Discussion Leader:. Week 2. Phil Dunn. Kress. Key Points. Binary Constellations of Modes and Media.
1929 (publication year of The Boy Electrician) and 1992 (publication year of IoE Prospectus) • Given order, order designed by author. • Page and book with single entry point. • Knowledge produced by author on behalf of the audience. • Author knows the life-world of audience and its requirements. • Reading path fixed (though “naturalized” and hence invisible). • Author fixes reader’s “point of departure”. • Writing dominates the organization of the page. • Writing is the dominant mode for the presentation of material (image as illustration). • Use of mode governed by long-established convention: canonical use of modes.
2004 Website• Open order, order designed by reader. • “Page” site with multiple entry points. • Knowledge produced by visitor/reader in accord with the needs of their life-world. • Page and/or message designers imagine the assumed characteristic of the life-world of their audience. • Reading path designed by reader and/or visitor. • Reader designs/selects her/his point of departure. • Image dominates the organization of the “page”. • Image and writing potentially co-equal for the presentation of material. • Use of mode governed by “aptness”, insecurity about or absence of canonical modes.
McDonagh, D., Goggin, N., & Squier, J. (MGS)
The first example MGS presents is the picture of the ice cream cone on the first page of the reading. The ice cream cone physically resembles the object that it represents; one immediately knows that ice cream cones are sold here. But there are few images that one can point to and see a complete and direct representation of its object. Even in the case of the ice cream advertisement, some subtle contextualizing and interpretation occurs. Most readers will know immediately, for instance, that this is not a national franchise’s advertisement. The advertisement’s style—not just the icon’s stylistic qualities, but also the layout and typography—all suggest a retro nostalgia quite distinct from national ice cream chains in the United States, such as Baskin Robbins or Dairy Queen.
This gives proof to MGS claim that there is more to images then Kress originally stated in his article.
Although this might be bad news from the Kress vantage point, for most artists and designers this plasticity is exactly what draws them to images rather than words. Images are visceral and immediate. They are deeply attached to shared understandings and one’s inner voice.
J. Martin Miller’s book An Official History of the Japanese-Russian War that was published in 1904 and, thus, was well ensconced in what Kress has identified as the settled age of print literacy presented in traditional book formats. The two pages contain four photographs, captioned, each of which is discussed in the text plus an image of a Japanese text. The layout of these two pages is complex and includes typographic highlighting with centered, larger, bold typefaces, not only for a quasi-heading embedded in a sentence in the middle of the second page but also for two names, likewise embedded within sentences. The following page is no simpler, including facsimiles of letters (hand written and typed) from the United States Secretary of State and General Miles.
One of Prior’s first faults with Kress was to argue the statement that no multimedia existed until as early as the 1970’s
Prior gave a few examples, I’ll give you one here another on the next slide.
Use of the words multimedia and multimodal
Other names for multimedia and multimodal
• Digital and new media communications technologies
• Multimodal, multimedia texts
• Multimodal experiences
• Array of multimedia
• Media experiences
• Multimodal composing
• Multiple forms of new media
• Multimodal new media texts