryotes:

  • Has a nucleus

  • Has organelles

  • More complex

  • Came from prokaryotes

  • Examples: Humans, protists


Plant cells

PLANT CELLS

  • Have a cell Wall

  • Have a HUGE vacuole- store water

  • Have a Cell Plate in cell division

  • Are usually rectangular

  • Chloroplasts


Animal cells

Animal Cells

  • Have Centrioles

  • Cell Membranes

  • May have Cilia, flagella or pseudopodia


Organelles

ORGANELLES

  • Small specialized structures that have special functions within cells.


Organelles1

ORGANELLES

  • Nucleus- brain of cell

  • Nucleolous- inside nucleus- makes ribosomes

  • Chromosomes- inside nucleus- made of DNA- heredity

  • Mitochondria- powerhouse of the cell


Organelles2

ORGANELLES

  • Lysosome- cleans up the cell

  • Ribosome- makes protein

  • Cytoplasm- jelly like stuff inside the cell

  • E.R.- smooth or rough-with ribosomes- transport


Organelles3

ORGANELLES

  • Golgi body or apparatus- packages things

  • Vacuole- storage


Cell membrane

CELL MEMBRANE

  • Fluid Mosaic Model-

  • Bilayer

  • Made of Phospho-lipids

  • Lipids on the inside- hydrophobic

  • Phosphates on the outside- hydrophillic


Cell membrane1

CELL MEMBRANE

  • Purpose: Gate keeper

  • Semi-Permeable- let’s some things in keeps others out


Getting things into and out of the cell membrane

GETTING THINGS INTO AND OUT OF THE CELL MEMBRANE

  • Holes in the membrane let some things in and out with no problem- like O2 and water

  • The Proteins help get bigger things across the membrane.


Cell transport

Cell Transport

  • TWO TYPES

  • PASSIVE- no energy required.

  • Examples include Diffusion


Cell transport1

CELL TRANSPORT

  • OSMOSIS-diffusion with water- passive transport


Cell transport2

CELL TRANSPORT

  • ACTIVE TRANSPORT-requires energy

  • Used to get large molecules into and out of the cell.

  • Proteins act as channels/tunnels


Cell transport3

Cell Transport

  • EXOCYTOSIS- getting things OUT of the cell


Cell transport4

CELL TRANSPORT

  • ENDOCYTOSIS- getting things INTO the cell


Cell energy photosynthesis and respiratioin

CELL ENERGY Photosynthesis and Respiratioin

Unit FOUR


Cell energy

CELL ENERGY

  • CELL RESPIRATION:

  • Done by all cells

  • Done in the mitochondria- powerhouse of the cell.

  • Method by which the cell gets energy.

  • ATP- Unit of Energy

  • C6H12O6 + O2-> ATP


Cell energy1

CELL ENERGY

  • Two types of Cell Respiration:

  • AEROBIC-

  • Uses oxygen

  • Is more efficient-> 32 ATPS

  • ANAEROBIC-No oxygen

  • Less efficient-> 8 ATPS


Anaerobic vs aerobic

ANAEROBIC:

No oxygen

Done by yeast

Inefficient

Produces Alcohol or CO2

AEROBIC:

Oxygen

Efficient

Produces ATPs

ANAEROBIC vs. AEROBIC


Cell respiration steps

Cell Respiration Steps

  • Glycolysis: break sugar down into pyruvic acid.

  • This happens in BOTH anaerobic and aerobic respiration.


Photosynthesis

PHOTOSYNTHESIS

  • Done by plants.

  • Done in the chloroplast.

  • CO2 + H2O with sunlight ---- C6H12O6 + O2


Respiration photosynthesis

RESPIRATION & PHOTOSYNTHESIS

  • Take home Message

  • They are called complementary or opposite reactions to each other. WHY? Because the reactants of one are the products of the other.


Cell reproduction

CELL REPRODUCTION

UNIT 5


Cell cycle

CELL CYCLE

  • INTERPHASE: longest part of cell cycle. Includes:

  • G1- growth phase

  • S- synthesis phases- DNA is replicated here

  • G2- second growth phase


Cell cycle1

CELL CYCLE

  • After interphase there is the M phase.

  • M=Mitosis/ Meiosis This is when the cell actually divides.


Cell cycle2

CELL CYCLE

  • MITOSIS:

  • Occurs in body (somatic) cells, in bacteria or some protists

  • Only one parent cell

  • End up with two identical daughter cells.


Cell cycle3

CELL CYCLE

  • Mitosis:

  • Different Phases- these just tell you what the chromosomes are doing.

  • Prophase- chromosomes thicken, nuclear membrane disappears

  • Metaphase- chromosomes line up in middle


Cell cycle4

CELL CYCLE

  • MITOSIS:

  • Anaphase: chromosomes are pulled to opposite sides of cell

  • Telophase: the cell forms a cleavage furrow and begins to split.


Cell cycle5

CELL CYCLE

  • MEIOSIS: Occurs in gametes- sex cells- eggs and sperm ONLY!!!

  • End up 4 Haploid ( only half the number of chromosomes) cells.

  • Two Divisions


Cell divison

MITOSIS

In body cells

End up with 2 identical diploid cells

Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase

Cytokinesis

MEIOSIS

In sex cells

End up with 4 haploid cells

Goes through 2 divisions

CELL DIVISON


Genetics

GENETICS!!

Unit 6


Sol biology review

DNA

  • The take home message!

  • DNA contains all the information to create proteins.

  • DNA is found in every living cell.

  • DNA is in the nucleus

  • DNA can be used to identify any organism

  • It is amazing!!


Nucleic acids

DNA- Deoxyribonucleic Acid.

Made up of nucleotides- consist of nitrogen base and sugar and phosphate

Double stranded- double helix- twisted ladder

Rungs are nitrogen bases (ATCG)

Sides are sugars and phosphates

RNA- Ribonucleic acid:

Single stranded

Made from nucleotides

Bases are: AUGC

NUCLEIC ACIDS


History

HISTORY

  • Rosalind Franklin used X- Rays to held determine DNA shape

  • Watson and Crick Discovered DNA

  • Chargaff’s rules- A&T, C&G


Dna replication

DNA REPLICATION

  • Only molecule in the universe to do this

  • 1. The Hydrogen bonds break and the DNA unzips.

  • 2. Free floating nucleotides fill in

  • 3. The sides re-form

  • Replication happens during the S phase of Interphase in the cell cycle.


Protein synthesis

Protein Synthesis

  • DNA directs protein synthesis.

  • Two parts:

  • Transcription: mRNA is formed from information from DNA. mRNA leaves the nucleus.

  • Codons- three bases= an amino acid


Protein synthesis1

Protein Synthesis

  • 2. Translation: The mRNA attaches to a ribosome. Then tRNA brings matching anti-codons to the mRNA.

  • This forms amino acids

  • Groups of amino acids = protein


Dna technology

DNA TECHNOLOGY

  • We Can’t clone Humans

  • We can clone some animals

  • Human Genome Project- effort to sequence human DNA


Genetics1

Genetics

  • Mutations: errors in the DNA that can result in disease.

  • Examples: PKU- can’t metabolize an amino acid

  • Sickle-Cell Anemia

  • Tay Sachs


Chromosome structure

Chromosome Structure

  • DNA is tightly coiled to form a Chromosome

  • Humans have 46 chromosomes.

  • The chromosome has genes on it.

  • Genes are packets of information.


Chromosomes

Chromosomes

  • Karyotype- the way chromosomes are organized on paper. Done by size- biggest to smallest.

  • Used to determine if too many or few, and any problems


Genetics2

Genetics

  • Traits- characteristics that are inherited

  • Half of DNA comes from mom, half from dad.

  • This is why you can have your moms smile and dad’s eyes.


Genetics history

Genetics History

  • Mendel- Father of genetics

  • A monk who worked with pea plants

  • Came up with three laws

  • 1. Law of Dominance- one “gene” is dominant over another

  • 2. Law of Segregation- genes separate

  • 3.Law of Independent Assortment- genes are shuffled


Genetics vocabulary

Genetics Vocabulary

  • Alleles- different forms of the same gene

  • Phenotype- the physical appearance of a trait

  • Genotype- the genetic makeup of a trait


Genetic vocabulary

Genetic Vocabulary

  • Homozygous- same genes for a trait. Ex. TT or tt

  • Heterozygous- different genes for a trait. Ex. Tt

  • P1- first generation or parent

  • F1- second or filial generation - offspring


Genetics3

Genetics

  • Punnet Square- a table used to show all possible outcomes from a mating


Genetics4

Genetics

  • PEDIGREE-a chart used to track a trait through generations.


Genetics5

Genetics

  • Incomplete Dominance- Blending of traits ex. Pink flowers blend with red flowers to form pink

  • Co Dominance : Equal expression of two alleles ex. Blood type


Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Unit 7


Taxonomy1

TAXONOMY

  • Science of naming and classifying organisms.

  • Each level of organization is called a taxon

  • Linneaus- father of taxonomy


Taxonomy2

Taxonomy

  • The taxa:

  • Kingdom

  • Phylum

  • Class

  • Order

  • Family

  • Genus

  • Species

  • Goes from broadest to most specific


Taxonomy3

Taxonomy

  • Binomial nomenclature: fancy way of saying two name naming system.

  • We use genus species

  • Homo Sapien


Taxonomy4

Taxonomy

  • KINGDOMS:

  • Animalia

  • Plantae

  • Monera- bacteria

  • Protist- paramecium, amoeba

  • Fungi- mushrooms


Taxonomy5

Taxonomy

  • Organisms grouped by structural, biochemical, locomotive behavioral and genetic similarities.

  • As you go from kingdom to species, the creatures are more similar.


Taxonomy6

Taxonomy

  • Homologous structures- similar and have a common ancestor. EX. The wings of birds and bats. The actual physical structure is similar.


Taxonomy7

Taxonomy

  • Analogous Structures

  • Strucures that provide the same function- but DO NOT have a common ancestor.

  • EX. Bird and winset wings


Evolution

EVOLUTION

Unit 8


Evolution1

EVOLUTION

  • Change over time

  • Gradualism- change takes place over millions of years

  • Punctuated Equilibrium- Everything stable for a long while then a sudden change then stable again


Evolution2

EVOLUTION

  • Darwin- came up with Natural Selection- the idea that organisms gradually change by adapting to their environment so they have a better chance for survival.

  • Survival of the Fittest


Evolution3

EVOLUTION

  • Geographic Isolation- New species develops because part of the population becomes isolated and develops different features.

  • Ex. Darwin’s finches


Ecology

ECOLOGY

Unit 9


Ecology1

ECOLOGY

  • Biosphere 8km above and 8km below the surface of Earh

  • Ecosystem- all living and non-living parts of an area

  • Community: All living parts of an area


Ecology2

ECOLOGY

  • Population: one particular group of organisms within an area.

  • Biotic: any living thing

  • Abiotic: any non-living thing

  • Biome: an area determined by climate ex. Desert, ocean


Ecology3

ECOLOGY

  • Succession: replacement of one community for another

  • Primary succession/ pioneer community: first organisms into an area- Ex. Mosses, lichens


Ecology4

ECOLOGY

  • Secondary succession: a community is replaced by another one due to some natural disaster- flood, fire


Ecolgy

ECOLGY

  • Carrying Capacity:

    The number of organisms an area can support

    Makes an S shaped curve.


Ecology5

ECOLOGY

  • Exponential growth: organisms growing without any limits

  • Curve goes straight up.


Ecology6

ECOLOGY

  • NICHE: the job or role an organism has in an ecosystem

  • Producer: plants- anything that makes it’s own food (autotroph)

  • Consumer: anything that has to get it’s own food.


Ecology7

ECOLOGY

  • DECOMPOSERS: Take care of all the dead organic matter

  • Ex. Bacteria/ fungi


Ecology8

ECOLOGY

  • Synbiosis: a close personal relationship between two or more organisms

  • 3 Types:

  • Mutualism: both benefit ex. Bees and flowers

  • Parasitism: one harms the other- Dog and flea

  • Commensalism- one benefits the other is neither harmed nor benefitted ex. Whales and barnacles


Ecology9

ECOLOGY

  • Predator/Prey – Lions and zebras

  • Boom/Bust curve- as one increases, the other decreases.


Ecology10

ECOLOGY

  • Food Chain- two or three organisms that demonstrate the flow of energy

  • Food Web- many organisms that demonstrate the flow of energy in an ecosystem


Ecology11

ECOLOGY

  • Ecology Pyramids- show you biomass or energy flow.

  • Plants make up the most biomass and have the most energy


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