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SOL BIOLOGY REVIEW. Everything you wanted to know and then some…. GENERAL INFORMATION. 60 Questions 10 are research questions. You must answer 34 correctly to pass. You must answer 45 correctly to achieve an advance pass. THE BREAKDOWN. Scientific Investigation- 11

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Sol biology review

SOL BIOLOGY REVIEW

Everything you wanted to know and then some…..


General information
GENERAL INFORMATION

  • 60 Questions

  • 10 are research questions.

  • You must answer 34 correctly to pass.

  • You must answer 45 correctly to achieve an advance pass


The breakdown
THE BREAKDOWN

  • Scientific Investigation- 11

  • Life at Molecular and Cellular Level- 14

  • Life at Systems and Organism Level- 14

  • Research questions-10


Some strategies
SOME STRATEGIES

  • Four responses: The right one, the two really wrong ones and the distractor.

  • The distractor is almost right. It is basically a trick.


More strategies
More Strategies

  • The incredible POE : PROCESS OF ELIMINATION


Bottom line
BOTTOM LINE

  • ANSWER ALL THE QUESTIONS

  • GO AHEAD AND GUESS!



Scientific investigations1
SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATIONS

  • Observations- gathering data using your senses.

  • Quantitativeobservations: Use numbers

  • Qualitative Observations: Describe things


Scientific investigations2
SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATIONS

  • INFERENCES: gathering data based on previous knowledge


Scientific investigations3
SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATIONS

  • USING APPROPRIATESOURCES


Scientific investigations4
SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATIONS

  • HYPOTHESIS – an educated guess Must be in IF,Then format

  • INDEPENDENT VARIABLE- the thing that changes in an experiment


Scientific investigations5
SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATIONS

  • DEPENDENT VARIABLE- The thing that is changed by the experiment- what will you measure?


Scientific investigations6
SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATIONS

  • CONTROL- The variables are compared to the control. For example, the sugar pill given to a group of people


Scientific investigations7
SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATIONS

  • SCIENTIFIC METHOD- a way to standardize the science- 5 steps

  • 1. Ask a question

  • 2. Develop a hypothesis

  • 3. Do the experiment

  • 4. Gather data

  • 5. Draw Conclusions


Scientific investigation
SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATION

  • GRAPHING- the independent variable goes on the X axis

  • The dependent variable goes on the Y axis


Unit two biochemistry

UNIT TWO: BIOCHEMISTRY

“I thought this was Biology?”


Molecules of life
MOLECULES OF LIFE

  • ORGANIC COMPOUNDS:

  • MUST HAVE CARBON IN THEM

  • Exception is CO (carbon monoxide)


Molecules of life1
MOLECULES OF LIFE

  • Four Types:

  • PROTEINS-

  • Made from amino acids

  • Used for repair, building and structure

  • Test: Biuret’s Solution

  • Made by the Ribosome

  • Examples: any meat, hair nails


Molecules of life2
MOLECULES OF LIFE

  • PROTEINS-

  • ENZYMES- special type of protein

  • Speed up reactions

  • Affected by temp. and pH

  • Have an active site.

  • Lock and Key theory


Molecules of life3
MOLECULES OF LIFE

  • Carbohydrates:

  • Two types:

  • Simple- sugars like those in juice or candy

  • Complex: like pasta or bagels

  • 2:1 ratio of C to H

  • Test with Benedicts

  • Used for energy


Molecules of life4
MOLECULES OF LIFE

  • LIPIDS:

  • Fats, Waxes and Oils

  • Saturated- are solid at room temp. Like butter

  • Unsaturated- liquid at room temp.- olive oil

  • Test: brown paper

  • Used for long term storage of energy


Molecules of life5
MOLECULES OF LIFE

  • NUCLEIC ACIDS-

  • Hereditary material

  • Examples: DNA, RNA

  • Made up of nucleotides


The cell

THE CELL!!!

Unit 3


Cells
CELLS

  • HISTORY:

  • Hooke- named Cells, Cells. Observed cork.

  • Leewenhook- developed the microscope


Cells1
CELLS

  • SCHLEIDEN- says all plants are made of cells

  • SCHWANN-all animals are made of cells.

  • VIRCHOW-Cells come from other cells.


Cells2
CELLS

  • CELL THEORY-

  • 1. Cells are the basic unit of life.

  • 2. Cells come from pre-existing cells

  • 3.All organisms are made from one or more cells


Cells3
CELLS

  • TWO BASIC TYPES

  • 1. Prokaryotes

  • Simple

  • No nucleus or organelles

  • Example Bacteria :Kingdom Monera

  • PRO THINK NO!!


Cells4
Cells

  • 2. Eukaryotes:

  • Has a nucleus

  • Has organelles

  • More complex

  • Came from prokaryotes

  • Examples: Humans, protists


Plant cells
PLANT CELLS

  • Have a cell Wall

  • Have a HUGE vacuole- store water

  • Have a Cell Plate in cell division

  • Are usually rectangular

  • Chloroplasts


Animal cells
Animal Cells

  • Have Centrioles

  • Cell Membranes

  • May have Cilia, flagella or pseudopodia


Organelles
ORGANELLES

  • Small specialized structures that have special functions within cells.


Organelles1
ORGANELLES

  • Nucleus- brain of cell

  • Nucleolous- inside nucleus- makes ribosomes

  • Chromosomes- inside nucleus- made of DNA- heredity

  • Mitochondria- powerhouse of the cell


Organelles2
ORGANELLES

  • Lysosome- cleans up the cell

  • Ribosome- makes protein

  • Cytoplasm- jelly like stuff inside the cell

  • E.R.- smooth or rough-with ribosomes- transport


Organelles3
ORGANELLES

  • Golgi body or apparatus- packages things

  • Vacuole- storage


Cell membrane
CELL MEMBRANE

  • Fluid Mosaic Model-

  • Bilayer

  • Made of Phospho-lipids

  • Lipids on the inside- hydrophobic

  • Phosphates on the outside- hydrophillic


Cell membrane1
CELL MEMBRANE

  • Purpose: Gate keeper

  • Semi-Permeable- let’s some things in keeps others out


Getting things into and out of the cell membrane
GETTING THINGS INTO AND OUT OF THE CELL MEMBRANE

  • Holes in the membrane let some things in and out with no problem- like O2 and water

  • The Proteins help get bigger things across the membrane.


Cell transport
Cell Transport

  • TWO TYPES

  • PASSIVE- no energy required.

  • Examples include Diffusion


Cell transport1
CELL TRANSPORT

  • OSMOSIS-diffusion with water- passive transport


Cell transport2
CELL TRANSPORT

  • ACTIVE TRANSPORT-requires energy

  • Used to get large molecules into and out of the cell.

  • Proteins act as channels/tunnels


Cell transport3
Cell Transport

  • EXOCYTOSIS- getting things OUT of the cell


Cell transport4
CELL TRANSPORT

  • ENDOCYTOSIS- getting things INTO the cell



Cell energy
CELL ENERGY

  • CELL RESPIRATION:

  • Done by all cells

  • Done in the mitochondria- powerhouse of the cell.

  • Method by which the cell gets energy.

  • ATP- Unit of Energy

  • C6H12O6 + O2-> ATP


Cell energy1
CELL ENERGY

  • Two types of Cell Respiration:

  • AEROBIC-

  • Uses oxygen

  • Is more efficient-> 32 ATPS

  • ANAEROBIC-No oxygen

  • Less efficient-> 8 ATPS


Anaerobic vs aerobic

ANAEROBIC:

No oxygen

Done by yeast

Inefficient

Produces Alcohol or CO2

AEROBIC:

Oxygen

Efficient

Produces ATPs

ANAEROBIC vs. AEROBIC


Cell respiration steps
Cell Respiration Steps

  • Glycolysis: break sugar down into pyruvic acid.

  • This happens in BOTH anaerobic and aerobic respiration.


Photosynthesis
PHOTOSYNTHESIS

  • Done by plants.

  • Done in the chloroplast.

  • CO2 + H2O with sunlight ---- C6H12O6 + O2


Respiration photosynthesis
RESPIRATION & PHOTOSYNTHESIS

  • Take home Message

  • They are called complementary or opposite reactions to each other. WHY? Because the reactants of one are the products of the other.



Cell cycle
CELL CYCLE

  • INTERPHASE: longest part of cell cycle. Includes:

  • G1- growth phase

  • S- synthesis phases- DNA is replicated here

  • G2- second growth phase


Cell cycle1
CELL CYCLE

  • After interphase there is the M phase.

  • M=Mitosis/ Meiosis This is when the cell actually divides.


Cell cycle2
CELL CYCLE

  • MITOSIS:

  • Occurs in body (somatic) cells, in bacteria or some protists

  • Only one parent cell

  • End up with two identical daughter cells.


Cell cycle3
CELL CYCLE

  • Mitosis:

  • Different Phases- these just tell you what the chromosomes are doing.

  • Prophase- chromosomes thicken, nuclear membrane disappears

  • Metaphase- chromosomes line up in middle


Cell cycle4
CELL CYCLE

  • MITOSIS:

  • Anaphase: chromosomes are pulled to opposite sides of cell

  • Telophase: the cell forms a cleavage furrow and begins to split.


Cell cycle5
CELL CYCLE

  • MEIOSIS: Occurs in gametes- sex cells- eggs and sperm ONLY!!!

  • End up 4 Haploid ( only half the number of chromosomes) cells.

  • Two Divisions


Cell divison

MITOSIS

In body cells

End up with 2 identical diploid cells

Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase

Cytokinesis

MEIOSIS

In sex cells

End up with 4 haploid cells

Goes through 2 divisions

CELL DIVISON


Genetics

GENETICS!!

Unit 6


DNA

  • The take home message!

  • DNA contains all the information to create proteins.

  • DNA is found in every living cell.

  • DNA is in the nucleus

  • DNA can be used to identify any organism

  • It is amazing!!


Nucleic acids

DNA- Deoxyribonucleic Acid.

Made up of nucleotides- consist of nitrogen base and sugar and phosphate

Double stranded- double helix- twisted ladder

Rungs are nitrogen bases (ATCG)

Sides are sugars and phosphates

RNA- Ribonucleic acid:

Single stranded

Made from nucleotides

Bases are: AUGC

NUCLEIC ACIDS


History
HISTORY

  • Rosalind Franklin used X- Rays to held determine DNA shape

  • Watson and Crick Discovered DNA

  • Chargaff’s rules- A&T, C&G


Dna replication
DNA REPLICATION

  • Only molecule in the universe to do this

  • 1. The Hydrogen bonds break and the DNA unzips.

  • 2. Free floating nucleotides fill in

  • 3. The sides re-form

  • Replication happens during the S phase of Interphase in the cell cycle.


Protein synthesis
Protein Synthesis

  • DNA directs protein synthesis.

  • Two parts:

  • Transcription: mRNA is formed from information from DNA. mRNA leaves the nucleus.

  • Codons- three bases= an amino acid


Protein synthesis1
Protein Synthesis

  • 2. Translation: The mRNA attaches to a ribosome. Then tRNA brings matching anti-codons to the mRNA.

  • This forms amino acids

  • Groups of amino acids = protein


Dna technology
DNA TECHNOLOGY

  • We Can’t clone Humans

  • We can clone some animals

  • Human Genome Project- effort to sequence human DNA


Genetics1
Genetics

  • Mutations: errors in the DNA that can result in disease.

  • Examples: PKU- can’t metabolize an amino acid

  • Sickle-Cell Anemia

  • Tay Sachs


Chromosome structure
Chromosome Structure

  • DNA is tightly coiled to form a Chromosome

  • Humans have 46 chromosomes.

  • The chromosome has genes on it.

  • Genes are packets of information.


Chromosomes
Chromosomes

  • Karyotype- the way chromosomes are organized on paper. Done by size- biggest to smallest.

  • Used to determine if too many or few, and any problems


Genetics2
Genetics

  • Traits- characteristics that are inherited

  • Half of DNA comes from mom, half from dad.

  • This is why you can have your moms smile and dad’s eyes.


Genetics history
Genetics History

  • Mendel- Father of genetics

  • A monk who worked with pea plants

  • Came up with three laws

  • 1. Law of Dominance- one “gene” is dominant over another

  • 2. Law of Segregation- genes separate

  • 3.Law of Independent Assortment- genes are shuffled


Genetics vocabulary
Genetics Vocabulary

  • Alleles- different forms of the same gene

  • Phenotype- the physical appearance of a trait

  • Genotype- the genetic makeup of a trait


Genetic vocabulary
Genetic Vocabulary

  • Homozygous- same genes for a trait. Ex. TT or tt

  • Heterozygous- different genes for a trait. Ex. Tt

  • P1- first generation or parent

  • F1- second or filial generation - offspring


Genetics3
Genetics

  • Punnet Square- a table used to show all possible outcomes from a mating


Genetics4
Genetics

  • PEDIGREE-a chart used to track a trait through generations.


Genetics5
Genetics

  • Incomplete Dominance- Blending of traits ex. Pink flowers blend with red flowers to form pink

  • Co Dominance : Equal expression of two alleles ex. Blood type


Taxonomy

Taxonomy

Unit 7


Taxonomy1
TAXONOMY

  • Science of naming and classifying organisms.

  • Each level of organization is called a taxon

  • Linneaus- father of taxonomy


Taxonomy2
Taxonomy

  • The taxa:

  • Kingdom

  • Phylum

  • Class

  • Order

  • Family

  • Genus

  • Species

  • Goes from broadest to most specific


Taxonomy3
Taxonomy

  • Binomial nomenclature: fancy way of saying two name naming system.

  • We use genus species

  • Homo Sapien


Taxonomy4
Taxonomy

  • KINGDOMS:

  • Animalia

  • Plantae

  • Monera- bacteria

  • Protist- paramecium, amoeba

  • Fungi- mushrooms


Taxonomy5
Taxonomy

  • Organisms grouped by structural, biochemical, locomotive behavioral and genetic similarities.

  • As you go from kingdom to species, the creatures are more similar.


Taxonomy6
Taxonomy

  • Homologous structures- similar and have a common ancestor. EX. The wings of birds and bats. The actual physical structure is similar.


Taxonomy7
Taxonomy

  • Analogous Structures

  • Strucures that provide the same function- but DO NOT have a common ancestor.

  • EX. Bird and winset wings


Evolution

EVOLUTION

Unit 8


Evolution1
EVOLUTION

  • Change over time

  • Gradualism- change takes place over millions of years

  • Punctuated Equilibrium- Everything stable for a long while then a sudden change then stable again


Evolution2
EVOLUTION

  • Darwin- came up with Natural Selection- the idea that organisms gradually change by adapting to their environment so they have a better chance for survival.

  • Survival of the Fittest


Evolution3
EVOLUTION

  • Geographic Isolation- New species develops because part of the population becomes isolated and develops different features.

  • Ex. Darwin’s finches


Ecology

ECOLOGY

Unit 9


Ecology1
ECOLOGY

  • Biosphere 8km above and 8km below the surface of Earh

  • Ecosystem- all living and non-living parts of an area

  • Community: All living parts of an area


Ecology2
ECOLOGY

  • Population: one particular group of organisms within an area.

  • Biotic: any living thing

  • Abiotic: any non-living thing

  • Biome: an area determined by climate ex. Desert, ocean


Ecology3
ECOLOGY

  • Succession: replacement of one community for another

  • Primary succession/ pioneer community: first organisms into an area- Ex. Mosses, lichens


Ecology4
ECOLOGY

  • Secondary succession: a community is replaced by another one due to some natural disaster- flood, fire


Ecolgy
ECOLGY

  • Carrying Capacity:

    The number of organisms an area can support

    Makes an S shaped curve.


Ecology5
ECOLOGY

  • Exponential growth: organisms growing without any limits

  • Curve goes straight up.


Ecology6
ECOLOGY

  • NICHE: the job or role an organism has in an ecosystem

  • Producer: plants- anything that makes it’s own food (autotroph)

  • Consumer: anything that has to get it’s own food.


Ecology7
ECOLOGY

  • DECOMPOSERS: Take care of all the dead organic matter

  • Ex. Bacteria/ fungi


Ecology8
ECOLOGY

  • Synbiosis: a close personal relationship between two or more organisms

  • 3 Types:

  • Mutualism: both benefit ex. Bees and flowers

  • Parasitism: one harms the other- Dog and flea

  • Commensalism- one benefits the other is neither harmed nor benefitted ex. Whales and barnacles


Ecology9
ECOLOGY

  • Predator/Prey – Lions and zebras

  • Boom/Bust curve- as one increases, the other decreases.


Ecology10
ECOLOGY

  • Food Chain- two or three organisms that demonstrate the flow of energy

  • Food Web- many organisms that demonstrate the flow of energy in an ecosystem


Ecology11
ECOLOGY

  • Ecology Pyramids- show you biomass or energy flow.

  • Plants make up the most biomass and have the most energy


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