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Structure & Classification of Proteins. Dr. Bibi Kulsoom. Proteins. Other dry elements 14%. http://www.indiabix.com/_files/images/data-interpretation/pie-charts/15-2-11-1.png. http://www.picturesof.net/pages/100103-180324-843042.html. Proteins: Amino Acids. Peptide bond.

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Proteins
Proteins

Other dry elements 14%

http://www.indiabix.com/_files/images/data-interpretation/pie-charts/15-2-11-1.png

http://www.picturesof.net/pages/100103-180324-843042.html


Proteins amino acids
Proteins: Amino Acids

Peptide bond

One Amino acid structure

Protein molecule

Hydrolysis by digestive enzymes

Amino acids

Hydrocarbon chain

http://www.hardbodysuccessblog.com/.a/6a00e00995147488330115704e4379970c-pi

http://www.whitetigernaturalmedicine.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/02/amino-acid-structure.jpg


Proteins are Composed :

of 20 Amino Acids

  • Essential amino acids

  • Arginine (partially essential)

  • Histidine

  • Isoleucine

  • Leucine

  • Lysine

  • Methinine

  • Phenylalanine

  • Threonine

  • Tryptophan

  • Valine

  • Non-Essential amino acids

  • Alanine

  • Aspartic acid

  • Asparagine

  • Cysteine

  • Glutamic acid

  • Glutamine

  • Glycine

  • Proline

  • Serine

  • Tyrosine


Proteins & their Classification

Classification is based on

  • Composition

  • Shape

  • Function

http://njscuba.net/zzz_artifacts/protein_2.gif


Classification Based on Composition

  • Simple proteins:

    A protein that contains amino acids only.

    Examples: albumin, globulins & histones.

  • Conjugated Proteins:

    A protein that have some non-protein moiety in its structure along with protein part.

  • Derived proteins:

    Proteins derived from simple and conjugated proteins by physical or chemical treatment. Examples: peptones peptides and denatured proteins.


Nucleoproteins
Nucleoproteins

Proteins examples:

Histones, telomerase.

http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_Ik_ovkt6ICg/TNoWaLBLKXI/AAAAAAAAAIk/


Glycoproteins
Glycoproteins

Proteins examples:

Glycoproteins of cell membrane, Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), Luteinizing hormone (LH).

http://designanduniverse.com/articles/images/cell/cell_membrane.jpg


Lipoproteins
Lipoproteins

Proteins examples:

Low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL).

http://www.scientificpsychic.com/health/lipoproteins-LDL-HDL.html


Phosphoproteins
Phosphoproteins

Proteins examples:

Enzymes (protein in nature) are phosphorylated temporarily for their regulation.

Enzyme A

Enzyme B

Enzyme A

P

P

Inactive

Active

Enzyme B

Inactive

Active


Chromoproteins

Cytochromes P450

Chromoproteins

Proteins examples:

Hemoglobin, cytochromes (enzymes).

http://www.presentermedia.com/files/clipart/00001000/1744/blood_cells_pc_md_wm.jpg

http://chemistry.wiki.elanco.net/file/view/hemoglobin.jpg/120238735/hemoglobin.jpg


Metalloproteins
Metalloproteins

Proteins examples:

Hemoglobin, Ceruloplasmin (protein that stores and transports copper)

Ceruloplasmin

Ceruloplasmin



Globular proteins
Globular Proteins

Hemoglobin and myoglobin are examples of globular proteins.


Fibrous proteins or scleroproteins
Fibrous Proteins or Scleroproteins

Collagen, keratin and elastin are examples of fibrous proteins.

Collagen fiber

-keratin

-keratin



Structural Proteins

Proteins gives our cells shape, strength as well as enable movements.

Proteins examples:

keratin, collagen, elastin.

Structure Examples:

Hair, wool, nails, horns, hoofs, tendons, cartilage.


Contractile Proteins

Proteins examples:

Actin & myosin

Location in body:

Contracting fibers in muscle.

http://www.123rf.com/photo_7661491_young-man-running-in-forest.html

http://www.performance-edu.com/Insider%20News/Volume%202/Images/small%20animated%20sliding%20filament.gif


Transport Proteins

  • Protein examples:

  • hemoglobin (Carries oxygen in blood)

  • serum albumin (Carries fatty acids in blood)

Storage Proteins

  • Proteins examples:

  • Different for different sustances.

  • Ferritin (Stores iron in spleen)

  • legumes and beans in plants

http://blu.stb.s-msn.com/i/44/78A5F212E699FFFB5345C2214AE50.jpg


Proteins as Enzymes

  • Many proteins act as biological catalysts or enzymes.

  • Thousands of different enzymes exist in the body.

  • Examples: catalase, amylase, trypsin, lipase.

Immunological Proteins

  • Proteins examples:

  • Gamma globulins

  • when a pathogen enters the body, the immune system produces antibodies against it that fight against the invader.

Antibody

Bacterium

Antibody

http://www.microbiologyonline.org.uk/about-microbiology/microbes-and-the-human-body

http://www.biology.arizona.edu/immunology/tutorials/antibody/graphics/antibody.gif


Proteins as buffers
Proteins as Buffers

Example:

Plasma proteins and intracellular preoteins.

http://human-physiology---ashley-vg.wikispaces.com/Chemical+Aspects+of+Physiology


Maintaining osmotic pressure
Maintaining Osmotic Pressure

  • Protein examples:

  • Albumin, globin, globulin.

Hormone

Protein as Hormone

Examples: Insulin, glucagon, growth hormone etc.

http://www.hcc.bcu.ac.uk


Cell cytoskeleton

Protein Channels & Receptors

Cell cytoskeleton

Channels: Protein pores that run like tunnels across the lipid bilayer will allow specific materials that we need, like glucose, to slip through the membrane.

Receptors: proteins that mediate the effects of hormones in side the cell.

Examples: Microfilaments, intermediate filaments & microtubules.


Clotting Factors

Clotting proteins activate and make meshwork of fibrin to stop bleeding. Examples:

Factors I, II, III, IV, V etc.

http://www.buzzle.com/img/articleImages/323361-36236-16.jpg

http://media-3.web.britannica.com/eb-media//28/98328-050-4F03CFD9.jpg

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e6/



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